1 SSUSH19 The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government.
2 a. Explain A. Philip Randolph s proposed march on Washington, D.C., and President Franklin D. Roosevelt s response. In 1941, A. Philip Randolph, an African American Union leader began organizing a large protest march on Washington D.C. over discriminatory hiring practices in national defense jobs. In response to the threatened march, Roosevelt issued an executive order declaring that the defense industry would not discriminate based on race, creed, color, or national origin. A. Philip Randolph with Eleanor Roosevelt
3 b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese- Americans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. Japan, an island country was dependent on the U.S. for many natural resources: oil, steel, and iron. In 1940 the U.S. placed an embargo on Japan, refusing to sell the Japanese airplane fuel and other goods which could be used for war against the British who had colonies in the Pacific. Upset with the embargo, Japan became allies with Germany and Italy. After Japan invaded China, the U.S. reduced the amount of oil being shipped to Japan.
4 The Road to World War II Treaty of Versailles ended World War I It was not based on Wilson s Fourteen Points and enraged some countries Germany (War Guilt Clause and Reparations) Italy (Didn t get the land they wanted) Japan (Didn t get all of the land they wanted) Soviet Union (Left out of the talks)
5 Dictators Gain Power Benito Mussolini Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler The world wide Depression of the 1930s made it easier for dictators to gain control in many European Countries. There was an increase in militarism during this time period.
6 Acts of Aggression Japan Invades Manchuria and Chinese Cities League of Nations threatens but takes NO action Japan withdraws from the League of Nations
7 Italy Invades Africa Italy invades Ethiopia Ethiopian King appeals to League of Nations League of Nations will not sell war supplies or goods to Italy
8 German Aggression Begins Nazi Party Comes to power Anti - Semitic feelings spread Re armament Hitler/Stalin sign Non- Aggression Pact Hitler comes to power and follows Mein Kampf - his goals for Germany
9 German Aggression Germany invades Rhineland (March 7, 1936) Germany annexes Austria Takes over part of Czechoslovakia (March 15, 1936) League of Nations does nothing to stop them.
10 Policy of Appeasement At the Munich Conferences Great Britain and France adopt the policy of Appeasement Appeasement: Giving into the competitor in order to keep peace Germany is allowed to keep the land taken over - BUT can t take anymore.
11 Appeasement, What? After the Munich Conference - Germany continues to invade Germany took over the rest of Czechoslovakia Germany invades Poland (September 1, 1939)
12 The War Begins After Hitler invades Poland France and Great Britain declare war on Germany on Sept 3, 1939.
13 Battle of Britain In the summer and fall of 1940, German and British air forces clashed in the skies over the United Kingdom, locked in the largest sustained bombing campaign to that date. A significant turning point of World War II, the Battle of Britain ended when Germany s Luftwaffe failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force despite months of targeting Britain s air bases, military posts and, ultimately, its civilian population. Britain s decisive victory saved the country from a ground invasion and possible occupation by German forces while proving that air power alone could be used to win a major battle.
14 United States Neutrality Neutrality Acts declared the US would stay out of war Americans were fearful of getting involved in another European conflict Started Cash and Carry policy
15 The Fall of France The Germans invaded France in 1940 Months later all of France had fallen to the Nazis Charles de Gualle escaped to Great Britain to strategize how to get France back
16 Pearl Harbor
17 Pearl Harbor In an attempt to cripple the U.S. Navy s pacific fleet, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in December 1941, sinking or damaging 21 ships and killing over 2,400 Americans. The U.S. declared war on Japan the following day.
18 Internment In December 1941, Roosevelt issued an executive order requiring enemy aliens (Germans, Italians, and Japanese) to register with the police. Shortly afterward the president lifted the order for Germans and Italians, but not for Japanese. The attack on Pearl Harbor made many Americans feel that the Japanese, including Japanese Americans were a threat. In response to this fear, Roosevelt issued another executive order creating the War Relocation Authority.
19 Internment Under the order, 90% of the Japanese Americans living in California were forced to sell all their possessions and relocate to camps in several western states. The internments were challenged in 1944 under Korematsu v. U.S. but was upheld by the Supreme Court.
