2 Objectives Explain the steps Kennedy took to change American foreign policy. Analyze the causes and effects of the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Assess the results of the Berlin Crisis and other foreign policy events of the 1960s.
3 Terms and People John F. Kennedy a Democratic senator who was elected President in 1960 Richard M. Nixon former Republican vice president under Eisenhower who ran for President in 1960 and lost Fidel Castro communist leader of Cuba flexible response a defense policy in which the U.S. military is prepared to fight any type of conflict
4 Terms and People (continued) Peace Corps a U.S. program that sent volunteers to developing countries to assist in education, healthcare, and economics Alliance for Progress a U.S. policy that aimed to renew the former Good Nation Policy toward Latin American nations by providing economic aid Bay of Pigs invasion 1961 failed invasion of Cuba by a CIA-led force of Cuban exiles Nikita Khrushchev the Soviet Union s prime minister during Kennedy s presidency
5 Terms and People (continued) Cuban missile crisis 1962 conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union resulting from the Soviet installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba hot line a telephone line between the White House and Moscow to improve communication between the United States and the Soviet Union after the Cuban missile crisis Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963 agreement limiting nuclear testing between the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and thirty-six other countries Berlin Wall a wall built by the Soviet Union to separate East Berlin from West Berlin
6 How did Kennedy respond to the continuing challenges of the Cold War? When John F. Kennedy took office, he faced the spread of communism abroad and the threat of nuclear war. His enthusiasm and commitment to change offered hope that the challenges of the Cold War could be met.
7 John F. Kennedy won a close presidential election in 1960, defeating Richard M. Nixon.
8 Kennedy launched a new Cold War strategy. He built up both conventional and special military forces. He created a flexible response defense policy. He developed the Alliance for Progress to improve relations with Latin American countries. He created the Peace Corps.
9 As ambassadors of American goodwill, the Peace Corps sent American volunteers to developing nations to assist with such services as education and health care.
10 The sudden threat of Castro and Communism in nearby Cuba led to two major confrontations. Bay of Pigs invasion Cuban missile crisis
11 In April 1961 the United States invaded Cuba s Bay of Pigs. The invasion, conceived by the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro, involved Cuban exiles who had fled Castro s rule and settled in the United States. The Bay of Pigs mission failed. Kennedy took responsibility for the mission s failure. The President said, however, that he would continue to resist efforts by the communists to control other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
12 Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962, American intelligence agencies photographed Soviet nuclear missile installations in Cuba.
13 The missiles at these Cuban sites threatened major cities in the United States.
14 Kennedy worked to resolve the Cuban missile crisis. In Public In a television address, Kennedy blamed Soviet Prime Minister Khrushchev for reckless action that threatened world peace. Kennedy initiated a U.S. naval blockade of Cuba. Behind the Scenes Kennedy told the Soviets that the United States would remove U.S. missiles from Turkey and Italy if the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba.
15 After six tense days, the Soviets backed off. Nikita Khrushchev agreed to honor the blockade and removed the missiles. The crisis prompted the two leaders to establish a period of détente. They set up a hot line between Washington, D.C., and Moscow to improve communication.
16 As a result of the crisis the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and thirty-six other countries signed the first Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in This treaty ended aboveground nuclear testing.
17 The United States also clashed with the Soviets over Berlin. In 1961 Khrushchev insisted the United States end its military presence in West Berlin. Kennedy refused. Khrushchev ordered the building of the Berlin Wall to separate communist East Berlin from democratic West Berlin.
18 In response to Khrushchev s actions, Kennedy requested a large increase in military spending. He also sent 1,500 more U.S. soldiers to West Berlin. The Berlin Wall became a symbol of the split between the democratic West and the the communist communist East East
19 Kennedy s Domestic Policy
20 Objectives Evaluate Kennedy s domestic policies. Assess the impact of the Kennedy assassination.
21 Terms and People New Frontier President Kennedy s proposals to resolve economic, educational, health care, and civil rights issues and to explore space Equal Pay Act 1963 law that required both men and women to receive equal pay for equal work deficit spending practice of a nation paying out more money than it is receiving in revenues
22 Terms and People (continued) space race the competition between the Soviet Union and the United States to develop technology to land on the moon Warren Commission the official government commission that investigated the assassination of President Kennedy
23 What were the goals of Kennedy s New Frontier? President Kennedy was determined to improve life in the United States. He succeeded in making some domestic policy changes regarding poverty and racial discrimination and spurred interest in the space race.
