1 Activity: Making A Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Guiding question: How did Americans confront difficulty, danger, and loss of life as part of victory at the Battle of Midway? DEVELOPED BY LEIF LIBERG Grade Level(s): 6-8 Subject(s): Social Studies Cemetery Connection: Honolulu Memorial, located within the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific Fallen Hero Connection: Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr.
2 Overview Using materials from the American Battle Monuments Commission and primary and secondary source documents, students will determine how U.S. forces discovered Japanese intentions before the Battle of Midway, identify the risks taken by those who fought in the battle, and assess how the U.S. victory gave the Americans an advantage in the Pacific Theater. Throughout the lesson, students will consider the impact of these events on Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr., a naval aviator who fought in the battle. Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway 1 Historical Context The Battle of Midway is often described as the turning point of World War II in the Pacific. Here, American forces dealt a decisive blow to the Japanese Navy, sinking four of its aircraft carriers, downing over 200 aircraft, and inflicting more than 3,000 casualties. These Japanese losses could not easily be replaced, and allowed the U.S. to take the offensive in the Pacific. Knowing the story of how U.S. forces used radio intelligence, air power, and individual daring to achieve victory in this battle is crucial to understanding later events in the Pacific Theatre. Objectives At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to Describe the role of radio intelligence in helping American planners prepare for the Battle of Midway; Describe the perils faced by servicemen fighting at Midway; The Battle of Midway was fought and won by ordinary people. My hope is that by studying the battle and its impact on one of these people, students will understand World War II as a human endeavor with real consequences, not just something seen in movies or played in video games. Leif Liberg Liberg is a teacher at James Monroe Middle School in Ridgecrest, CA. Analyze the losses suffered by American and Japanese forces at the Battle of Midway; and Assess the consequences of the battle for Japanese forces, U.S. forces, and servicemen like Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr.
3 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway 2 Standards Connections Connections to Common Core CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions; CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally); CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts; Connections to C3 Framework D2.His Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts; D2.His Explain multiple causes and effects of events and developments in the past; Documents Used indicates an ABMC source Primary Sources Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, Battle of Midway Memorandum, 1942 (excerpt) Naval History and Heritage Command Message, Chester Nimitz to Task Force Commanders, Midway, June 6, 1942 (excerpt) American Naval Records Society Office of Chief Of Naval Operations, File of Memoranda and Reports Relating to the Battle of Midway, 1946 (excerpt) National Museum of the Pacific War rec/1
4 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway 3 Photograph, A Japanese Type 97 shipboard attack aircraft is shot down while attempting to deliver a torpedo attack on USS Yorktown (CV-5), June 4, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (80-G-17051) midway/80-g html Photograph, Aviation Cadet George A. Hopper, Jr., 1941 National Naval Aviation Museum Photograph,...FM-2 Wildcat fighter on combat air patrol, October 20, 1944 Naval History and Heritage Command (80-G ) Photograph, Japanese aircraft carrier Hiryu burning, shortly after sunrise on 5 June 1942, a few hours before she sank..., June 5, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (NH 73064) midway/nh html Photograph, Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma, photographed from a USS Enterprise (CV-6) SBD aircraft during the afternoon of 6 June 1942, after she had been bombed by planes from Enterprise and USS Hornet (CV-8), June 6, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (80-G ) midway/80-g html Photograph, Scene on board USS Yorktown (CV-5), shortly after she was hit by three Japanese bombs..., June 4, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (80-G ) midway/80-g html Photograph, Two Type 97 shipboard attack aircraft from the Japanese carrier Hiryu fly past USS Yorktown (CV-5), amid heavy anti-aircraft fire, after dropping their torpedoes during the midafternoon attack, June 4, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (80-G-32242) midway/80-g html
5 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway 4 Secondary Sources Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr. Fallen Hero Profile American Battle Monuments Commission Map, The Pacific Areas, August 1, 1942 National Park Service World War II: A Visual History Interactive Timeline American Battle Monuments Commission Materials Documents Packet Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer Grading Rubric: Note to the Family of a Fallen Hero World War II Vocabulary Cheat Sheet Excerpt: Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr. Fallen Hero Profile Picture of Ensign Hopper Computer with projector and speakers Rulers Colored Pencils Lesson Preparation Make one copy of Documents Packet and World War II Vocabulary Cheat Sheet for each group of students. Make one copy of the Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer and Grading Rubric: Note to the Family of a Fallen Hero for each student. Make one copy of the Excerpt: Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr. Fallen Hero Profile for the teacher s use. Make one copy of the picture of Ensign Hopper for the teacher s use. Divide the class into partners or groups of three. Set up classroom technology. Gather enough rulers and colored pencils for each student in the class.
