1 The Eagle s Webbed Feet The Eagle s Webbed Feet A Maritime History of the United States A Maritime History of the United States A Maritime History of the Uniteds
2 The Second World War Scratch one flattop! Damn it Captain, they re getting away!
3 Pearl Harbor China is the real bone of contention between the US and Japan May 1941, Roosevelt orders the fleet to remain in Pearl Harbor July 1941 Oil imports to Japan halted Japanese decision to go southeast for resources The Soviet-Japanese Border Wars ( ) o Battles of Khalkhin Gol (Nomonhan) (May-Sept 1939) o Neutrality Pact (April 1941) The Philippines is the real target of the Pearl Harbor attack Mahan s influence on the IJN.
4 If you attack us, we will break your empire; before we are through with you. we will crush you. Admiral Stark (CNO) to Ambassador Nomura (Nov 1941) What were the Japanese thinking? (Compromise Peace)
5 Pearl Harbor (2) Destroyed or severely damaged 8 battleships, 10 cruisers/destroyers, 230 aircraft, & killed 2400 men. Cost was 29 planes, 5 midget subs. A short war meant they could ignore fuel depots, repair facilities and the submarine base. Their air superiority meant they could ignore the US carriers War declared on Japan the next day On December 11 th Germany declared war on the US (???) One of the two stupidest decisions of World War Two
6 USS Arizona USS Shaw
7 War in the Atlantic The US Navy s role in the Atlantic War was: The U-Boat War (Priority #1) Safely convoying troops, equipment, and supplies Destroy the U-Boat fleet Conduct amphibious operations of Army forces Because of Pearl Harbor, the Navy reluctantly supported the Germany First policy envisioned in Rainbow Five but it did not really believe in it. Resource contest between the Atlantic & Pacific Who won?
8 The U-Boat War Jan 42 to Aug 42 2d Glückliche Zeit US enters the war Operation Drumroll Shark introduced 500 ktons / month (GOAL!!) By Sept. driven back into the air gap
9 The Air Gap
10 The U-Boat War(2) Aug 42 to Apr 43 Slugging it out Continue at 500 ktons / month U-boat losses continue to be low (3 / month) Donitz gets more boats (200+) Allies make defeating the U-boat the primary war aim. (Casablanca) Late spring / early summer 1943 The battle ends in complete U-boat defeat Why??? ALLIED TECHNOLOGY ALLIED TACTICS B-DEINST GOES BLIND
12 Allied ships and U-Boat Losses Hull Losses Year Allied Ships (X10) U-Boats
13 The U-Boat War(3) Last 4 months of 1943: 9 ships vs. 62 U-boats The campaign failed (never even close) 500 kton/month goal did not adequately consider shipbuilding or cargos verses hulls. Shipbuilding (5800 built vs lost) Technology Tactics & training However US/British seaman killed (23/ship) Germans lost 700 boats and sailors (43/boat) Highest loss rate of any service in the war (75%)
14 Amphibious Warfare in the Atlantic 6 major campaigns: North Africa (Torch) November 1942 Sicily (Husky) July 1943 Italy (Avalanche) September 1943 Anzio (Shingle) January 1944 Normandy (Neptune) June vessels (well over half were British) British planned assault US destroyers at Omaha Day 1 160,000 men landed (from 12 nations) By 30 June, 850K men, 160K vehicles, and 600K tons of supplies landed Southern France (Dragoon) August 1944 Army troops only (Marines reserved for the Pacific) However, all six used Marine Corps Amphibious doctrine USS Frankford Invading the French Riviera
15 War in the Pacific Naval assignments: Guerre de Course (Unrestricted submarine campaign against Japan) Fleet Actions (5 major sea battles + the Solomons campaign) Amphibious Operations (78 landings) Organization after Pearl Harbor A compromise MacArthur Southwest Pacific Nimitz Central Pacific Halsey South Pacific initially and then MacArthur s Naval Commander In Washington King as CNO and Leahy as Chief of Staff to the CINC
16 King Nimitz Leahy MacArthur Halsey
18 Japan Runs Wild As Yamamoto predicted in the next six months Japan: Conquered Thailand, Hong Kong, Guam, Wake Island, Burma, Dutch East Indies, Bali, Timor, Rabaul, Malay, Singapore, Java, Sumatra and the Philippines. Sank the Repulse and the Prince of Wales (10 December 41) Destroyed the ABDA naval forces at the Battle of Java Sea (March 42) Bombed Darwin and other Australian targets ( 100 attacks) Drove the Royal Navy out of the Western Indian Ocean Invaded the Solomon Islands & New Guinea By May 1942, Japan had become a victim of Victory Disease. She now ignored her own strategic plan. Allies start to push back.
