Analysis of the Operational Effect of the Joint Chemical Agent Detector Using the Infantry Warrior Simulation (IWARS) MORS: June 2008

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1 Analysis of the Operational Effect of the Joint Chemical Agent Detector Using the Infantry Warrior Simulation (IWARS) MORS: David Gillis Approved for PUBLIC RELEASE; Distribution is UNLIMITED

2 Report Documentation Page Form Approved OMB No Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUN REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analysis of the Operational Effect of the Joint Chemical Agent Detector Using the Infantry Warrior Simulation (IWARS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) RDECOM 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR S ACRONYM(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR S REPORT NUMBER(S) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES See also ADM Military Operations Research Society Symposium (76th) Held in New London, Connecticut on June 10-12, 2008, The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18

3 Purpose Integrate chemical agent and defense capabilities into a combat simulation in order to derive quantitative Measures of Effectiveness Use to support CBD systems evaluations JCAD Inc. 1 as test case Comparitive analysis against current capabilities 3

4 IWARS Introduction Infantry WARrior Simulation (IWARS): A M&S tool for conducting Infantry Soldier Analyses, developed jointly by AMSAA and the Natick Soldier Center Focuses on dismounted individuals, small units, and their equipment for assessing operational effectiveness across the spectrum of missions, threats and environments Development heavily influenced by Army analysis needs (e.g., Land Warrior Program) IWARS combines: - Soldier equipment - Soldier behaviors - Algorithms and data IWARS Development: IWARS is: Version 1.0 approved May 2006 for: - Small Arms Analysis - Lethality/Survivability Analysis - Sensor Analysis - Limited Battle Command Analysis Continually integrating best available methodology/data - Constructive - Agent-based - Multi-sided - Focused on soldiers and small-units IWARS Supports a Range of Individual and Small-Unit Analyses 4

5 The Joint Chemical Agent Detector Lightweight and portable chemical agent detector About 2 lb and 45 in. 3 Unobtrusive Visual and audio alarms Uses Fixed or mobile platforms Survey instrument Incremental development (Incr. 1 shown) 5

6 Integration of Chemical Effects into IWARS Modification of IWARS Chemical agent vapor plume modeling Detector alert responses CBD system performance integration Soldier CB response behaviors/tactics Code alteration Toxological level modeling Data Collection External modeling plume using HPAC Scenario design w/ SMEs Verification and Validation Requirements data presented Production Runs Documentation V&V Plan and Report Event Design Plan Analysis Report 6

7 IWARS Chemical Agent Hazard Integration Use existing IWARS spherical smoke cloud methodology Edge of sphere used to trigger Soldier behaviors/effects inside chemical plume Time and range from center of cloud used to determine concentration ring Concentric rings each have a different concentration level, yet uniform within File created describing the p(detect) for different concentration levels (based on JCAD requirements) Detector alerts if random draw meets p(detect) value 1 meter radius rings Cloud parameters (expansion rate, wind speed, wind direction) are data driven 7

8 External Vapor Hazard Concentration Modeling 1. Agent Cloud modeled in HPAC offline No wind or terrain effects 2. Data collected Maximum concentration Distance from center to mg/m 3 (AEGL-1) 3. Gaussian distribution adjusted to match maximum concentration and distance to AEGL-1 level 4. Concentration per meter from the center of mass of the cloud exported to IWARS Concentration (mg/m3) HPAC output of agent cloud at 5 minutes Gaussian Concentration of Agent as a Function of Distance st Order Approximation Distance from Center (m) Concentration of agent vs distance at 5 minutes 8

9 Single-Sample (every 5 sec) Detection Probability Example data: P(d) cum =0.9, 30 sec response time at 0.1 mg/m 3 P(d) cum =0.9, 10 sec response time at 1.0 mg/m 3 Equation for single sample (every 5 sec) p(d) derived ( d ) =.0 S p p( d) cum Linear function generated from given data Probability of Detection Sample Calculations for 0.1 mg/m 3 Sample Interval = 5.0 sec p(d) cumulative = 0.9 Response Time = 30.0 sec Samples per time (s) = 30.0 / 5.0 = 6 p 6 ( d ) = = One-Sample Probability of Detection vs. Concentration Levels* for the Joint Chemical Agent Detector (JCAD) p(d) = 0.41(conc) Concentration (mg/m3) * Based upon requirements 9

