1 American and World War II Chapter 20; Guided Notes Section 1: I. Converting the Economy (pages ) A. The United States output during World War II was as as and times that of. This turned the tide in of an victory. Part of the of the United States was the of the government the before the entered the war. B. and his advisers believed the way to mobilize the was to give an to move quickly. The signed contracts agreeing to a company whatever the cost, plus a guaranteed of the as. C. The Finance Corporation ( ), the government which had been set up during the, made to to help them with the of to war. II. American Industry Gets the Job Done (pages ) A. After the attack on Harbor, almost major American and companies to war.
2 B. The factories turned to the of,, and. They also built,,,, pontoon, pots, and other supplies, producing nearly of the military equipment that was during the war. Henry created an line for bombers. C. Kaiser s shipyards built many but were best known for the, a basic ship used during the war. These ships were instead of, making them and to build and to apart and. D. Roosevelt created the War Board ( ) to set and production goals and to control the of materials and supplies. He set up the Office of War ( ) to settle between the different agencies. III. Building an Army (pages ) A. In order to the war, it was that the United States up its forces.
3 B. After the of by the Germans, Congress was longer to the idea of a draft. The Service and Act was a plan for the peacetime in American history. C. At first, the numbers of was overwhelming. The, named after the on their meaning, went through training for weeks. Although some after the war that the was too to be of any, most soldiers a sense of that made them a more unit. D. At the of the war, the United States was completely. African were organized into their military units with officers in. E. African Americans were, meaning they were often the right to. An American newspaper, the Pittsburgh Courier, launched the campaign stating that African Americans should the war because a would be a victory over abroad and at home., knowing that the African American vote had him, ordered the U.S. to and African Americans into.
4 F. The army force created the th Pursuit Squadron, an American unit. The African American became known as the Airmen. They played an role in the Battle of in. G. In the, African Americans also performed, receiving various for service. did not during the war, but led to military in H. Congress established the Army Corps ( ) in May This was the time were allowed in the. By women became a part of war operations. The, Guard, the, and the all set up their own organizations. I. In the American troops were and had military experience. They did, however, get the done and the casualties in of all the powers in the war. Section 2: I. Holding the Line Against Japan (pages ) A. After bombed Pearl Harbor, the of the United States in the Pacific, Admiral Chester, could do at first to the Japanese into Southeast. Japan American in the and landed their in the islands.
5 B. The of the Americans and Filipinos the Philippines, General Douglas, decided to take his badly troops and to the Peninsula. Roosevelt the general to to. C. The defenders of finally, and died on the Bataan March to a Japanese camp. D. In early 1942, bombers the aircraft short-range bombers because they could from farther. Lieutenant Colonel James was put in of the mission that Japan on April. E. Doolittle s on Japan made leaders their. An attack on Island the American in the Pacific west of Hawaii was planned to lure the American into battle to be by the. This would American lines to. The plan because the United States had a team of code based in that broke the Navy s code for conducting operations. F. The point in the war came the Battle of when Americans down Japanese and destroyed
6 Japanese. This the Japanese into the. II. Turning Back the German Army (pages ) A. The leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph, urged Roosevelt to a front in. Although Roosevelt his troops to into battle in, Prime Minister wanted to be more and attack the, or edges, of. In July, Roosevelt the of and territories under control. B. On November, 1942, the American of North began under the of General Dwight D.. General George led the American forces in and the city of. At the Battle of Pass, Americans the army for the time. and outfought, Americans huge. The general in was and was put in. American and forces finally the Germans. On May 13,, forces in North.
7 C. After Germany war on the United States, German began sinking American ships along the American East Coast. The situation greatly when the U.S. Navy set up a system, in which cargo ships traveled in and were by navy. The German campaign continued into the spring of From July on, American produced more ships than German submarines could. D. wanted to the Soviets by their economy. So he his army to capture fields,, and vital to the Soviet. The Germans to capture, but the held their. The Germans were and. The Battle of was a point in the because it put the on the. Section 3: I. Women and Minorities Gain Ground (pages ) A. Compared to the in Europe and Asia, World War II had a effect on American. It put an to the. The war to the of almost million new and the of most American families.