19 Japan Runs Wild (Dec 41 March 42
20 Japan Run Wild
21 US Submarine Campaign Got off to a terrible start Torpedoes didn t work Major doctrine to strategy mismatch ART. 22 LONDON NAVAL CONF: A submarine may not sink or render incapable of navigation a merchant vessel without first having placed passengers, crew, and ships papers in a place of safety. This does not fit with: conduct unrestricted submarine warfare against the Japanese Empire.
22 1942 and 1943 Got rid of most CO s Developed complementary doctrine, strategy & tactics Introduced (American) wolf packs Fixed the torpedoes (finally) Slowly but steadily got better By late 1943, the force was ready. (Adm Lockwood)
23 1944 Japan was completely unprepared for this onslaught Manning policy Japanese submarine performance US submarine performance Racism Results: Airtight blockade Japan s merchant fleet destroyed 1/3 of their navy sunk Complete interruption of the Japanese ability to wage war.
24 Japanese Losses To Submarines Tonage losses (Ktons) 100 0
25 Japanese Economic Collapse INPORTS Iron (Ktons) Coal (Ktons) Oil (Mbls) Food supplies in 1945 were 32% of 1939 levels.
26 Fleet Actions Five major sea battles were fought with the IJN after Pearl Harbor. Coral Sea Midway Philippine Sea Leyte Gulf Okinawa The Solomon Islands Campaign: Eleven naval battles Eight amphibious landings Almost daily air battles. In aggregate, these battles transitioned from Japanese tactical superiority (especially in night fighting) to an overwhelming tactical and material advantage for the USN.
27 Fleet Actions (2) Coral Sea (1 st aircraft only battle in history) (May 42) Strategic US Victory (Halted the Port Moresby invasion) Loss of the Lexington for one small Japanese carrier (+ 2 damaged!) Aircraft losses: Japanese 92, US 65. Last battle where the US went after the IJN. Midway (June 42) Doolittle Raid (April 42) Code breaking 3 US carriers (2?) vs. 4 Japanese carriers (6?) Plan: destroy US carriers and any remaining major fleet units Losses: Japanese 4 carriers, 248 aircraft, 3000 men US 1 carrier, 150 aircraft, 307 men These two battles reduced Japan s ability to undertake further offensive actions and paved the way for the Solomon s campaign
29 The Solomon s Campaign Japanese airfield on Guadalcanal US Marines lands in August 1942 and initiated a major combined arms campaign (Operation Watchtower) Japan attempts to keep Guadalcanal supplied 11 Naval battles (3 carrier battles and 8 surface actions) Battle of the E. Solomons (lost 75 aircraft vs. 20 US plus one CVL) (Aug 42) Battle of Santa Cruz (lost 91 aircrew vs. 81 US + USS Hornet) (Oct 42) Naval Battle of Guadalcanal (Ended any hope of a Japanese victory) (Nov 42) Japan loses 2 Battleships, 1 Heavy cruiser, 3 Destroyers, 11 combat transports, 64 aircraft and 5000 soldiers drown
30 "This battle was a tactical win, but a shattering strategic loss for Japan. Considering the great superiority of our enemy's industrial capacity, we must win every battle overwhelmingly in order to win this war. This last one, although a victory, unfortunately, was not an overwhelming victory. Admiral Nugumo USS Enterprise takes a bomb hit during the Battle of Eastern Solomons. This will be the 2d of the three times she is sunk.