6 Procedure Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway 5 Activity One: Setting the Stage (15 minutes) Project World War II: A Visual History Interactive Timeline. Click enter, then click 1942 on the bottom of the page. Then click Central Pacific Campaign on the left side of the screen. Read the first page of text aloud. Teacher Tip: Do not go beyond the first page of the written portion because it will give away information that students should discover later in the lesson. Ask students: Since Pearl Harbor, who seemed to be having more success in the Pacific Theater, the Japanese or the Americans? What did you read in the interactive that led you to your conclusion? Based on what you read, what was the goal of the Japanese military in 1942? Inform students that today they will be learning about the Battle of Midway. As they learn about the battle, they will think about how some of the most important aspects of the battle affected one of the men who fought there, Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr. Project the picture of Ensign Hopper and read the Excerpt: Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr. Fallen Hero profile aloud. Ask students, Why do you think Ensign Hopper joined the U.S. Navy? What risks was Ensign Hopper taking by becoming a Navy fighter pilot during World War II? Activity Two: Document Analysis (60 minutes) Move students into groups of two or three students each. Distribute materials to each group: One Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer for each student; One Documents Packet for each group; One World War II Vocabulary Cheat Sheet for each group; and Colored pencils and rulers for each group. Assign students to complete the Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer by using the documents located in the Documents Packet. Describe the documents in Document Group A in the first row of the Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer. Divide the questions from the second row of the Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer among group members and answer them independently. Take turns discussing and explaining answers with partner(s). All group members should record an answer for each question before moving on to the next row.
7 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway 6 Discuss the impact of what they just learned on Ensign Hopper and the other servicemen who were involved in the battle by collaborating to answer the question in the third row. Repeat the process described above until all three Document Groups have been analyzed. Activity Three: Drawing Conclusions (15 minutes) Complete the following tasks as a class: Discuss the meaning of the sacrifice made by Ensign Hopper and the other servicemen killed at Midway by relating their deaths to the aftermath of the battle. Ask students: Think about all of the Americans whose contributions to the Battle of Midway we learned about in these documents: the codebreakers who intercepted Japanese radio communications, the pilots who flew combat missions, and the sailors on the ships at sea. How did their actions help the U.S. win the battle? In his message to the U.S. troops involved in the battle, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz said, If you follow up your success vigorously [the Japanese] will be so crushed that [their] defeat will be inevitable. Although the U.S. had won the battle, the map in Document Group A shows that Japan still controlled many parts of the Pacific. Brainstorm what the U.S. military would need to do to build on their victory at Midway, defeat the Japanese, and end the war. Record student responses on the board. Assessment Assign the final activity of the Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer (paragraph-length note to Ensign Hopper s family). The Grading Rubric: Note to the Family of a Fallen Hero may be used to assess this assignment. Methods for Extension Students with more interest in the Battle of Midway and World War II in the Pacific may want to visit the National Museum of the Pacific War in Fredricksburg, Texas, or read books such as Miracle at Midway, or A Dawn Like Thunder. Students with more interest in naval aviation may want to visit the National Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida, or read books such as The First Team, or A Dawn Like Thunder. Students with more interest in cryptology and signals intelligence may want to read books such as Joe Rochefort s War. Teachers can enhance students interest in women in World War II by exploring these related lesson plans on ABMCEducation.org:
8 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway 7 The Calculus of War: Tactics, Technology, and the Battle of the Atlantic I ll Huff and Puff and Blow Your Ships Up : The Impact of the German Wolf Pack During the Battle of the Atlantic The Math of War: The Numbers Behind Minesweeping the Mediterranean Adaptations Teachers can group students in several ways. One option is to have similar ability partners or groups work their way through all of the documents. Another option is to create three larger heterogeneous groups that will deal with one document each, each group reporting back on their document to the other groups. Students can also switch partners or groups after each document analysis is complete by using an appointment clock to facilitate multiple partner pairs or groups.