10 V&V of Chemical Modifications Verification tests Chemical cloud Creation, expansion, movement with wind, dissipation Concentration band determination Alert device Operating modes (survey, monitor) and audible range Probability of detection and false alarm rate Soldier entity Accumulation and reaction to chemical agent dosages Use of protective gear to limit exposure time and level Degraded mobility, acquisition, delivery accuracy in protective gear Sensitivity runs Detector performance (50% decrease, 50% increase) False alarm rate (probabilities: 0.25, 0.50) Chemical agent susceptibility (50% decrease, 50% increase) Masked audible range (50% decrease, 100% increase) Sample study 5 cases combine chemical agent use, MOPP gear, JCAD Results assess mission completion rate, mission time, smallarms losses, exposure level, exposure time 10

11 Scenario Infantry Battalion assault on OBJ SOX A Company to secure OBJ BLUE 1st Platoon: Secure Route A, then building west of Route A in OBJ BLUE 2nd Platoon: Provide supporting fire to 1st Platoon. After 1st Platoon has secured Route A assault to secure buildings east of Route A in OBJ BLUE 3rd Platoon: Reserve (not shown) Threat OPFOR has not used chemical agents in past; capability limited to isolated recovered munitions OBJ SOX may contain an IED production site BLUEFOR starts in MOPP level 2, assumes MOPP level 4 upon alarm or onset of symptoms; auto-masking for artillery/mortars OPFOR previously emplaced an IED near Route A (mistakenly used old, unmarked 152mm chemical round) Environment Nominal Temperature Neutral Air Stability Wind: 1 m/s SE * Coordinated w/ US Army CBRN School, MANSCEN 11

12 Scenario: Production Runs Case # Short Description Description Primary 1 2 Baseline without JCAD Baseline with JCAD Squad will move to the top of the hill and wait (will engage OPFOR from the top of the hill). In response to a chemical agent alert, Soldiers assume MOPP 4 and withdraw to starting point. Same as case #1, except: JCAD mounted to carrier. Alternate Cases Assault, No JCAD Assault, JCAD on Squad Carrier Assault, JCAD carried by squad Squad will begin assault of OPFOR building after IED detonation. When chemical symptoms are recognized, Soldiers will assume MOPP 4 and continue the assault. There will be no JCAD. Same as case #3, except: JCAD mounted to squad carrier and operated continuously. Same as case #3. Squad leader will carry the JCAD during the assault. 12

13 Results: Average BLUEFOR CWA Dosage replications per case Dosage (mg-min/m3) No JCAD JCAD No JCAD JCAD on Carrier No Assault Study Cases Assault JCAD with SL No Assault: Significant* Reduction (78%) with JCAD Assault: Significant* Reduction (91%) only with JCAD on Squad leader * 95% Confidence 13

14 Results: Average Number BLUEFOR Experiencing at Least Initial Effects replications per case Number of Squad Members No JCAD JCAD No JCAD JCAD on Carrier No Assault Study Cases Assault 0.06 JCAD with SL No Assault: Average number of BLUEFOR experiencing initial effects significantly* reduced Assault: No significant* reduction in the number of BLUEFOR experiencing initial effects except* when the Squad Leader has the JCAD * 95% Confidence 14

15 Results: Average BLUEFOR CWA Exposure Time replications per case 1.5 Time (Minutes) No JCAD JCAD No JCAD JCAD on Carrier No Assault Assault JCAD with SL No Assault: Significant* Reduction (52%) with JCAD Assault: Significant* Reduction (61%) only with JCAD on Squad leader * 95% Confidence 15

16 Conclusions Successfully demonstrated ability to integrate chemical agent effects, soldier behaviors, chemical detector capabilities into IWARS combat simulation Better evaluation of CBD system operational effectiveness by allowing determination of quantitative MOEs Additional applications to operational planning, development of tactics, techniques, and procedures 16

17 Backup Slides 17

18 Initialism List AEGL Acute Exposure Guidance Level AMSAA US Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity BLUEFOR Blue (friendly) Force CBD Chemical and Biological Defense HPAC Hazard Predition and Assessment Capability IED Improvised Explosive Device IWARS Infantry Warrior Simulation JCAD Joint Chemical Agent Detector M&S Modeling and Simulation MOE(s) Measure(s) of Effectiveness MOPP Mission-Oriented Protective Posture OBJ BLUE BLUEFOR company objective OBJ SOX Assaulting force s target OPFOR Opposition (non-friendly) Force SME(s) Subject Matter Expert(s) V&V Verification and Validation 18

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