1 SSUSH19 Examine the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, including the growth of the federal government. a. Investigate the origins of U.S. involvement in the war including Lend-lease and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. b. Examine the Pacific Theater including the difficulties the U.S. faced in delivering weapons, food, and medical supplies to troops, the Battle of Midway, Manhattan Project and the dropping of the atomic bombs. c. Examine the European Theater including difficulties the U.S. faced in delivering weapons, food, and medical supplies to troops, D-Day, and the Fall of Berlin. d. Investigate the domestic impact of the war including war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, wartime conversion, and the role of women and African Americans or Blacks. e. Examine Roosevelt s use of executive powers including the integration of defense industries and the internment of Japanese-Americans.
3 Isolation vs Globalization
4 Warm up: STUDY! You have a Quiz over your WWI notes packets!
5 Pearl Harbor and Its Aftermath On the morning of December 7, 1941, the navy of the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on the U.S. Navy base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Over 2,400 Americans were killed and 1,178 more were wounded, 19 ships were damaged, and over 300 aircraft were destroyed. The Japanese attack took the United States officially into World War II.
6 Battleships, Cruisers, Destroyers and Auxiliaries Destroyed Arizona: hit by four armor-piercing bombs, exploded; 1,177 dead. Oklahoma: hit by five torpedoes, capsized; total loss. 429 dead West Virginia: hit by two bombs, seven torpedoes, sunk;. 106 dead. California: hit by two bombs, two torpedoes, sunk;. 100 dead. Nevada: hit by six bombs, one torpedo. 60 dead. Tennessee: hit by two bombs. 5 dead. Maryland: hit by two bombs. 4 dead Pennsylvania: hit by one bomb, 9 dead. Utah: hit by two torpedoes, capsized;. 64 dead. Helena: hit by one torpedo; 20 dead. Raleigh: hit by one torpedo Honolulu: Near miss, light damage Cassin: hit by one bomb, burned. Downes: caught fire from Cassin, burned Shaw: hit by three bombs Oglala (minelayer): Damaged by torpedo hit on Helena, capsized Vestal (repair ship): hit by two bombs, blast and fire from Arizona, Curtiss : hit by one bomb, one crashed Japanese aircraft. 19 dead.
7 Impact on immigrants One effect of America s entry into the war was alarm about the loyalty of Japanese Americans: 120,000 Japanese Americans lived in the United States, most of them on the West Coast. Fears of spies and sabotage led to prejudice and sometimes violence against Japanese Americans. In the name of national security, Roosevelt ordered all people of Japanese ancestry be moved from California and parts of Washington, Oregon, and Arizona to rural prison camps. Although most of the people imprisoned in these internment camps were Japanese Americans, there were also small numbers of German Americans and Italian Americans imprisoned under the same law, as well as hundreds of Native Americans from Alaska
8 Major WWII events and battles Many battles were fought between the Allied nations and the Axis powers from 1939 to World War II was truly a world war, with combat taking place on nearly every continent. This changed the way the whole world looked at war. The two major theaters of the war were Europe and the Pacific Ocean. Review the following details of four major World War II events.
9 Lend Lease March, 11, 1941 Nine months before Pearl Harbor, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act and amended the Neutrality Acts so the United States could lend military equipment and supplies to any nation the president said was vital to the defense of the United States. Roosevelt approved $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to Great Britain in October When the United States entered World War II, $50 billion worth of equipment and supplies had already been sent to Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and China.
10 Battle of Midway June 4 7, 1942 Six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. Navy won a sea battle against the Japanese Navy that was a turning point in World War II. The Japanese tried to trap and sink America s remaining aircraft carriers and then take the Midway Atoll, an American refueling station for ships and airplanes, but the United States destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers while losing only one American carrier. This kept the Japanese from capturing Midway. This victory is regarded as the most important naval engagement of the Pacific campaign of the war and, at the time, was a huge morale boost for America. The Japanese Navy never recovered from this defeat, enabling the United States to gain control of other strategic Pacific islands. From those islands, the United States was able to overcome the geographical difficulty of resupplying its forces with food, medicine, weapons, and other critical supplies needed to push westward toward the Japanese mainland.
