World History since Wayne E. Sirmon HI 104 World History

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1 World History since 1500 Wayne E. Sirmon HI 104 World History

2 History 104 World History since 1500 March Article Three approval March 22 Hinson Lecture Ram Hall March 24 Online Quiz Chapter 23 March 28 Article Review Three Due April 1 Online Quiz Chapter 24 April 4 Exam Three (Chapters 22-24)

3 Student Success Center Rosemary Adams Hall All students are encouraged to use the resources of the UM Student Success Center. In keeping with our HI-104 extra credit policy, 10 points will be credited to each student who attends one of these workshops. Time Management & Study Skills Tue March 20 2:00-3:00 Wed March 21 2:30-3:30 Thu March 22 10:00-11:00 Mon March 26 2:30-3:30 Tue April 10 2:00-3:00 Wed April 11 2:30-3:30 Thu April 12 10:00-11:00 Mon April 16 2:30-3:30

4 Your Name Charles C. Bolton, Ph.D. Associate Dean, College of Arts and Sciences Professor, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

5 The Coming of World War Triple Alliance Austria-Hungary Germany Italy (switches from neutral to Allies April 1915) Triple Entente France Russia Britain

6 Balkan Wars : Prelude to WWI

7 The spark that set the war off was the assassination of the heir to the Austrian Empire (Archduke Franz Ferdinand) by a Serbian national. Austria declared war on Serbia as a result. Serbia was an ally of Russia. When Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary, the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente kicked in, bringing the entire continent to war.

8 1914 June 28 July 28 Aug 1 Aug 3 Aug 4 Aug 6 Aug 11 Aug 12 Aug 23 Aug 25 Aug 28 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Russia mobilizes The Netherlands declare neutrality Germany declares war on Russia Italy declares neutrality Denmark declares neutrality Germany and Ottoman Empire sign secret alliance treaty Germany declares war on France Switzerland declares neutrality Germany invades Belgium UK declares war on Germany USA declares neutrality Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia Serbia declares war on Germany France declares war on Austria-Hungary UK declares war on Austria-Hungary Japan declares war on Germany Japan declares war on Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium

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10 Strong and true, our brave young Stand until our enemies are defeated

11 The Generals Assumptions War Is Inevitable We Can Win The War Will Be Short Victory Will Go to the Attacker Losses Will Be Heavy

12

13 Schlieffen Plan Assumptions The Belgian rail network will be captured largely intact. The Russians will be unable to attack until their mobilization is complete. The right wing will be able to sustain a high speed of advance. The French will be unable to switch forces from Alsace- Lorraine to counter the right wing.

14 History 104 World History since 1500 Chapter 23 20th Century Crisis: War and Revolution The War of Plans, 1914 The Schlieffen Plan Only German war plan Based on win-hold-win strategy Aimed to destroy French Army in 6 weeks Alfred Graf von Schlieffen Violating Belgian neutrality, ensured British intervention Demanded heroic marching performance from the right-wing armies Severely strained C3 (Command, Control, Communication), logistics

15 Sept. 5-12, 1914 Halts Germans Saves Paris

16 Why Stalemate in 1914? Exhaustion of armies Exhaustion of ammunition Density of forces Lethality of Weapons Limited heavy artillery No assailable flanks All war plans failed History 104 World History since 1500

17

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19 A Bit of Perspective French battle deaths (KIA/DOW) from the FIRST SIX MONTHS of WWI: 454,000 TOTAL American battle deaths in the 20 th Century: 427,513 Span American War 385 Phil Insurrection 1,004 WWI 53,404 WWII 291,557 Korea 33,651 Vietnam 47,364 Desert Storm 148 Source: Millet & Maslowski, For the Common Defense

20 THE INDIRECT APPROACH WHY GO THRU THE TRENCHES AT ALL? OTHER MEANS DIFFERENT FRONTS GALLIPOLI SALONIKA, Greece ITALY? ECONOMIC WARFARE BLOCKADE U-BOAT OFFENSIVE

21 Europe: Eastern Front Western Front Italian Front Balkan Front Mesopotamian and Palestine Fronts

22 25 APR JAN 1916 Knock the Ottomans out of the war Open supply route to Russia Start a new front that was not stalemated in the trenchs Each side ~57,000 KIA ~130,000 Wounded/POW-MIA RESULT: None of the above

23 Eastern Front Russia mobilizes faster than expected. Battle of Tannenberg, Aug , 1914 Decisive German victory. Russia: 78,000 casualties 92,000 POW (74% of army) Germans speak of avenging Tannenberg defeat of Teutonic Knights in 1410 Germans focus on this front in 1915 as a war of manuver

24 TOTAL (INDUSTRIAL) WAR!

25 Technological Innovations Mobile Fire Power Air Power Chemical Weapons Flamethrowers

26 Technology New Poison gas Flame thrower Air warfare Tanks (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) Photographic intelligence Anti-aircraft guns Improved Machine Gun Artillery Grenades Trench warfare Railroad Motorized trucks

27 7 May Jan ,191 (of 1,962) passengers and crew lost their lives. 128 were Americans. SV William P. Frye was stopped by German cruiser off coast of Brazil. 1 st US ship to be sunk.

28 Chapter 22 Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia under Challenge

29 NEXT Chapter 23

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