2 The Rise of Dictators The treaty that ended World War I and the economic depression that followed contributed to the rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia.
3 The Rise of Dictators Italy developed the first major dictatorship in Europe. In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded Italy s Fascist Party.
4 The Rise of Dictators Fascism was a kind of aggressive nationalism. Fascists believed that the nation was more important than the individual, and that a nation became great by expanding its territory and building its military. Fascists were anti-communist.
5 The Rise of Dictators Backed by the militia known as Blackshirts, Mussolini became the premier of Italy and set up a dictatorship.
6 The Rise of Dictators In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladamir Lenin, set up Communist governments throughout the Russian empire.
7 The Rise of Dictators The Russian territories were renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in The Communists set up a one-party rule.
8 The Rise of Dictators By 1926 Joseph Stalin had become the new Soviet dictator.
9 The Rise of Dictators In 1927 he began a massive effort to industrialize the country. Millions of peasants who resisted the Communist policies were killed.
10 The Rise of Dictators After World War I, the political and economic chaos in Germany led to the rise of new political parties.
11 The Rise of Dictators The Nazi Party was nationalistic and anti- Communist.
12 The Rise of Dictators Adolf Hitler, a member of the Nazi Party, called for unification of all Germans under one government.
13 The Rise of Dictators He believed certain Germans were part of a master race destined to rule the world. He wanted Eastern Europeans enslaved.
14 The Rise of Dictators He felt Jews were responsible for many of the world s problems. In 1933 Hitler was appointed prime minister of Germany. Storm Troopers intimidated voters into giving Hitler dictatorial powers.
15 The Rise of Dictators Difficult economic times in Japan after World War I undermined the country s political system. Many Japanese officers and civilians wanted to seize territory to gain needed resources.
16 The Rise of Dictators In 1931 the Japanese army, without the government s permission, invaded the resource-rich Chinese province of Manchuria. The military took control of Japan.
17 The Rise of Dictators What dicatorships were established in Europe after World War I? Italy developed the first major dictatorship in Europe, with Benito Mussolini as its leader. In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, set up Communist governments throughout the Russian Empire. The Russian territories were renamed the USSR in By 1926 Joseph Stalin had become the new Soviet dictator. In 1933 Adolf Hitler was appointed prime minister of Germany. Storm Troopers intimidated voters into giving Hitler dictatorial powers. In 1931 the Japanese army invaded the resource-rich Chinese province of Manchuria. The military took control of Japan.
18 From Isolation to Involvement Chapter 19.2 Page 647
19 America Turns to Neutrality The rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia after World War I, the refusal of European countries to repay war debts owed to the United States, and the Nye Committee findings that arms factories made huge profits caused Americans to support isolationism. Many Americans wanted to avoid international commitments.
20 America Turns to Neutrality Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1935 making it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war.
21 America Turns to Neutrality Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1937, which continued the ban of selling arms to countries at war and required warring countries to buy nonmilitary supplies from the United States on a cash and carry basis.
22 America Turns to Neutrality President Franklin D. Roosevelt supported internationalism. Internationalists believe that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent war.
23 America Turns to Neutrality Japan aligned itself with Germany and Italy, and these three countries became known as the Axis Powers.
24 America Turns to Neutrality After Japan launched a full-scale attack on China in 1937, Roosevelt authorized the sale of weapons to China, saying that the Neutrality Act of 1937 did not apply, since neither China nor Japan had actually declared war.
25 America Turns to Neutrality What factors led many Americans to support isolationism after World War I? The rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia after World War I caused Americans to support isolationism. Isolationist ideas increased when most debtor nations stopped paying their war debts during the Great Depression. The Nye Committee found evidence that arms factories made huge profits, creating the impression that these businesses influenced the United States to enter World War I.
26 Peace in Our Time In February 1938, Adolf Hitler threatened to invade Austria unless Austrian Nazis were given important government posts. In March of 1938, Hitler announced the Anschluss, or unification, of Austria and Germany.
27 Peace in Our Time Hitler claimed the Sudetenland, and area of Czechoslovakia with a large Germanspeaking population. Czechs strongly resisted Germany s demand for the Sudetenland.