11 June D Day 6, 1944 D Day was the code name for the first day of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Nazioccupied France. It remains the largest seaborne invasion in history, with over 156,000 men crossing the English Channel in 6,939 vessels. The German troops occupying France were caught almost completely by surprise and, although the Allies met heavy resistance in small areas, the invasion went almost exactly according to plan. As a result of the operation s success, American and British forces were able to maintain a permanent beachhead in mainland Europe to resupply their forces and push east to Germany. The geographical advantage gained by the invasion marked the beginning of victory for the Allies in Europe.
13 April May Fall of 1945 The Berlin fall of Berlin was one of the final battles of the European theater during World War II. Two Soviet army groups attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third attacked German forces north of Berlin. The Soviets lost 81,116 men taking the city, while the Germans lost 458,080 trying to defend it. It was one of the bloodiest battles in history. Adolf Hitler was in Berlin during the battle and, before it ended, he and many of his followers committed suicide. The city s defenders surrendered on May 2, but fighting continued outside
14 Your turn The students will create chart of the major battles of World War II. Within the chart, students will list where the event occurred, which branches of the military were included (Army, Navy, Air Force), and the importance of the event as it relates to conflict and change. Where? Pearl Harbor Midway D Day Berlin Branches of Military Importance?
15 Journal: Imagine you were in Pearl Harbor when it was attacked by the Japanese. Describe the experience.
16 Mobilization After Pearl Harbor, 5 million men volunteered for military service, but more were needed to fight the war. The Selective Service System expanded the draft, and 10 million more men joined the ranks of the American armed forces. So great was the need of the military, a Women s Auxiliary Army Corps was formed to fill noncombat positions otherwise filled by men, freeing up the men for frontline duty.
17 The men needed tanks, planes, ships, guns, bullets, and boots. To equip the troops, the entire American industry was dedicated to supplying the military. More than 6 million workers in the plants, factories, and shipyards were women. With the men who once did these jobs now fighting overseas, women filled the void. Women volunteered for this work even though they were paid on average only 60% as much as men doing the same jobs. It was the hard work of people and the industrial might of the United States that helped America win World War II. Wartime Conversion
18 Rationing As time went on, the war industry needed more raw materials. One way Americans helped the war effort was through wartime conservation. Workers would carpool to work or ride bicycles to save gasoline and rubber. People participated in nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, newspaper, rags, and even cooking grease to recycle and use in war production. Another way Americans conserved on the home front was through the mandatory government rationing system. Under this system, each household received a c book with coupons that were used to buy scarce items such as meat, sugar, and coffee. Gas rationing was also used to help save gasoline for military use.
19 Atomic Bomb Allied leaders planning the war against Japan knew that once they defeated the Japanese navy in the Pacific Ocean they would still have to invade Japan itself to end the war. They knew Japan still had a huge army that would defend every inch of the homeland, and both sides could possibly lose millions of people in the process. President Truman decided there was only one way to avoid an invasion of Japan and still defeat them. He would use a brand-new weapon that no one had ever seen before: the atomic bomb. The American government had developed two atomic bombs in a secret laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The bombs were dropped on Japan in early August On September 2, 1945, the Japanese surrendered, and World War II was finally over. The project s code name was The Manhattan Project.
21 Results of Atomic Bomb The implications of developing and using atomic bombs in World War II were enormous. From a military standpoint, it was clear that not only did the United States have a powerful weapon that no other country had, but the American government was not afraid to use it. The Soviet Union quickly began developing an atomic bomb of its own, an act that helped begin the Cold War. Also, nuclear power would soon be used to power aircraft carriers and submarines. Scientifically and economically, the atomic bomb led to nuclear power for civilian use, such as generating electricity for homes and businesses. Nuclear power is also used in technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, which are used by physicians to study the workings of the human body, including brain functions.
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