8 B. The wartime labor forced factories to married in positions that were considered work., a character from a popular by the Four Vagabonds, became a for the to hire. The campaign resulted in million entering the workforce. C. Factories still the of African Americans. A. Philip, head of the of Sleeping Car Porters, a major for African American railroad, took action. He informed Roosevelt of his to organize a on Washington to jobs for African Americans. On June 25,, the president with Executive Order, declaring discrimination in the of workers in industries or. D. In the federal government started the Program, which arranged for farmworkers to to the United States to help fruits and vegetables on in the Southwest. More than Mexicans came to help with the and to and railroads. II. A Nation on the Move (pages ) A. Roughly million Americans moved and during the war to be to the jobs available. The of southern
9 California and the of in the Deep a new region called the. B. The government over to build public,, and community during the war to all the workers. C. African Americans the, as they the and headed to in the and for factory jobs. In these cities, African Americans were often with and, sometimes ending with. D. Across the nation, committed by rose dramatically. The suit, baggy and an overstuffed, -length with wide, appeared to many that were for the war. The suit was worn by many American teens. When zoot suiters were to have several, 2,500 soldiers and sailors into Mexican American in Los Angeles. This violence did deter Mexican Americans from the war effort. E. On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed an allowing the War to any part of the United States a zone and remove anybody from the zone. The Coast was
10 a zone, and people of ancestry were to camps. III. Daily Life in Wartime America (pages ) A. President, worried about, established the Office of Administration ( ) and the Office of Administration ( ). The regulated and the of products. The regulated other. The War Board ( ) worked to strikes that would the war effort. American issued a strike pledge. B., or the availability of, occurred as the for materials and supplies and created. Each a book of coupons was to each for processed and,, and. C. gardens were to produce more for the war effort. drives were organized to spare,,, and steel. Americans exchanged grease and drippings for ration because and
11 were so to the of. D. To money for the, the government, covering about percent of the of the war. were to Americans to help for the war. Through the of these, Americans were money to the. The could be in the for the price plus. E. Most were in the of the. Section 4: I. Striking Back at the Third Reich (pages ) A. In January, President Roosevelt with Prime Minister to plan the stage of war. During the Conference, the was made to the of Germany in an to its,, and system and to the German. They decided to the on the island of. B. The new bombing campaign by the United States and Britain against
12 Germany did destroy the German or undermine its. However, the bombing a severe and destroyed and in Germany. As a result, landing in had control of the and could be bombed. C. General Dwight D. was the commander of the of. General and British General Montgomery were in of the on the ground. By August 18, had the island. was placed under by the of Italy. On September 8, 1943, the government announced Italy s. sent German to of Italy and put back in. In May 1944, the Germans. D.,, and met in, Iran, and reached several agreements about the for the rest of the and the war. II. Landing in France (pages ) A. Operation was the name for the planned of by the. General was selected to the.
13 B. The had the advantage of the Germans did know or they would strike. The Germans were into the attack would occur in Pas-de-Calais, when in fact the invasion was planned to take place in. C. The date for the became known as because Eisenhower s planning staff to the day of any with the letter. D. The invasion of began shortly after on June, The Allied forces had trouble the Beach and moving inland. The American forces at Beach met intense German. American commander General Omar planned an of Omaha Beach, but the American troops moved against the Germans. The invasion. III. Driving the Japanese Back (pages ) A. American military leaders created a plan to Japan that called for a -pronged attack. Admiral and the Pacific Fleet were to from to to get close to. General troops would through the Islands, capture the north coast of New, and retake the. B. The island- campaign began in the central Pacific in the fall of Although many U.S. Marines while wading at the Tarawa
14 Atoll, the LVT a with tank, also called an was able to cross the reef and get troops to. C. The attack on Kwajalein Atoll in the Islands went much, with all troops getting to shore via. U.S. captured the island. D. bombers were used to three of the Islands, which were by American troops by August. A few months later, the bombers began Japan. E. General MacArthur s troops began a in the southwest Pacific with the invasion of in August In early, MacArthur s troops had captured islands to surround, the Japanese in the region. F. MacArthur his troops to travel miles past to the Japanese base at in New Guinea. Securing New, the troops headed to the to take it. G. Japanese headed through the Islands into Gulf and American ships. The Battle of Gulf was the largest battle in history and the time the Japanese used attacks. Kamikaze pilots crashed their into American ships, killing and causing severe to the ships.