9 World War II Vocabulary Cheat Sheet Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Handouts Aircraft Carrier: a ship with a flat deck that planes can take off from and land on. Widely considered to be one of the most important types of ships used during World War II. Atoll: a ring of land that partially encircles a lagoon. Commander-in-Chief, United States Fleet: refers to Admiral Ernest King, the admiral in charge of the entire U.S. Navy, worldwide. Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Fleet: refers to Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, the admiral in charge of U.S. Navy commands in the Pacific Fleet. Cryptologist: analysts who try to break codes. Dive Bombers: planes that dropped bombs directly onto ships to damage and/or sink them. OP-20-G: U.S. Navy radio intelligence unit responsible for decoding and translating Japanese radio communications. Ship Acronyms: abbreviations used by the U.S. Navy to refer to different types of ships. CV: aircraft carrier BB: battleship CA: heavy cruiser CL: light cruiser DD: destroyer AP: transport ship AK: cargo ship Signals Intelligence: the gathering of information using intercepted communications (e.g. radio messages). Squadron: a group of pilots who conduct military operations together under the direction of their commander. Torpedo Bombers: planes that dropped torpedoes to damage and/or sink ships. VF: Abbreviation used by the U.S. Navy for a unit made up of fighter planes, whose job it was to shoot down enemy aircraft and defend American ships and planes.
10 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Handouts Excerpt: Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr. Fallen Hero Profile George A. Hopper, Jr. was born on January 30, 1919, in Torrance, California. His parents, George A. Hopper, Sr. and Ruth Davis Hopper, owned a cafe in Banning, California. Hopper grew up in Banning, along with his younger sister, Kathryn, in the family home at 217 North 4 th Street. Hopper attended grammar school and high school in Banning. He was an average student, and competed on his school s basketball team. He also learned to love golf. He spent his summers cooking in his parents cafe. Following his 1936 graduation from Banning High School, Hopper borrowed some money from his parents and enrolled at San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College (SBVUJC). He continued to be an average student, but stood out in sports. He was named captain of the SBVUJC gymnastics team. Hopper usually stayed out of trouble, but was arrested once and fined for disturbing the peace after getting into an argument over gambling with some locals in Crestline, California. Despite this, Hopper s friends and family considered him a model citizen. The local undersheriff of Banning even wrote him a letter of recommendation when he decided to join the U.S. Navy. Every summer between 1936 and 1939 Hopper took part in the Citizens Military Training Camp in Monterey, California. There he gained military training without actually joining the service. In his spare time he learned how to fly and earned a civilian pilot s license. These experiences may have played a role in Hopper s decision to become a military pilot. Hopper enlisted in the U.S. Navy on March 27, 1941, almost nine months before the U.S. entered World War II. Hopper was transferred to Pensacola, Florida, where he became an Aviation Cadet and began flight training. By October, he had earned his wings as a naval aviator and was commissioned as an ensign. When Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941, Hopper was training with the Advanced Carrier Training Group, Pacific Fleet. With the U.S. now at war, Hopper quickly finished his training, and prepared to leave for his next assignment as a fighter pilot with the U.S. Navy s Pacific Fleet.
11 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Handouts Document Group A Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer Describe the Document What kind of documents are in this group? How do these documents present information about the Battle of Midway? Analyze the Document Directions: Complete the following Agree / Disagree statements based on the information in the documents. Provide evidence from the documents to support your answer. 1) American and Japanese forces both worked to intercept and interpret each other s radio messages. a. Agree / Disagree (circle one) b. Evidence: 2) U.S. military planners had no clear proof that that the Japanese were going to attack Midway. a. Agree / Disagree (circle one) b. Evidence: Making Connections Consider how events at each stage of the battle would have affected Ensign Hopper by answering the question on the right. 3) How would the information gathered by U.S. codebreakers have made a difference in Ensign Hopper s preparation level for battle?
12 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Handouts Document Group B Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer Describe the Document What kind of documents are in this group? How do these documents present information about the Battle of Midway? Analyze the Document Directions: Answer each of the following questions using complete sentences. 4) Look closely at the photographs in Document Group B. What were three dangers that were faced by servicemen on both sides as they fought the battle? 5) How would each Japanese airplane shot down and ship damaged or sunk by the Americans have affected Japanese plans to invade Midway and destroy the American fleet? Making Connections Consider how events at each stage of the battle would have affected Ensign Hopper by answering the question on the right. 6) How did Ensign Hopper try to make a difference in how the Battle of Midway turned out?
13 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Handouts Document Group C Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer Describe the Document What kind of documents are in this group? How do these documents present information about the Battle of Midway? Analyze the Document Using the information available in the document, create a bar graph comparing U.S. and Japanese losses at the time of the battle. One set of bars should be for ships, a second set should be for airplanes, and the the third should be for personnel. Battle of Midway Casualties Japanese Ships U.S. Ships Japanese Planes U.S. Planes Japanese Personnel U.S. Personnel Making Connections Consider how events at each stage of the battle would have affected Ensign Hopper by answering the question on the right. 8) Many servicemen were wounded or killed at the Battle of Midway. Which side would you say won the battle? Was the sacrifice of servicemen like Ensign Hopper worthwhile? Use evidence from the documents to support your answer.
14 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Handouts Document Group C cont. Battle of Midway: Graphic Organizer 9) Think about all of the Americans whose contributions to the Battle of Midway are described in these documents: the codebreakers who intercepted Japanese radio communications, the pilots who flew combat missions, and the sailors on the ships at sea. How did their actions help the U.S. win the battle? 10) In his message to the U.S. troops involved in the battle, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz said, If you follow up your success vigorously [the Japanese] will be so crushed that [their] defeat will be inevitable. Although the U.S. had won the battle, the map in Document Group A shows that Japan still controlled many parts of the Pacific. Brainstorm what the U.S. military would need to do to build on their victory at Midway, defeat the Japanese, and end the war. Final Assessment: A Letter to the Family of a Fallen Hero Directions: You are the commanding officer of Fighting Squadron THREE after the Battle of Midway. You must write a one-paragraph note home to the family of one of the squadron s pilots who was killed in the battle, Ensign George A. Hopper, Jr. Explain to Ensign Hopper s family what happened at the Battle of Midway, why it was an important victory for the Americans, and how their loved one helped make that victory possible.
15 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Rubric Note To The Family Of A Fallen Hero Grading Rubric Advanced Proficient Basic Emerging Content Writing clearly addresses the prompt. Provides at least three pieces of evidence from documents to support ideas. Evidence is drawn from all three documents. Writing addresses the prompt. Provides at least two pieces of evidence from documents to support ideas. Evidence is drawn from two to three documents. Writing addresses the prompt. Provides at least one piece of evidence from documents to support ideas. Evidence is drawn from one to two documents. Writing does not adequately address the prompt. Provides no clear evidence to support ideas. Evidence is not drawn from the documents. Organization Note begins with an appropriate salutation. Paragraph length note includes a clear introduction sentence, well-organized body sentences, and a conclusion sentence. Note ends with a complimentary close. Note begins with a salutation. Paragraph length note includes an introduction sentence, body sentences, and a conclusion sentence. Note ends with a complimentary close. Note begins with a salutation. Paragraph length note is missing one of the following: an introductory sentence, body sentences, and a conclusion sentence. Note ends with a complimentary close. Note lacks a salutation. Note is not paragraph length. No clear introduction sentence, body sentences, and/ or conclusion sentence. Note lacks a complimentary close. Conventions Clear control of grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation. Adequate control of grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation. Limited control of grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation. Minimal control of grammar, mechanics, spelling, usage, and sentence formation.
16 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group A Note: In early 1942, the Japanese began planning an offensive that would destroy the remainder of the U.S. Navy s Pacific Fleet, threaten Hawaii, and stop the U.S. from interfering in Japan s conquests. Part of this involved attacking a U.S. Navy outpost that they codenamed AF. Japanese commanders began sending orders by radio to the units that would be involved in the operation. Map, The Pacific Areas, August 1, 1942 National Park Service Japan & Japanese Conquests Midway Atoll Hawaiian Islands (Pearl Harbor) United States This map shows the locations of Japan and many of the areas that it had taken over in relation to Midway Atoll, Hawaii, and the United States. Although these locations are separated by thousands of miles of ocean, each played an important role as a place to build bases from which to attack the enemy.
17 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group A Office of Chief Of Naval Operations, File of Memoranda and Reports Relating to the Battle of Midway, 1946 (excerpt) National Museum of the Pacific War May 19, 1942 Midway Atoll Radio Communication (Not Coded) to U.S. Navy Headquarters, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii...at present time we have only enough water for two weeks. Please supply us immediately. May 21, 1942 Japanese Radio Communication (Coded) from Tokyo, Japan. Tokyo Naval Intelligence sent the following message which they had previously intercepted from us: The AF Air Unit sent following radio message to Commandant 14 th Naval District:...with reference to this Units [sic] report dated 19 th at the present time we have only enough water for two weeks. Please supply us immediately. May 22, 1942 U.S. Navy Report on Japanese Naval Activity The identity of the Area Designator AF was confirmed as Midway. This report shows some of the information that U.S. Navy cryptologists and signals intelligence personnel used to determine the location where the Japanese would strike. What Was Ensign Hopper Doing? While the plans for the Battle of Midway were being made, Ensign Hopper was busy searching for the Japanese fleet in the South Pacific and flying combat missions against their ships and bases. Unfortunately, at the Battle of the Coral Sea, Ensign Hopper s ship was sunk by Japanese forces, and he and surviving fellow pilots were reassigned to other units.
18 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group B Note: The Battle of Midway was largely fought from the air. Pilots on both sides tracked down each other s fleets, and attacked using bombs, torpedoes, and machine guns. Sailors onboard those ships fought back by trying to shoot the airborne planes, meanwhile trying to stop flooding and fires from sinking damaged ships. Photograph, Two Type 97 shipboard attack aircraft from the Japanese carrier Hiryu fly past USS Yorktown (CV-5), amid heavy anti-aircraft fire, after dropping their torpedoes during the mid-afternoon attack..., June 4, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (80-G-32242) Japanese aircraft attack U.S. Navy ship USS Yorktown on the first day of the battle.
19 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group B Photograph, Japanese aircraft carrier Hiryu burning, shortly after sunrise on 5 June 1942, a few hours before she sank..., June 5, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (NH 73064) The Japanese ship Hiryu burning after being bombed by U.S. Navy aircraft.
20 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group B Photograph, Japanese heavy cruiser Mikuma, photographed from a USS Enterprise (CV-6) SBD aircraft during the afternoon of 6 June 1942, after she had been bombed by planes from Enterprise and USS Hornet (CV-8), June 6, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (80-G ) Japanese ship Mikuma burning after being bombed by U.S. Navy planes.
21 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group B Photograph, Scene on board USS Yorktown (CV-5), shortly after she was hit by three Japanese bombs..., June 4, 1942 United Service Organizations (80-G ) Crewmen of the U.S. Navy ship USS Yorktown scramble to put out fires after being hit by a Japanese torpedo.
22 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group B Photograph, A Japanese Type 97 shipboard attack aircraft is shot down while attempting to deliver a torpedo attack on USS Yorktown (CV-5), June 4, 1942 Naval History and Heritage Command (80-G-32242) Plane crashing into the ocean after being hit by enemy fire. What Was Ensign Hopper Doing? Ensign Hopper s fighter squadron, VF-3, was assigned the job of protecting U.S. Navy ships, and planes such as torpedo and dive bombers, from Japanese attacks. When Japanese planes assaulted the U.S. fleet on the afternoon of June 4, 1942, Ensign Hopper took off from the deck of the USS Yorktown to fend them off. His plane was hit by enemy fire and crashed into the ocean. Since he was not immediately rescued, the Navy listed him as Missing in Action.
23 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group C Note: After a battle, it was common for commanders to write after action reports that summarized the losses of both sides. After a great victory, commanders often sent their troops a message congratulating them on their effort. Office of Chief Of Naval Operations, File of Memoranda and Reports Relating to the Battle of Midway, 1946 (excerpt) National Museum of the Pacific War This report from the headquarters of the U.S. Navy s Pacific Fleet to the headquarters of the U.S. Navy s top admiral compared the estimated losses of the Japanese with those of the Americans. *Some of the estimates in this report later proved inaccurate. In reality, U.S. forces did not damage any Japanese battleships (BB), and total Japanese losses were closer to 3,000 personnel.
24 Activity: Making a Difference: Service & Sacrifice At The Battle Of Midway Document Group C Message, Chester Nimitz to Task Force Commanders, Midway, June 6, 1942 (excerpt) American Naval Records Society This note of congratulations and encouragement was one of many messages sent by the head of the U.S. Navy s Pacific Fleet, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, to the units that participated in the Battle of Midway. What Was Ensign Hopper Doing? When the battle was over, the Navy searched for survivors who had been in the water since their planes crashed or ships sank. Ensign Hopper was never recovered. The U.S. Navy later declared him Killed in Action.
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This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Apple Safari 4) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Article Date Which Will Live in
Objectives Explain why Japan decided to attack Pearl Harbor, and describe the attack itself. Outline how the United States mobilized for war after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Summarize the course of the
* Roger. (in the Atlantic). There were the existing escort carriers and the new ones, under construction or being converted from merchant hulls. Nine light cruiser hulls were also being converted to light
Robert William John Cocks (Jack) Born: Initiated: April 29, 1921 in Morenci, AZ January 25, 1944 in Coronado Lodge #8, Morenci, AZ, a Lieutenant in the U.S. Navy Passed: February 14, 1944 Raised: February
Carl Edward Creamer United States Navy Retired 3 Sep. 1940-01 Jul. 1960 Carl Edward Creamer Born 26 January, 1921. Parents, Lola and Forrest Creamer. Portis, Kansas (Forrest Creamer, US Army, EX-POW Germany
John Smith s Life: War In Pacific WW2 Timeline U.S. Marines continued its At 2 A.M. the guns of advancement towards the battleship signaled the south and north part of the commencement of D-Day. island.
