2 Transformational Learning: Key to Providing Patient-Centered Care Mary Jo Kreitzer PhD, RN, FAAN
3 Objectives: Describe the differences between informational and transformational learning. Describe parallels between learner-centered education and patient-centered care. Identify innovative pedagogies that will prepare clinicians to more effectively deliver personalized whole-person care.
4 Achieving Transformation Requires: Change in our Health Care System AND The Educational System that produces the Care Providers
5 A Call for Bold Change Healthcare provides cannot give what they do not have. The shift required in the educational paradigm needs to be at least as bold and radical as the change being called for in the health care system. We can t continue with the same educational processes and expect changes in outcomes.
6 How we teach is as critical as what we teach.
7 Types of Learning Informational Transformational
8 Health Professions Education Over-loaded with Content Passive Not-Learner Centric
9 We are not going to produce more caring and compassionate clinicians by simply talking to them and telling them what to do.
10 Transformational or Transformative Learning Engages learners in a way that enables them to go beyond acquisition of factual knowledge along and to become changed by what they learn in some meaningful way.
11 Transformational Learning Involves questioning assumptions, beliefs and values. Considering multiple points of view. Verifying reasoning. (Mezirow, 1990)
12 Transformational Learning Involves a deep structural shift in the basic premises of thoughts, feelings and actions. A shift in consciousness that dramatically and irreversibly alters feelings and actions. (O Sullivan, 2003)
13 Transformational Learning Includes personal and professional growth. Moves students beyond acquisition of new knowledge and skills to a pace where they experience a shift in perspective that enables them to grow in their capacity to question, challenge, and create and demonstrate caring, compassion and empathy.
14 Conventional System Care Delivery System Education Role of the Patient/Student Role of the Provider/Teacher Key Intervention/Strategy Choose to not follow our advice Passive recipient of care Expert Telling them what to do Non-compliant Passive recipient of education Expert Lecturing/Telling them what to do Fail
15 Transformed System Care Delivery System Education Role of the Patient/Student Role of the Provider/Teacher Key Intervention/Strategy Active participant, empowered and engaged Guide, coach and facilitator Coaching, motivating and engaging Active participant, empowered and engaged Guide, coach and facilitator Coaching, motivating and engaging Outcome Healing Learning
16 What gets in the way of Patient- Centered Care? Care providers who are on auto-pilot, disengaged, burned out, distracted, oblivious and lacking in interpersonal skills.
17 What s it going to take? Learner-centered, experiential curricula that incorporates reflective practice and mindfulness as key strategies.
18 Curricula Reflective Practice Mindfulness Presence Pedagogy that leads to transformative learning.
19 Reflective Practice Reflection-on-Action Reflection-in-Action
20 Reflective Framework What s going on here? Why is it so? How could it be different?
22 What skill is very important to our ability to engage in reflection?
23 Mindfulness The emphasis is on staying in the present moment, with a non-judging, non-striving attitude of acceptance.
24 Presence Fully conscious and aware. Deep listening. Relating in a way that reflects a quality of being with vs. doing for.
25 Presence Physical proximity, seeing, touching, hearing, hugging or holding. Psychological mind to mind, requires skills of attending, listening, empathy, non-judging and accepting. Therapeutic presence spirit to spirit, atone-ment, requires skills of centering, intentionality, intuitive knowing.
26 Innovative Pedagogies Narrative pedagogy within case conferences Storytelling New classroom rules of engagement Disorienting dilemmas Liberating structures
29 Moving the Patient into the Center of Health Education Robert Saper, MD MPH Boston University November 9, 2012
30 Disclosures Conflicts of Interest: None Passions 1. Respect for the dignity of patients, learners, and colleagues 2. Expand medicine s view of what may be helpful 3. Experiential learning
31 Integrative Medicine [Health] The practice of medicine [health care] that reaffirms the importance of the relationship between practitioner and patient, focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, healthcare professionals and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing. - Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine
32 Evidence-Based CAM Patient- Centered Integrative Health Relationship- Centered
33 Patient-Centered Care Strengths Problems SPIRITUALITY BODY SOCIAL MIND Robert Saper MD MPH
34 Diabetes Example Physician-Centered Goal: Glucose control Tools: medications, diet and exercise secondary Tasks: Glycohemoglobin Vaccines eye exam foot exam Urine protein ACE inhibitor if BP Patient-Centered Concerns: fatigue, fear of amputation, cooking for family Goals: avoid shots Barriers: cultural diet habits, health literacy Facilitators: daughter is medical assistant; prayer
35 Relationship-Centered Care Clergy Extended Family Work-out Buddies Acupuncturist Nutritionist Spouse Clinic Nurse Innate Healing Ability Social Worker Primary Care Physician PT/OT Yoga Teacher
36 Relationships Impact Clinical Outcomes Kaptchuk, T. J et al. BMJ 2008
37 Evidence-based CAM
38 Flexner Report 1910 Medical schools based in academia High admission standards Scientific based Abraham Flexner ( )
39 Medical Education Post-Flexner Report Premedical Medical Preclinical Years 1-2 Medical Clinical Years 3-4 Residency MCATs GPA Prereqs Boards Grades Evaluations
40 What educational structures and processes are needed to train health care professionals to become patient-centered, relationship-centered, evidence-based, and maintain high levels of scientific and technical competence?