28 Peace in Our Time France, the Soviet Union, and Britain threatened to fight Germany if it attacked Czechoslovakia.
29 Peace in Our Time At the Munich Conference on September 29, 1938, Britain and France, hoping to prevent another war, agreed to Hitler s demands in a policy known as appeasement.
30 Peace in Our Time In March 1939, Germany sent troops into Czechoslovakia, bringing the Czech lands under German control.
31 Peace in Our Time Hitler demanded the return of Danzig Poland s Baltic Sea port. He also wanted a highway and railroad across the Polish Corridor. These demands convinced the British and French that appeasement had failed.
32 Peace in Our Time In May 1939, Hitler ordered the invasion of Poland by the German army.
33 Peace in Our Time On August 23, 1939, Germany and the USSR signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, with a secret agreement to divide Poland.
34 Peace in Our Time Why did Britain and France agree to Hitler s demands for the Sudetenland? They hoped that they could give Hitler the Sudetenland in exchange for peace. Also, this bought Britain time to get ready for war. Some thought Hitler s demand that all Germany-speaking regions of Europe be united with Germany was unreasonable.
35 The War Begins On September 1, 1939, Germany and the USSR invaded Poland. On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany starting World War II.
36 The War Begins The Germans used a blitzkrieg, or lightning war, to attack Poland. The Polish army was defeated on October 5.
37 The War Begins On April 9, 1940, the German army attacked Norway and Denmark. Within a month, Germany overtook both countries.
38 The War Begins After World War I, the French built a line of concrete bunkers and fortification call the Maginot Line along the German boarder.
39 The War Begins When Hitler decided to attack France, he went around the Maginot Line by invading the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. The French and British forces quickly went into Belgium, becoming trapped there by German forces.
40 The War Begins By June 4, about 338,000 British and French troops had evacuated Belgium through the French port of Dunkirk and across the English Channel, using ships of all sizes.
41 The War Begins On June 22, 1940, France surrendered to the Germans. Germany installed a puppet government in France.
42 The War Begins Why did France fall to the Germans? When Hitler decided to attack France, he went around the Maginot Line by invading the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg. The French and British Forces quickly went into Belgium, becoming trapped there by German forces. These forces escaped to Britain through the French port of Dunkirk and across the English Channel.
43 Britain Remains Defiant Hitler thought that Britain would negotiate peace after France surrendered. He did not anticipate the bravery of the British people and their prime minister, Winston Churchill.
44 Britain Remains Defiant On June 4, 1940, Churchill delivered a defiant speech that rallied the British people and alerted the United States to Britain s plight.
45 Britain Remains Defiant To invade Britain, Germany had to defeat the British air force.
46 Britain Remains Defiant In the Battle of Britain, the German air force, the Luftwaffe, launched an all-out air battle to destroy the British Royal Air Force.
47 Britain Remains Defiant After German bombers bombed London, the British responded by bombing Berlin, Germany. (Both non-military targets)
48 Britain Remains Defiant The Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered by the Luftwaffe, but the British had radar stations and were able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them.
49 Britain Remains Defiant How did the British stop the German forces from invading Britain? Winston Churchill delivered a defiant speech, which rallied the British people. The British air force bombed Berlin, Germany, after the Germans bombed London. The British hid in subway tunnels when the German s bombed London. Although the Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered by the Luftwaffe, the British had radar stations that were able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them.
50 FDR Supports England Two days after Britain and France declared war against Germany, President Roosevelt declared the United States neutral.
51 FDR Supports England The Neutrality Act of 1939 allowed warring countries to buy weapons from the United States as long as they paid cash and carried the arms away on their own ships.
52 FDR Supports England President Roosevelt used a loophole in the Neutrality Act of 1939 and sent 50 old American destroyers to Britain in exchange for the right to build American bases on British-controlled Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Caribbean islands.
53 FDR Supports England How did President Roosevelt support Britain in the war effort? President Roosevelt used a loophole in the Neutrality Act of 1939 and sent 50 old American destroyers to Britain in exchange for the right to build American bases on British controlled Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Caribbean islands.