31 The Solomon s Campaign (2) Technically this campaign lasted until Nov 43 but fighting continued until the end of the war. Launched Operation Cartwheel (Offensive operations in the Pacific) Loses: Japanese- 80,000 men, 50+ ships sunk, 1500 aircraft US 10,600 men, 40 ships sunk, 800 aircraft Over ½ of the aviators who attacked Pearl Harbor were now dead This was attrition warfare; something the Japanese could not possibly win.
32 How the tide turned during the campaign Battle of Salvo Island (August 1942) Strength 5CA, 2 CL, 1 DD 6 CA, 2 CL, 15 DD Losses None 3 CA, 1 CA + 2 DD Heavy Damage Battle of Empress Augusta Bay (November 1943) Strength 2 CA, 2 CL, 6 DD 4 CL, 8 DD Losses 1 CL, 1 DD, 1 CL + 1 DD Heavy Damage None
34 Philippine Sea Great Mariana s Turkey Shoot (June 44) Last major carrier vs. carrier battle of the war Since the Solomon s, the IJN was reconstituting it s air groups and then planned to look again for a decisive battle. Completely failed to recognize the speed with which the USN had been able to build up it s forces both in quantity and quality of material and in training 15 (7 fleet) carriers vs. 9 (5 fleet) carriers, 956 aircraft vs. 750 (300 of them land-based) Plan A-Go (Destruction of the US fleet invading the Marianas Islands.) Loses: Japanese 3 fleet carriers sunk & 600+ aircraft lost US 123 aircraft lost Japanese naval air power was finished.
35 The Surprises at the Philippine Sea
36 Leyte Gulf Largest naval battle in history (23 26 October 1944) Purpose was to repulse the invasion of the Philippines Four separate engagements: Sibuyan Sea Surigao Strait Cape Engano Samar US 34 carriers (1500 planes), Japan 4 carriers (300 L/B planes) Loses: US 6 ships, 200 planes, 2800 men Japan 4 carriers, 3 battleships, 300 planes, 12,000 men. Japanese fleet finished as a fighting force First use of the kamikaze (Loss of the St. Lo)
37 3 Leyte Gulf Sibuyan Surigao Cape Engano Samar 4 2 Musashi sinks after being hit with 10 torpedoes and 16 bombs
38 Leyte Gulf (2) Battle of Samar Odds US 6 jeep carriers, 3 DD and 4 DE. IJN 4 BB, 6 CA, 2 CL, and 11 DD. The Damage US 2 carriers, 2 DD, 1 DE IJN 3 CA Sprague Kurita In no engagement of its entire history has the United States Navy shown more gallantry, guts and gumption than in those two morning hours between 0730 and 0930 off Samar Samuel Eliot Morison
39 Okinawa Naval battle lasted from 6 April to 30 April 1945 Attacks by regular land based aircraft did no damage and 1100 were lost 1900 kamikaze attacks sank 34 vessels and damaged sailors were killed Operation Ten-Go Suicide mission by the Yamato plus nine other cruisers & destroyers They were attacked over by 900 aircraft 4 destroyers survived Yamato blows up
40 KAMIKAZI Attacks
41 Fleet Actions (3) Why was the USN successful? Building capacity (see chart) 1M rounds of ammunition for every Axis man in uniform. Better training Carriers Japan** United States (+6/-6) (+3/-1) (+8/-13) (no fuel, pilots, or planes) Japanese simply could not replace loses in material or manpower fast enough 151 (29 Fleet) This is the likely outcome of taking on someone with an economy 8 ½ times bigger than your own! ** Important to keep in mind Japan s strategic advantage of only having to fight in one theater.
42 Midway at the critical moment Fast Carrier Battle Group Kamikaze about to hit USS Missouri Mogami Avenger Dauntless
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1. WWII IN EUROPE-------Allies vs Axis Powers Principles we fought for Big 3 and Military leaders Strategy: Get Hitler First Stalin s 2nd Front Unconditional surrender Turning point battles---1942 to 1945