24 President Kennedy had a special style that made him seem different from other politicians. The new First Family charmed Americans with their youth and energy. The president surrounded himself with distinguished men from the country s best businesses and universities.
25 Kennedy promised that his administration would bring America to a New Frontier. He pledged to create economic opportunity and expand health care and civil rights. He also wanted to jump-start the space program.
26 Some of President Kennedy s New Frontier proposals succeeded. Kennedy was able to Increase the minimum wage Extend Social Security benefits Improve the welfare system Pass the first Equal Pay Act, a crucial step toward fair employment However, a conservative Congress prevented Kennedy from enacting all of the programs he proposed.
27 Increased military spending Kennedy made several proposals related to the economy. Tax credits for business and tax cuts for the middle class Deficit spending to stimulate the economy Kennedy s economic initiatives led to tremendous economic growth in the late 1960s.
28 Kennedy pursued a timid approach to civil rights. Civil rights marches and demonstrations took place all across the country. In 1961 freedom rides aimed to desegregate the south. Kennedy introduced a civil rights bill in He also proposed to strengthen civil rights in response to further violence in the South.
29 Kennedy recognized the need for the United States to beat the Soviet Union in the space race. He made it a national goal to place a man on the moon before Congress gave generous funding to NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
30 In July, 1969 an American flag flew on the moon.
31 In November, 1963, while riding in a motorcade in Dallas, Texas, President Kennedy was assassinated. The senseless murder deeply saddened Americans. To many, it seemed that America s innocence had died with Kennedy.
32 After Kennedy s death, Vice President Johnson was sworn in as the new President. The nation moved to resolve the economic and equality issues Kennedy had identified. Johnson also appointed the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy.
33 Johnson s Domestic Policy
34 Objectives Evaluate Johnson s policies up to his victory in the 1964 presidential election. Analyze Johnson s goals and actions as seen in his Great Society programs. Assess the achievements of the Great Society.
35 Terms and People Lyndon B. Johnson became President after Kennedy s assassination Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination in public places and employment based on race, religion, or national origin War on Poverty President Johnson s programs aimed at aiding the country s poor through education, job training, health care, and nutrition Economic Opportunity Act 1964 law creating antipoverty programs
36 Terms and People (continued) Great Society President Johnson s goals in the areas of health care, education, the environment, discrimination, and poverty Medicare a federal program that provided basic hospital insurance for Americans aged 65 and older Medicaid a federal program that provided basic medical services to poor and disabled Americans Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 changed America s immigration quota system Warren Court Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren whose decisions supported civil rights
37 How did Johnson s Great Society programs change life for most Americans? President Johnson shared the goals President Kennedy had advanced. These goals helped shape his Great Society program. He pushed important domestic legislation through Congress.
38 After Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as President, he worked for the same goals Kennedy had championed. Johnson was a seasoned politician who built consensus in Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
39 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Outlawed discrimination in voting, education, and public accommodations Established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to fight discrimination in hiring Prohibited discrimination on the basis of a person s sex in public accommodations and in hiring
40 President Johnson convinced Congress to pass a big tax cut for the middle class. He also established the War on Poverty to promote job training, education, and health care for those in need.
41 As part of the War on Poverty, the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 Created the Job Corps to train young people in work skills Established Volunteers in Service to America, or VISTA, to send volunteers into poor American communities Formed the Head Start program to fund preschool programs
42 In the 1964 presidential election, President Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater in a landslide. Johnson used his popularity to call for a Great Society that would end poverty and racial injustice and provide opportunity for every child.