54 The Isolationist Debate After the German invasion of France and the rescue of the Allied forces at Dunkirk, American public opinion changed to favor limited aid to the Allies.
55 The Isolationist Debate The America First Committee opposed any American intervention or aid to the Allies.
56 The Isolationist Debate President Roosevelt ran for an unprecedented third term as president in the election of Both Roosevelt and the Republican candidate, Wendell Willkie, said they would keep the United States neutral but assist the Allied forces. Roosevelt won by a large margin.
57 The Isolationist Debate What caused many Americans to change their opinion about United States neutrality? After the German invasion of France and the rescue of Allied forces at Dunkirk, American public opinion changed to favor limited aid to the Allies.
58 Edging Toward War President Roosevelt proposed the Lend- Lease Act, which stated that the United States could lend or lease arms to any country considered vital to the defense of the United States. Congress passed the act by a wide margin.
59 Edging Toward War In June of 1941, in violation of the Nazi- Soviet Nonaggression Pact, Hitler began a massive invasion of the Soviet Union.
60 Edging Toward War President Roosevelt developed the hemispheric defense zone, which declared the entire western half of the Atlantic as part of the Western Hemisphere and therefore neutral. This allowed Roosevelt to order the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic Ocean and reveal the location of German submarines to the British.
61 Edging Toward War In August 1941, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met (Atlantic Conference) and agreed to the Atlantic Charter.
62 Edging Toward War This agreement committed the two leaders to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, economic advancement, and freedom of the seas.
63 Edging Toward War After a German U-boat fired on the American destroyer Greer, Roosevelt ordered American ships to follow a shooton-sight policy toward German submarines.
64 Edging Toward War Germans torpedoed and sank the American destroyer Reuben James in the North Atlantic.
65 Edging Toward War How did President Roosevelt get around American neutrality in order to aid the British? President Roosevelt proposed the Lend-Lease Act, which stated that the United States could lend or lease arms to any country considered vital to the defense of the United States. President Roosevelt developed the hemispheric defense zone, which declared the entire western half of the Atlantic as part of the Western Hemisphere and therefore neutral. This allowed Roosevelt to order the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic Ocean and reveal the location of German submarines.
66 America Enters the War Chapter 19.3 Page 656
67 Japan Attacks the United States Roosevelt s primary goal between August 1939 and December 1941 was the help Britain and its Allies defeat Germany. When Britain began moving warships from Southeast Asia to the Atlantic, Roosevelt introduced policies to discourage the Japanese from attacking the British Empire.
68 Japan Attacks the United States In July of 1940, Congress passed the Export Control Act, giving Roosevelt the power to restrict the sale of strategic materials (materials important for fighting war) to other countries. Roosevelt immediately blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan.
69 Japan Attacks the United States The Japanese signed an alliance with Germany and Italy. (The Anti-Comintern Pact)
70 Japan Attacks the United States By July 1941, Japanese aircraft posed a direct threat to the British Empire. Roosevelt responded to the threat by freezing all Japanese assets in the United States and reducing the amount of oil shipped to Japan.
71 Japan Attacks the United States He also sent General MacArthur to the Philippines to build up American defenses there. The Japanese decided to attack resource-rich British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, seize the Philippines, and attack Pearl Harbor.
72 Japan Attacks the United States Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, sinking or damaging 21 ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, killing 2,403 Americans, and injuring hundreds more.
73 Japan Attacks the United States The next day President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan.
74 Japan Attacks the United States On December 11, 1941, Japan s allies Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.
75 Japan Attacks the United States What series of events led to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? The United States Congress passed the Export Control Act that restricted the sale of strategic materials to other nations. Roosevelt immediately blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan. This angered Japan, which then signed an alliance with Germany and Italy. The Japanese invasion of Southern Indochina caused Roosevelt to freeze all Japanese assets in the United States and reduce the amount of oil shipped to Japan. He also sent General MacArthur to the Philippines to build up American defenses there. The Japanese military, lacking oil and other resources, decided to attack the resource-rich British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, seize the Philippines, and attack Pearl Harbor.