20 c. Explain major events; include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the fall of Berlin. Lend-Lease Program: Great Britain had declared war against Germany in Though many favored helping the British, the U.S. remained neutral under the Neutrality Act. By 1940 France had been overrun by the German army and Britain had run out of money to fight the war. Fearing that if the British lost, the U.S. would be the next target of the Axis Powers, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act.
21 The lend-lease program allowed the U.S. to send weapons to Britain if Britain promised to pay rent or return them after the war.
22 Battle in the Pacific
23 HBO Miniseries The Pacific
24 Battle of Midway June 1942
25 Battle of Midway The Japanese planned on invading Midway Island in order to lure U.S. aircraft carriers into a trap, and destroy the remaining U.S. Pacific fleet. Unknown to the Japanese, the U.S. had broken their secret code, and knew of the impending attack. The U.S. Navy sank four Japanese carriers, and shot down 320 planes badly crippling the Japanese navy. This battle is consider the turning point in the war against Japan-after Midway, the U.S. goes on the offensive against Japan.
26 US Military Strategy - Which is the priority: The European or Pacific Theatre Despite the fact that Roosevelt and the United States had secretly adopted, alongside Churchill and the British, a Stop Germany First strategy because of the tremendous threat Hitler and Germany was to the stability of Europe and the world, the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese caused the U.S., and its military officials, to reconsider its approach. The American public wouldn t accept allowing the Japanese to run rampant across the Pacific Ocean. Fierce disagreements between Army & Navy commands over resource allocations resulted in the United States Pacific Theatre of Operations to run short of supplies personnel and weaponry. Eventually, after some incredibly creative engagements by the Army Air Corps, Navy pilots, and U.S. Marines being U.S. Marines, the U.S. took control of the Pacific over the Japanese. This opened the door for full attention to be placed on the Germans and the European Theatre.
27 The European Theatre D-Day (June 6, 1944)
28 D-Day The Allies chose to attack the Germans in France on the coast of Normandy. 100,000 soldiers and 23,000 paratroopers participated in the attack. The invasion of France caught the Germans by surprise. Looking at the map, where do you think the Germans thought the invasion would land? Why?
29 D-Day Though the D-Day invasion caught the Germans by surprise, heavy American casualties occurred at Omaha Beach. The invasion was the turning point of the war in Europe: within two months the Allies had over a million troops in France.
31 Courtesy of Dreamworks Pictures Saving Private Ryan
32 Battle of Iwo Jima February 19, 1945 March 26, 1945
33 The Yalta Conference February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta to discuss post-war world FDR, Churchill concession: temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight Japan FDR gets support for conference to establish United Nations
34 Fall of Berlin April 16, 1945 May 2, 1945 The Battle of Berlin was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II. As American, British and Russian armies entered Berlin and closed in on Hitler and his forces, it is alleged that Adolf Hitler, committed suicide via a gunshot to the head on April 30, Video. Within a week the German army surrendered, ending the war in Europe (known as V-E Day)
35 The End of WWII Potsdam Conference - July 26 Aug 2, 1945 Truman, Churchill, & Stalin met in Potsdam, Germany, to negotiate terms for the end of World War II. Japan refused terms. August 6, 1945 The United States Enola Gay drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. August 9, 1945 The United States drops an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. September 2, 1945 Having agreed in principle to unconditional surrender on August 14, 1945, Japan formally surrenders, ending World War II.
36 Effects of World War II Geneva Convention Set guidelines for POWs Nuremberg Trials -24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced Formation of Israel Jewish Nation Creation of United Nations Prevent future wars
37 d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, war-time conversion, and the role of women in war industries.
38 War Mobilization To prepare the country for war Roosevelt created the War Production Board to help regulate the switch to war time production. The automobile industry switched to almost exclusively making tanks, jeeps, trucks, and airplanes.
39 War Mobilization Ship yards switched to producing Liberty Ships which were war time cargo vessels.
40 Rationing During the war, Americans were asked to ration and reduce the amount of goods they were using so that materials and food could be used for the war effort.
41 Role of women in war industries With many men fighting overseas, women took over factory jobs to help the war effort. The most famous propaganda tool used to draw women into the workforce was Rosie the Riveter. Many women worked in the ordnance Industry as WOW s Women Ordnance Workers.
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