43 Johnson s Great Society Created Medicare and Medicaid Provided funds to impoverished school districts Passed legislation to improve air and water quality Passed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 to lift immigration quotas Created the National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities
44 During Johnson s presidency, the Supreme Court decided many cases involving controversial social, political, and religious issues. Called the Warren Court after Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court supported civil rights, civil liberties, voting rights, and personal privacy.
45 The Warren Court ruled on many significant issues. Voter s rights: one man, one vote principle Rights of the accused To have a lawyer present To have a court-appointed lawyer To be told about rights Prayer in school
Chapter 20: The Kennedy and Johnson Years 1960-1968 Section 1: Kennedy and the Cold War (pages 616-622) I. Kennedy Defeats Nixon When Kennedy took office, he faced the spread of abroad and the threat of
The New Frontier and the Great Society President John F. Kennedy s efforts to confront the Soviet Union and address social ills are cut short by his assassination. President Lyndon B. Johnson spearheads
Ch 27-1 Kennedy and the Cold War The Main Idea President Kennedy continued the Cold War policy of resisting the spread of communism by offering to help other nations and threatening to use force if necessary.
1960 Election John F. Kennedy (Dem.) and Richard Nixon (Rep.) Who won the election? WHAT HELPED THE NEW PRES. WIN BY A SLIM MARGIN? Highly contested election with two very popular candidates Kennedy and
John Fitzgerald Kennedy: Foreign Policy A Strategic Power Point Presentation Brought to You by Mr. Raffel A Cold War Inaugural Address Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States regarding the deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. The missiles had been placed to protect
Name: The Cold War Conflicts United States vs. Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) Contrast Compare Contrast Cold War: United Nations: Formed in 1945 because many nations wanted to promote The Marshall Plan: UN: United
4.2.1 TERMS (k) Uniting for Peace Resolution: U.N. resolution that gave the General Assembly power to deal with issues of international aggression if the Security Council is deadlocked. Veto: The right
Cold War Tensions Objectives Understand how two sides faced off in Europe during the Cold War. Learn how nuclear weapons threatened the world. Understand how the Cold War spread globally. Compare and contrast
SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. The Cold War The Cold War (1947-1991) was the era of confrontation and competition beginning
Kennedy and Foreign Policy The Big Idea The United States confronted Communist nations in Cold War conflicts around the world. Main Ideas President Kennedy confronted Communist threats around the world.
UNIT 8 TEST REVIEW U.S. History SSUSH 20 U.S. History Era after WWII when the U.S. and capitalist nations competed with communist Russia over control of Europe? Cold War The idea that if one country fell
Chapter 22 - The Kennedy & Johnson Years 1 Chp 22, Section 1 - - The New Frontier 2 1960 Presidential Election = John F. Kennedy (Dem) vs. Richard M. Nixon (Rep) 1 st TV debates in history Nixon was the
Please note: Each segment in this Webisode has its own Teaching Guide Fidel Castro s takeover of Cuba in 1959 installed a Soviet-backed communist regime ninety miles off the coast of Florida. Many Cubans
THE 1960S Rumblings in Europe Vienna Meeting - JFK & Khrushchev (June 1961) Threatened treaty with E. Germany and cut off western access to Berlin JFK refused to be bullied Berlin Wall built in Aug 1961
Lesson 3 Cold War Conflicts ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does conflict influence political relationships? Reading HELPDESK Academic Vocabulary temporary lasting for a limited time; not permanent emerge to come