41 Patient Contact in Years 1-2: Service Learning
42 Integrating 3 rd Year Clerkships Harvard Cambridge Health Alliance Longitudinal 3 rd year clerkship Foster close & continuous patient contact Performed > traditionally trained peers Greater satisfaction Stronger sense of patient-centeredness Ogur B et al Hirsch D et al. 2012
43 Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship In any learning situation other than a yearlong relationship, I would never have understood Ms. S s complexity, her essence, and what it takes to really manage well a complicated, chronically ill patient over time. Ogur et al. 2009
44 Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship The integrated clerkship has taught me to focus on the tasks for which I came to medical school: to serve the person with and beyond the disease. Ogur et al. 2009
45 Standard Medical History Chief Complaint History of Present Illness Past Medical & Surgical History Medications Allergies Family History Social History: occupation, marital status, cigarettes, alcohol, drugs
46 Patient-Centered Medical History Chief Complaint, goals and concerns History of Present Illness Past Medical & Surgical History Medications, CAM Allergies, sensitivities Family History and background Social History: occupation, marital status, cigarettes, alcohol, drugs, relationships, stress, diet, exercise, sleep, spirituality
47 Teaching Patient-Centered Language The patient is a 54 year old female who failed chemotherapy for Stage 4 breast CA. She now refuses any further therapy. Pain has been an issue due to poor compliance with her pain regimen. She complains of anxiety and depression, but denies suicidal ideation.
48 Teaching Patient-Centered Language The patient is a 54 year old female who failed chemotherapy for Stage 4 breast CA. She now refuses any further therapy. Pain has been an issue due to poor compliance with her pain regimen. She complains of anxiety and depression, but denies suicidal ideation. Ms. Smith unfortunately has metastatic breast cancer. She does not want any more chemotherapy. She is in a lot of pain. She is afraid of becoming addicted to pain medicine. She has a 12 year old daughter, and feels anxious and sad about what will happen to her after she dies.
49 Patient-Centered Education: Cultivating the Art of Healing Communication Empathy & Compassion Listening
50 Of course I m listening to your expression of spiritual suffering. Don t you see me making eye contact, striking an open posture, leaning towards you and nodding empathetically?
51 Well, gentleman who s playing God today?
52 Slide courtesy Suzanne Mitchell MD Teaching in a Virtual World Mitchell S et al
53 The Healer s Art Elective UCSF by Rachel Remen MD Supports students in recognizing, valuing, and preserving human dimension of health care Discovery Model Restoring Balance, Grief & Loss, Service Reflection exercises in small groups Generous nonjudgmental listening
54 Hippocratic Oaths Allow me to listen fully to each person. Give me the strength to see each patient as a person and not only their presenting complaints. Help me to focus on each visit no matter how busy the day. Remind me to lean on colleagues for support and be there for them as well.
55 Student Evaluations Patients are people with stories and experiences to tell, and our role as physicians is to listen and help heal. I need to nurture myself in order to nurture others.
56 Medical Student Burnout Survey 4,287 students, 7 schools 49.6% burnout 11.2% suicidal thoughts Heavy workload Massive amount of information Long hours Responsibility for life & death Trauma Financial debt Personal life events (Dyrbye et al, Ann Int Med 2008)
57 Self Care
58 Embodied Health This year was a really hard year for me Having a place to come every week, a community, where I felt connected was wonderful. By coming to not only learn about, but experience practices revolving around yoga and mind-body awareness, our abilities as providers to help our patients increases exponentially. Heather Mason, MA course developer
59 Final Comments Patient-centered education is essential for transforming health care Desired educational outcomes drive structure, process, & evaluation Embed new processes into existing structures Vertical integration
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