MacArthur Memorial Education Programs World War II Island Hopping Primary Resources Following the Japanese attacks of December 7, 1941, the Japanese military made substantial gains in the Pacific. Their
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Chapter 6 Canada at War After the end of World War I, the countries that had been at war created a treaty of peace called the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles Germany had to take full responsibility
WWII President Roosevelt Addresses Congress On December 8, 1941, President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. Yesterday, 7 December 1941--a date which will live in infamy--the United States
On the Battlefields By 1945: 4 th largest in the world. Coastal Patrol in the early days (many PEI soldiers) Germany s Plan: use U-Boats to cut off supply lines between North America and Europe. Canada
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World War II Invasion and Conquests Pacific Douglas Macarthur General in charge of the Pacific Theater. Accepted Japan s surrender on September 2, 1945. Macarthur oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945
T By John M. Lindley he U.S. Navy airship program, practically non-existent after the crash of USS Macon (ZRS-5) in 1935, was drastically changed by the outbreak of war in 1941. When the U.S. went to war,
Tora! Tora! Tora! The Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 1941 November 1941. War clouds are gathering in the Pacific. Tensions have been increasing between Japan and the US since Japan s invasion of China
Activity: Pearl Harbor: A Defining Moment in U.S. History Guiding question: What makes Pearl Harbor a defining moment in American history? DEVELOPED BY KATIE HOERNER Grade Level(s): 6-8, 9-12 Subject(s):
Guided Reading Activity 21-1 DIRECTIONS: Recording Who, What, When, Where, Why and How Read the section and answer the questions below Refer to your textbook to write the answers 1 What did Winston Churchill
The Battle of Midway is widely regarded as the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. Between 4 and 7 June 1942, approximately one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea,
Ouachita Baptist University Scholarly Commons @ Ouachita History Class Publications Department of History 12-17-2014 Naval Tactics and the Introduction of the Aircraft Carrier Jackson Carter Ouachita Baptist
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World War II The Pacific Theater Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7 th, 1941 Pearl Harbor Why Pearl Harbor? Have there been similar attacks on the U.S.? Pearl Harbor Japanese Plan Knew they could not win
D-day 6 th June 1944 Australia s Contribution and that of our Feathered Friends By Paul Gibbs While we commemorate ANZAC Day each year on the 25 th April and remember those that served and paid the ultimate
Take out your rubbing from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall. Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall 1. What general observations can you make about your visit to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall? 2. What personal
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The following chart contains a list of rules changes between Axis & Allies Anniversary Edition and Axis & Allies Revised. The Larry Harris Tournament Rules (LHTR) are also referenced, both to allow comparison
The Central Intelligence Agency does not approve, endorse or authorize use of its name, initials or Seal. SECRET OPS OF THE CIA 2018 DAY PLANNER SALUTING THE MEN AND WOMEN OF THE CIA AND THE CAUSE THEY
Stark County Teaching American History Grant Stark County Educational Service Center 2100 38th Street NW Canton, Ohio 44709 The Decision to Drop The Bomb Grade Level: 9-10 (U.S. History) Created By: Ryan
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THE UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEYS (European War) (Pacific War) s )t ~'I EppfPgff R~~aRCH Reprinted by Air University Press Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama 36112-5532 October 1987 1 FOREWORD This
Naval War College Review Volume 66 Number 1 Winter Article 6 2013 Replacing Battleships with Aircraft Carriers in the Pacific in World War II Thomas C. Hone Follow this and additional works at: http://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/nwc-review
1 version: exerperimental Axis and Allies Revised: Historical Edition (AARHE) Introduction AARHE is intended to provide historical realism to the board game Axis and Allies Revised and is designed to work
Under this plan, volunteers would check in with the Army for a physical and a psychological test. If they passed, they d attend a civilian flight school close to home. Once a volunteer graduated, a military
Last Production A-6 Flies Into History -- Article from Grumman World on February 14, 1992 The last production A-6 Intruder -- the 205th A-6E -- was formally accepted by the U.S. Navy on January 31 in Calverton,
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