76 Converting the Economy The United State s industrial output during World War II was twice as productive as Germany and five times that of Japan. This turned the tide in favor of an Allied victory. Part of the success of the United States was the result of the government mobilizing the economy before the U.S. entered the war.
77 Converting the Economy Roosevelt and his advisers believed the best way to rapidly mobilize the economy was to give industry an incentive to move quickly. The government signed cost-plus contracts agreeing to pay a company whatever the manufacturing cost, plus a guaranteed percentage of the cost as profit.
78 Converting the Economy The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), the government agency which had been set up during the Depression, made loans to companies to help them with the cost of converting to war production.
79 Converting the Economy Why was the United States able to expand it war production so quickly after the attack on Pearl Harbor? The United States could expand its production in part because the government had begun to mobilize the economy before it entered the war. The government signed cost-plus contracts, and the RFC made loans to help companies with the cost of converting to war production.
80 American Industry Gets the Job Done After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, almost all major American industries and 200,000 companies converted to war production.
81 American Industry Gets the Job Done The automobile factories turned to the production of trucks, jeeps, and tanks. They also built artillery, rifles, mines, helmets, pontoon bridges, cooking pots, and other military supplies, producing nearly one-third of the military equipment that was manufactured during the war.
82 American Industry Gets the Job Done Henry Ford created an assembly line for B-24 bombers.
83 American Industry Gets the Job Done Henry Kaiser s shipyards built many ships but were best known for the Liberty Ship, a basic cargo ship used during the war. These ships were welded instead of riveted, making them cheaper and easier to build and difficult to fall apart and sink.
84 American Industry Gets the Job Done Roosevelt created the War Production Board (WPB) to set priorities and production goals and to control the distribution of raw materials and supplies. He set up the Office of War Mobilization (OWM) to settle arguments between the different agencies.
85 American Industry Gets the Job Done Why was the production of trucks, jeeps, and tanks so critical to the war? This was critical because the country that could move its troops and supplies the quickest usually won the battle.
86 Building an Army In order to win the war, it was vital that the United States build up its armed forces.
87 Building an Army After the defeat of France by the Germans, Congress was no longer opposed to the idea of a peacetime draft. The Selective Service and Training Act was a plan for the first peacetime draft in American history.
88 Building an Army At first, the numbers of draftees was overwhelming. The GI s named after the initials on their uniforms meaning Government Issue, went through basic training for eight weeks.
89 Building an Army Although some complained after the war the training was too short o be of any good, most soldiers gained a sense of camaraderie that made them a more effective units.
90 Building an Army At the beginning of the war, the United States military was completely segregated. African Americans were organized into their own military units with white officers in command.
91 Building an Army African Americans were disfranchised, meaning they were often denied the right to vote. An African American newspaper, the Pittsburgh Courier, launched the Double V campaign stating that African Americans should join the war because a win would be a double victory over racism abroad and at home.
92 Building an Army Roosevelt, knowing that the African American vote had helped him win, ordered the U.S. military to recruit and send African Americans into combat.
93 Building an Army The army air force created the 99 th Pursuit Squadron, an African American unit.
94 Building an Army The African American pilots became known as the Tuskegee Airmen. They played an important role in the Battle of Anzio in Italy.
95 Building an Army In the army, African Americans also performed well, receiving various awards for distinguished service. Segregation did not end during the war, but led to full military integration in 1948.
96 Building an Army Congress established the Women s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) in May This was the first time women were allowed in the military.
97 Building an Army By 1943 women became a part of regular war operations. The Army, Coast Guard, the Navy, and the Marines all set up their own women s organizations.
98 Building an Army In 1941 the American troops were untrained and had little military experience. They did, however, get the job done and suffered the fewest casualties in combat of all the major powers in the war.
99 Building an Army Who made up the American armed forces in World War II? The American armed forces were made up of recruits who had almost no military experience and were given little training. African Americans were segregated from white troops and were rarely allowed in combat. President Roosevelt directed the army to put African Americans into combat. Some African Americans, such as the Tuskegee Airmen and tank battalions, participated in combat. At first, women were allowed to join the Women s Army Auxiliary Corps, which was not par of the regular army. By 1943 women became part of the regular army, but were not allowed in combat.
100 Holding the Line Against Japan After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, the commander of the United States Navy in the Pacific, Admiral Chester Nimitz, could do little at first to stop the advancing Japanese into Southeast Asia. Japan attacked American airfields in the Philippines and landed their troops in the islands.
101 Holding the Line Against Japan The commander of the Americans and Filipinos defending the Philippines, General Douglas MacArthur, decided to take his badly outnumbered troops and retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. Roosevelt ordered the general to evacuate to Australia.
102 Holding the Line Against Japan The Allied defenders of Bataan finally surrendered, and thousands died on the Bataan Death March to a Japanese prison camp.
103 Holding the Line Against Japan In early 1942, B-25 bombers replaced the aircraft carriers short-range bombers because they could attack from farther away.
104 Holding the Line Against Japan Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle was put in command of the mission that bombed Japan on April 18. (Doolittle s Raid)
105 Holding the Line Against Japan Doolittle s attack on Japan made Japanese leaders change their strategy. An attack on Midway Island the last American base in the North Pacific west of Hawaii was planned to lure the American fleet into battle to be destroyed by the Japanese.
106 Holding the Line Against Japan This would cut American supply lines to Australia. The plan failed because the United States had a team of code breakers based in Hawaii that broke the Japanese Navy s secret code for conducting operations.
107 Holding the Line Against Japan The turning point in the war came during the Battle of Midway when Americans shot down 38 Japanese planes and destroyed four Japanese carriers. This stopped the Japanese advance into the Pacific.
108 Holding the Line Against Japan Why did the Japanese decide to attack Midway Island? Midway Island was the last American base in the North Pacific. The Japanese believed that an attack on Midway Island would lure the American fleet into battle and enable the Japanese fleet to destroy it. The American fleet had to be destroyed in order to protect Tokyo from being bombed by American B-25s.
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Guided Notes Chapter 21; the Cold War Begins Section 1: A Clash of Interests (pages 654 655) A. After War, the United and the Union became, leading to an of and that from about to known as the. B. were
The World at War Turn of the Tide The Axis powers enjoyed nearly unbroken military success between September 1939 and the summer of 1942. Then the tide began to turn in favor of the Allies, both in Europe
THE UNITED STATES IN WORLD WAR II CH 17 AMERICA TURNS THE TIDE Sec 1. MOBILIZING FOR DEFENSE After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, they thought America would avoid further conflict with them The Japan Times
Sample Pages from Leveled Texts for Social Studies: The 20th Century The following sample pages are included in this download: Table of Contents Readability Chart Sample Passage For correlations to Common
American Anthem Modern American History Chapter 8 Columbus statute in Rhode Island The First World War 1914-1920 Copyright 2010, Mr. Ellington Ruben S. Ayala High School Chapter 8: The First World War,
CREDITS WWI WWII The 20 s $200 $200 $200 The Cold War $200 Principles of the Constitution $200 The American Revolution $200 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $600 $600 $600 $600 $600 $600 $800 $800 $800 $800
Name: Class: The Attack on Pearl Harbor By National Park Service 2016 The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base on Pearl
Summative Assessment for the Announcing World War II Unit Table of Contents Item Page Number Assessment Instructions 2 Summative Assessment for Announcing World War II 3-5 Short Answer Key 6 1 Announcing
Canada & The Cold War Chapter 8-9 Social Studies Canada and the Creation of NATO Shortly after WW2 it became evident that the Allies had split into 2 opposing camps: The Soviet Union and the West The West
1939-1945 After World War I Newfoundland had suffered both economic and social losses. The years between the wars saw Newfoundland suffer with heavy debts, low employment, the Great Depression and social
History Of United States Naval Operations In World War II. Vol. 14: Victory In The Pacific, 1945 By Samuel Eliot Morison China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937 1945 (1992) online edition; Hsi-sheng,
Errata Setup: The following errors exist in the setup cards: United States: Add an airbase and a naval base to the Philippines. ANZAC: Remove the minor industrial complex from New Zealand, and change the