Cuban Missile Crisis Lesson Plan VITAL INFORMATION Lesson Topic: Cuban Missile Crisis Aim: How did Kennedy respond to the continuing challenges of the Cold War? Objectives: SWBAT 1. Identify the Bay of
The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962 By U.S. State Department, adapted by Newsela staff on 11.30.16 Word Count 697 Level 800L TOP: A briefing is given to President John F. Kennedy (center) at the Cape
A New World The Cold War - Part 2 Table of Contents The First Hot War The Cold War World An Unwinnable Race The First Hot War Korea Korean War The Korean War: 1950-1953 After WWII, Korea was divided under
Cuban Missile Crisis 13 Days that Changed the almost changed World Location Setting the Stage 1. The Truman Doctrine 2. The Marshall Plan 3. Containment 4. The Domino Theory 5. The Berlin Blockade 6. The
Setting the Stage 1. The Truman Doctrine 2. The Marshall Plan 3. Containment 4. The Domino Theory 5. The Berlin Blockade 6. The Berlin Wall Why are these events so important when trying to understand the
Brinkmanship Containment Name Event Year Policy HoW/Why? Detente Glasnost Revolution Cuban Missile Crisis In October of 1962 the Soviet Union deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The United States blockaded
STANDARD VUS.13a The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by describing outcomes of World War II, including political boundary changes, the formation of
1960 s Kennedy Administration Chapter 28 Sections 1 & 2 Warm-Up 5/10/2018 1.What was the Eisenhower Doctrine? 2.How did the U.S. enter the Vietnam War? Current Events 1. U.S. withdrew from Nuclear Iran
The Cuban Missile Crisis Setting the Stage 1. The Truman Doctrine 2. The Marshall Plan 3. Containment 4. The Domino Theory 5. The Berlin Blockade 6. The Berlin Wall Why are these events so important when
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS President John F. Kennedy United States of America SOURCE DOCUMENTS October 16-28, 1962 Background Information #1: Fidel Castro s rise to power On January 1, 1959, a young Cuban nationalist
WHEN 1945 onwards WHAT A war with no fighting or direct conflict WHO USSR v USA Communism v Capitalism East v West The U2 Crisis 1960 big four met in Paris Eisenhower USA Khrushchev USSR De Gaulle France
Historical Context Between 1945 and 1950, the wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union broke down. The Cold War began. For the next forty years, relations between the two superpowers
The Cold War and Decolonization World History Final Exam Review Causes of the Cold War Differing Ideologies: Communism v. Capitalism/ Non-Communism WWII Conferences, Yalta and especially Potsdam, showed
Unit Six: Canada Matures: Growth in the Post-War Period (1945-1970) 6.4: Canada s role on the international stage: emergence as a middle power, involvement in international organizations Meeting the Aliens
SS.7.C.4.3 International Conflicts WORLD WAR I 1914-1918 (US JOINED IN 1915) BRAINPOP: HTTPS://WWW.BRAINPOP.COM/SOCIALSTUDIES/USHISTORY/WORLDWARI/ Why did the U.S. become involved? On May 7, 1915 the British
The Cold War When/why was the word teenager invented? a) Have teenagers changed all that much since the word was made? Why or why not? Louis St. Laurent Uncle Louis -Trans Canada Highway and Great Lakes,
SS.7.C.4.3 Benchmark Clarification 1: Students will identify specific examples of international conflicts in which the United States has been involved. The United States Constitution grants specific powers
Topic Page: Cuban Missile Crisis Definition: Cuban missile crisis from The Macquarie Dictionary 1. noun an international crisis occurring in October 1962, when the US demanded the removal of Soviet rockets
Chapter 2: The Nuclear Age President Truman and the Bomb Hiroshima August 6, 1945 Nagasaki August 9, 1945 Reasons for the Atomic Bombs Save American Lives End the war with Japan Revenge for Pearl Harbor
Foreign Policy and National Defense Chapter 22 Historical Perspective 1 st 150 years of U.S. existence Emphasis on Domestic Affairs vs. Foreign Affairs Foreign Policy The strategies and goals that guide
How did the way Truman handled the Korean War affect the powers of the presidency? What were some of the long-term effects of the Korean war? Objectives Describe the causes and results of the arms race
The Cold War and Communism Cold War What is a Communist, a Commie, or a Red? Communism : a: Theory advocating elimination of private property b: A system in which goods are owned in common and are available
The Cuban Missile Crisis Author: Stacey Billingsley, South River High, Anne Arundel County Public Schools Grade Level: High Duration of lesson: 1 2 Periods Overview: The Cuban Missile Crisis in October
Cold War Conflicts Enduring Understanding: Events during the Cold War affected the world politically, socially, and economically. To understand the significance of the Cold War, you will analyze the political
Chapter 15 Notes: The Vietnam Era Section 1: Kennedy s Foreign Policy New Directions President John F. Kennedy sought new ways to deal with the challenges and fears of the Cold War. As president, Kennedy
CAUSES OF THE COLD WAR Essential Understanding The Cold War set the framework for global politics for 45 years after WW2, and influenced domestic politics and the role of government in the economy. The
Guided Notes Chapter 21; the Cold War Begins Section 1: A Clash of Interests (pages 654 655) A. After War, the United and the Union became, leading to an of and that from about to known as the. B. were
Name Class Date Section 1 MAIN IDEA The presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower was shaped in large part by the Cold War and related conflicts. Key Terms and People Richard M. Nixon vice president under President
Table of Contents How to Use This Product........... 3 Introduction to Primary Sources.... 5 Activities Using Primary Sources... 15 Photographs Birth of the Monroe Doctrine.........15 16 Spheres of Influence.................15
The Executive Branch: Foreign Policy for eign pol i cy noun - a government's strategy in dealing with other nations. U.S. Foreign Policy is this country s actions, words, and beliefs towards other countries.
Foreign Policy and National Defense Chapter 22 Historical Perspective 1 st 150 years of U.S. existence Emphasis on Domestic Affairs vs. Foreign Affairs Foreign Policy The strategies and goals that guide
Eisenhower Years During the Cold War, the USA & USSR were rival superpowers who competed to spread their ideology From 1945 to 1949, President Truman used containment to successfully stop the spread of
Essential Question: What caused an Arms Race to develop between the US and USSR? How did space exploration factor into the Arms Race? During the Cold War, the USA & USSR were rival superpowers who competed
I. The Vietnam Crisis Deepens The Eisenhower administration had supported Ngo Dinh Diem s decision to cancel the unification elections scheduled for 1956 and had begun to send weapons and military advisors
Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The realm of policy decisions concerned primarily with relations between the United States
Cold War - 1945-1989 -A worldwide struggle for power between the United States and the Soviet Union -It never resulted in direct military conflict between the superpowers (they were each afraid of Nuclear
NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION NOVEMBER 2017 HISTORY: PAPER II SOURCE MATERIAL BOOKLET FOR SECTION B AND SECTION C PLEASE TURN OVER Page ii of vi SOURCE A This is a photograph of Soviet Premier
Chapter 17: Foreign Policy and National Defense Section 3 Objectives 1. Summarize American foreign policy from independence through World War I. 2. Show how the two World Wars affected America s traditional
US History Name Date Pd Eisenhower, McCarthyism, and the Cold War I. The Early Years of the Cold War: 1945-1949 A. During the Cold War, the USA & USSR were rival who competed to spread their ideology B.
Chapter Nineteen Reading Guide American Foreign & Defense Policy Answer each question as completely as possible and in blue or black ink only 1. What are the roots of U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy? 1.
Review ROUND 1 4th Nine Weeks Review ROUND ONE 1. Leader of Germany in World War II. ROUND ONE 2. Leader of Italy in World War II. ROUND ONE 3. The strategy of giving something to avoid conflict. ROUND
SSUSH23 Assess the political, economic, and technological changes during the Reagan, George H.W. Bush, Clinton, George W. Bush, and Obama administrations. a. Analyze challenges faced by recent presidents
JFK at 100 presented by Kennedys and King May 2017 January 17: Kennedy signs a law granting federal employees the right to form unions and bargain collectively. By 1967, there are over 1.2 million federal
1. With the fall of the Berlin Wall, the U.S. (A) was the only superpower. (B) saw Communism as the principal threat. (C) knew it was invulnerable. (D) saw the world as a more threatening place. Chapter
The Cold War 1945-1991 (ish) Learning Target Explain How each of the following impacted the start of the Cold War: The Ideological differences between the US and USSR The United Nations The Potsdam Conference
Cold War 1945-1991 The Cold War was a time of political tension and rivalry rather than military combat between the United States and the Soviet Union. It never became a hot war because both sides knew
Postwar America (1945-1960) Lesson 3 The Cold War Intensifies Postwar America (1945-1960) Lesson 3 The Cold War Intensifies Learning Objectives Describe how Cold War tensions were intensified by the arms
SSUSH20 Analyze U.S. international and domestic policies including their influences on technological advancements and social changes during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations. a. Analyze the international
Setting Foreign and Military Policy Approaches to International Relations Realism A theory of international relations that focuses on the tendency of nations to operate from self-interest. Idealism A theory
Community Services Block Grant (CSBG) National Association for State Community Services Programs (NASCSP) Orientation March 3, 2014 1 The era in which Community Action was created. 1964 The Early Years
WORLD WAR LOOMS America Moves Towards War Americans Cling to Isolationism Public outraged at profits of banks, arms dealers during WWI Americans become isolationists; FDR backs away from foreign policy
White House Situation Room: Cuban Missile Crisis Background Guide Moody Middle School Model UN VI Naveen Logachandar: Co-Chair Ashish Vaidyanathan: Co-Chair Abhishek Kulkarni: Crisis Director Jalen Wang:
The Cold War Begins Chapter 16 &18 (old) Focus Question: How did U.S. leaders respond to the threat of Soviet expansion in Europe? 1 Post WW II Europe Divided 2 Section 1 Notes: Stalin does not allow free
Kennedy and Vietnam: The September 1963 Interviews Topic: Vietnam Grade Level: 9-12 Subject Area: US History after World War II Time Required: 1 class period Goals/Rationale During the spring and summer
Describe the picture. Who is responsible for the creation of the Iron Curtain? Which superpower s perspective is this cartoon from? Write and respond to the following questions in complete sentences. What
Mr. President, You ve been briefed about the presence of Soviet medium-range missiles in Cuba. Here are the options available to you: 1. Do nothing; ignore the missiles in Cuba 2. Open direct negotiations
Canada in the Cold War Social Studies 11 Exam Review: Pacific School of Innovation and Inquiry What was the Cold War? It began as soon as World War Two Ended and lasted until the early 1990s. (Almost 50
Kennedy s Cabinet Table of Contents Letter from Chair p. 3 Background to the Committee Position Paper Format for JCC p. 3-5 The US National Security Council p. 5-6 Background p. 6-7 Topic 1: Berlin (East
CREDITS WWI WWII The 20 s $200 $200 $200 The Cold War $200 Principles of the Constitution $200 The American Revolution $200 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $600 $600 $600 $600 $600 $600 $800 $800 $800 $800
Chapter 27: Cold War America 1945-1960 Chapter 27 Learning Objecties 1. What were the origins of the Cold War? Explain its broad ideological, economic, political, & military components. 2. Analyze & discuss
Name: Reading Questions 9Y Gulf of Tonkin 1. According to this document, what did the North Vietnamese do? 2. Why did the United States feel compelled to respond at this point? 3. According to this document,
UNITED STATES HISTORY Unit 9 THE COLD WAR AND AMERICA S POSTWAR BOOM: 1945-1963 ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR Following the conclusion of WWII, there was great hope for a new and lasting world peace. The U.S.
SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. Overview: The Cold War was a struggle between the western democratic nations (mainly the United
May 19, 2009 President Obama and National Security Democracy Corps The Survey Democracy Corps survey of 1,000 2008 voters 840 landline, 160 cell phone weighted Conducted May 10-12, 2009 Data shown reflects
American Anthem Modern American History Chapter 8 Columbus statute in Rhode Island The First World War 1914-1920 Copyright 2010, Mr. Ellington Ruben S. Ayala High School Chapter 8: The First World War,
Chapter 25 Section 1 Chapter Review Chapter Summary Section 1: Origins of the Vietnam War American involvement in Vietnam began with President Truman s support of the French colonial governments in Southeast