15 H. The commander a, fearing additional American ships were on the way. I. The battle to the left Manila in and over Filipino civilians. Section 5: I. The Third Reich Collapses (pages ) A. President and other leaders promised to the after the war. Roosevelt felt the regime would put an to the camps. B., or walls several feet thick and covered in, were used by the Germans to their in Normandy, France. The of the hedgerows with American blowing a in the German, allowing American through. The Allies on August 25. weeks later, they were just miles from the border. C. attempted one offensive to off Allied coming through the of Antwerp, Belgium. The Battle of the began on December 16, 1944, catching American troops guard.
16 As Germans raced, their lines outward, resulting in the battle s name. The United States the battle and on January 8, Germans with left to stop the Allies from Germany. D. The Bridge across the River was still intact, allowing American troops to and force the German back. Adolf, realizing the was near, himself. His successor, Grand Admiral Karl tried to to the Americans and the British while still the, but he was forced to surrender on May 7, The day was proclaimed, for. II. Japan is Defeated (pages ) A. President Roosevelt a month the of Germany. Vice President Harry S became president. Although Germany a few weeks later, Truman needed to make many decisions regarding the war as the battle with intensified. B. On November 24, 1944, American fell on, but missed their. American military planners to invade because it was closer to Japan and would make the more.
17 C. On February 19, American Marines landed on Iwo, and lost their lives before the was. D. General Curtis, commander of the based in the Marianas, changed to drop filled with, a kind of. These bombs not only but also started. The risk of killing made this very. The Tokyo killed over people and more than 250,000. Japan s most important cities were. E. refused to. American military planners chose to invade, 350 miles from Japan, to supplies and up troops. F. On April 1, 1945, American troops landed on. On June 22, 1945, Okinawa was with more than American,, and losing their lives. G. Japan would surrender because they wanted their to remain in. Americans wanted him of, and was reluctant to go public. H. The American program to an bomb was codenamed the Project and was headed by General Leslie R.
18 . On July 16, 1945, the atomic bomb was near, New Mexico. I. President Truman it was his to every weapon available to save American. The Allies Japan with, but received response. On August 6, 1945, an bomb was dropped on, one of Japan s important cities. of thousands of people instantly, and more later from and sickness. On August 9, the Union war on. That same day, the United States dropped an bomb on, killing between and people. On, for August 15, 1945 Japan. The war. III. Building a New World (pages ) A. To p another war, President wanted a new political organization. In delegates from countries to the organization that was to be the ( ).
19 B. On April,, representatives from countries in San to organize the Nations and its, or. C. The decided to have a, where member would have vote.,,, the Union, and the United would be members of the Council, each having power. D. In August, the Military ( ) was by the States, Britain,, and the Soviet Union to and leaders for their. The tried leaders of war at the trials. E. In the for the Far tried leaders of wartime suspected of committing war. The Japanese was.
20 I Can Statements and Bellringers Chapter 20; America and World War II Mobilizing for War 1. Explain how the United States mobilized its economy. 2. Describe the issues involved in raising an American army. The Early Battles 3. Analyze how the Allies were able to fight a war on two fronts and turn the war against the Axis in the Pacific, Russia, and the North Atlantic. 4. Explain why Stalingrad is considered a major turning point of the war. Life on the Home Front 5. Describe how the wartime economy created opportunities for women and minorities. 6. Discuss how Americans coped with shortages and rapidly rising prices. Pushing the Axis Back 7. Describe the goals of the two major offensives the Allies launched in Europe in Explain the American strategy for pushing back the Japanese in the Pacific. The War Ends 9. Explain the tactics the Allies used to invade Germany and to defeat Japan. 10. Outline the reasons the Allies created the United Nations and held war crimes trial. Bellringer 1: Bellringer 2: Bellringer 3: Bellringer 4: Bellringer 5: