1 The D-Day Invasion How did the D-Day invasion fit into the Allied plans for the war in Europe? How did the Allies successfully liberate the country of France?
2 The furthest extent of Hitler s empire in 1942
3 The Ba'le of Stalingrad (1942)
4 Operation Torch (US Enters the European War)
5 The Invasion of Italy (1943)
6 How did the D-Day invasion come about? Following the US landings in North Africa / Italy, Allied leaders met to plan the next phase of the war in Europe Casablanca Conference (1943) Tehran Conference (1943) At Tehran, the Big 3 met for the first time to discuss Europe s Second Front
7 Tehran Conference & The Big 3 (1943)
8 Why was the Tehran Conference significant? At Tehran, Stalin again asked for a second front in Europe Unhappy with progress in Italy In need of more support against Hitler FDR and Churchill assured him a second front would be opening up by the end of 1944
9 What challenges did the Allies face for the planning of D-Day? The Allies knew that no one had successful done a cross-channel invasion since the Middle Ages Battle of Hastings The Dieppe Raid (1942) D-Day s dress rehearsal Target = test German defenses
10 Roman Occupation of England
11 The Battle of Hastings
12 Napoleon's Failed Invasion of England ( )
13 Operation Sealion (1940)
14 The Dieppe Raid (1942)
15 Complete Disaster
16 Daily Telegraph crossword
17 Ian Fleming ( )
18 Allied Dead on the Dieppe Beach
19 Allied Dead on the Dieppe Beach
20 British POWs from the Raid
21 What lessons did the Allies learn from past failed invasions? The Dieppe raid had a major influence on the planning for D- Day The Americans would not commit to an invasion until they had ensured the following: Overwhelming force was assembled Air superiority over the invasion zone Launch the attack when they were ready NOT WHEN STALIN WAS!!!
22 The Relationship between FDR & Stalin
23 Allied (American) build-up in England ( )
24 Southampton docks
25 Allies Once Again..
26 What was the Allies plan for the D- The Allies developed a multi-part invasion plan for the D-Day landings Operation Overlord Day invasion? Two (2) parts: Operation Fortitude= deception / preparation Operation Neptune = air / sea landings on French soil
27 Why did the Allies pick Normandy for the site of their landings? The Allies knew that Hitler was expecting an invasion Pas-de-Calais (northern France) Why Normandy? Expectations Softer defenses Favorable beaches
28 Operation Overlord (1944) Normandy Hitler expected the invasion here in the Pas de Calais
29 How did the Allies prepare for D-Day? Building an Army: Three (3) million Allied troops in southern England (US, British, Canadian) 17 armed camps 43 miles of parking (tanks, aircraft, etc.) Largest naval flotilla ever assembled in world history
30 Arrival of American / Allied Troops
31 Arrival of American / Allied Troops
32 Soldiers in mess line in one of the marshaling camps in southern England
33 Troop Interaction with the British locals
34 Troop Interaction with the British locals
35 Allied training and preparations
36 Landing Craft
37 Massive Naval Flotilla
38 How did the Allies prepare for D-Day? Setting Up Commanders: Overall commander: Gen. Dwight Eisenhower British commander: Gen. Bernard Montgomery Fake commander: Gen. George Patton Patton was the most feared general by the Germans Perfect commander for Operation Fortitude
39 Who was Gen. Dwight Eisenhower? Gen. Dwight Eisenhower was the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe Ike Had commanded American troops in North Africa / Italy Would lead Allied troops to final victory in Europe
40 General Eisenhower General Montgomery Operation Overlord planning meeting.
41 Ike and Monty s Relationship
42 How did the Allies prepare for D-Day? Tricking the Germans: Building of completely separate Allied camp Creating a fake army Using German doubleagents Bogus radio traffic Enlisting the help of the French resistance SELLING IT!!!
43 Inflatable rubber tank
45 Canvas aircraft
46 Fake radio signals / broadcasts Enormous amounts of fake wireless messages were transmitted relating to possible invasion plans in the Calais region in the hope the Germans would believe them.
47 Gen. Patton s Showmanship
48 Agent Garbo The British Secret Service (SIS) managed to infiltrate a double agent in to the German intelligence apparatus. Agent Garbo (Juan Pujol Garcia) passed false intelligence to the Germans leading them to believe the invasion would come in the Pas de Calais region of France.
49 The Help of the French Resistance The French resistance assisted the preparations for D-Day by disrupting French railways and causing other acts of sabotage to the telegraph and telephone system. Such acts brought terrible retribution on the local populations.
50 What was the German preparations Despite all Allied efforts, the Germans were preparing as well Expected an Allied invasion somewhere in France for D-Day like? The Atlantic Wall A massive line of fortification along the Channel coast Hitler appoints Gen. Erwin Rommel to command it
52 Building of the Atlantic Wall
53 Gen. Rommel in France
54 Hitler s Festung Europa (Fortress Europe)
55 Despite gaps in the line, the defences were formidable in some places.
57 Futuristic looking German blockhouse on the island of Jersey.
58 The remains of a German blockhouse today.
59 Anti-Landing Craft / Tank Obstacles
60 Rommel inspects anti-tank defences on a French beach.
61 Beach Obstacles
62 How was the invasion organized 5 major beaches in Normandy Utah and Omaha US Gold and Sword British Juno Canadian Each had own objectives / missions Everything depended on the weather by the Allies? Massive airborne attack behind German lines the night prior 101 st Airborne Division June 6, 1944 = Let s Go
65 The capture of Cherbourg was a key objective. It was not captured until the end of June and was badly damaged. The Allies could not risk launching the invasion without a useable port. They constructed an artificial harbour which could be towed across the channel.
66 Sections of a Mulberry Harbour today in Normandy.
67 Towed to France in sections the Mulberry Harbours allowed the Allies to unload supplies until Cherbourg was captured.
70 Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight Eisenhower gives a pep talk to American paratroopers the evening before D Day.
71 Churchill visits the troops too
72 Allied Airborne Assault on Normandy
73 A paratrooper boards an airplane that will drop him over the coast of Normandy for the Allied Invasion of Europe, D- Day, June 6, Soldiers of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions parachuted behind enemy lines during the night, while fellow Soldiers assaulted Normandy beaches at dawn
74 The troops spent up to four hours in the landing craft and most were violently seasick.
79 American troops on Omaha Beach, scene of the heaviest fighting and over 5,000 US deaths on D Day.
80 British troops approaching Sword Beach
81 British troops landing at Sword Beach
85 In the end, how successful were the D-Day landings? Despite heavy looses (9,000+), the Allies landing at Normandy were successful Superior technology / manpower Hitler did not completely believe the Normandy landings were the main attack Held back reinforcements that could have turned the battle around
86 Secured beachhead area D Day ,000 men ashore on Day 1
87 German POWs as the invasion continues
88 German POWs arriving at Southampton
89 French citizens survey the destruction with Allied troops
90 The Mayor of Southampton, France honours the millionth American soldier to embark for France
91 French civilians place flowers at a US cemetery in Normandy
92 How is the D-Day landings impact the overall strategy of the war in Europe? The successful landings at Normandy helped to open the second front Stalin had wanted The landings also opened up a base for the successful liberation of France / Occupied Europe
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