Agenda: Finish America s Response WWII Home Front. Test Tuesday 1/30

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1 Agenda: Finish America s Response WWII Home Front FYI: Test Tuesday 1/30 Norway Soldier WWII, You have to fight for your freedom, and for peace. You have to fight for it every day, to keep it. It s like a glass boat; it s easy to break. It s easy to lose.

2 Stations Each Group will be provided a specific group or organization: Patriotism Japanese Americans: Women at War African Americans War Production Boards Mexican Americans/Native Americans Office of War Information Your group needs to read over the information and give SPECIFIC details on the graphic organizers over each one!

3 U.S Home front

4 Japanese Internment Hostility against Japanese Americans rose as a result of the Pearl Harbor Attack Americans began to fear that Japanese Americans would spy on the U.S. war effort for Japan February, 1942: FDR issues Executive Order 9066

5 Japanese American Internment Removed more than 110,000 Issei (Japanese nationals) and Nisei (Japanese Americans) from the West Coast About two-thirds were citizens (Nisei) Nisei forced to sell homes, businesses, property Lost an estimated $2 billion

6 They were moved to camps and lived in poor conditions: Barbed wire enclosures Barracks with cots and no plumbing Meager food budget Low temperatures Life in the Camps

7 Manzanar Manzanar in the winter Located in California Best known of relocation camps Camp held nearly 12,000 internees Extremes in climate Closed in November 1945

8 Location of the 10 Internment camps

9 Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) Fred Korematsu refused to obey the relocation order Appealed conviction on constitutional grounds Supreme Court ruled the order a valid use of presidential power in wartime Decision vacated in 1984, due to government-withheld evidence in the first trial

10 442nd Regimental Combat Team Japanese Americans also faced discrimination in the armed forces At first they were not allowed to serve but the ban was lifted in 1943 and many eagerly enlisted The all-nisei 442 nd Regimental Combat team fought in the Italian campaign and became the most decorated military unit in American history. The 442 nd helped disprove the notion that Japanese Americans were not loyal citizens

11 Patriotism Inspires Enlistment The military draft was already in place under the Selective Training and Service Act of After Pearl Harbor men rushed to volunteer 38.8 percent of those who served in the military volunteered 61.2 percent were drafted During the course of the war, more than 16 million Americans served in the military.

12 People were given ration coupons for goods such as gas, coffee, sugar, tires, and meats. People planted victory gardens to help combat the food shortages.

13 African Americans in WWII Nearly 1 million African Americans joined the military Limited to supporting roles at the beginning, eventually African Americans served in combat units Patton s Black Panther Battalion at Battle of the Bulge A tank battalion made up of primarily African Americans Tuskegee Airmen escorted bombers and protected them from enemy fighter pilots. In more than 1,500 missions over enemy territory in Europe, the Tuskegee Airmen did not lose a single bomber

14 African Americans in WWII A. Philip Randolph started the Double V Campaign It called for an end to fascism & discrimination abroad. In 1941 Randolph provided FDR a list of demands to end discriminatory practices in government-funded training, employment, and armed services. Executive Order 8802 Assured fair hiring practices in any job funded with government money & established the Fair Employment Practices Committee.

15 Native Americans in WWII 1 out of 3 Native Americans served in WWII Many of them became part of the group, the Navajo Code-Talkers (integral to wins in the Pacific) The Code-Talkers used their own languages to communicate messages across enemy lines Even though these messages were often intercepted, no one was ever able to interpret them

16 The Women s Army Auxiliary Corps WAC Director Col. Oveta Culp Hobby (right) confers with WAC members at Mitchell Field, NY Marshall noted British success in using women for noncombat duties Congress created Women s Army Auxiliary Corps in 1942 WAAC later renamed Women s Army Corps

17 WAVES Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service Navy program similar to WAC Did not serve overseas Nurses, clerical work, communications jobs A WAVES recruitment poster explaining the pay scale for members

18 WASPs Four WASPs receive final instructions as they chart a cross-country course Women s Airforce Service Pilots Female viators Cochran and Love proposed idea separately Performed noncombat flight duties Freed male pilots for combat missions

19 World War II- The Homefront Rosie the Riveter inspired many women to contribute American industry key to victory Built tanks, bombs, guns, ships, ammunition, etc. War bonds (borrowed $$$ from Americans) raised about $50 billion for war effort Women filling in for men off at war in factories

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24 Mexicans and WWII The U.S. needed farm laborers during the war. The government encouraged Mexicans to travel over the border and work on American farms. These workers were called braceros. Approximately 300,000 Mexican Americans served in integrated units during the war

25 War Production Board WWII saw the US return to a total war economy In order to ensure that the military had the resources it needed the War Production Board was created Directed industrial output Prohibited nonessential business activities Allocated raw material Organized scrap drives A War Educational Bulletin produced by the War Production Board

26 Henry Ford s Willow Run Facility Built B-24 Liberator bombers World s largest factory under one roof Produced 14 aircraft per day in August 1944 Workers at the Willow Run facility assemble B-24 bombers, 1943

27 Office of War Information Government agency that worked with advertising agencies to gain support for the war Used radio, print, and film industries to remind Americans wer were fighting to save the world from dictatorships

28 Even Dr. Seuss got involved

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