1 CONDITIONS: Given a complete copy of the operation order (OPORD) that your unit is to execute, a commander's or a battalion operations officer's (S3) guidance (to include time available for preparation), overlay paper, tape, a map of the operational area, colored pencils (red, black, blue, green, and yellow), a No. 2 pencil, a coordinate scale, and FM STANDARDS: Within the specified time, identified the overlay by map reference data, effective date, and purpose. The overlay contained classification markings and downgrading instructions, if applicable and distribution instructions and authentication, if distributed separately. Prepared overlay in accordance with overlay techniques outlined in FM 101?5?1, with boundaries and unit locations plotted to within 50 meters, and tactics and fire support measures to within 25 meters. PERFORMANCE STEPS NOTE: Overlay techniques involve the use of military symbols to portray, in a condensed form, the plans, orders, and information concerning a military operation. 1. Register the overlay. a. Orient the overlay material over the map area to the annotated portion and temporarily attach it to the map with the tape. b. Trace the grid intersections nearest the opposite corners of the overlay and label each with the proper grid coordinates. 2. Plot new detail. Use colored pencils or markers in standard colors, when available, to plot any detail (FM ); otherwise, plot the activity you wish to show with a pen or pencil that makes a lasting mark without cutting the overlay. Use standard military symbols where possible. When the author invents nonstandard symbols, they must be identified on the edge of the overlay. Show only that detail with which the document is directly concerned. Standard colors are a. Blue or black. Friendly units, installations, equipment, and activities. b. Red. Enemy installations, equipment, and activities. c. Yellow. Any areas of chemical, biological or radiological contamination. d. Green. Any man-made obstacle. NOTE: If only one color is available, enemy symbols are depicted with double lines. 3. Mark the overlay classification. The classification of the overlay is dependent upon classification of the order used to prepare the overlay. Mark the top and bottom of the overlay with the classification. 4. Recognize overlay techniques. a. Use solid and broken lines. When the location of a unit or installation or coordinating detail (for example, line of departure or boundary) is in effect and will continue, or is made effective by the order prepared, the appropriate symbol is shown by solid lines. The symbol indicating any proposed or future location, or coordinating detail to become effective later, is shown by broken lines. b. Boundaries. (1) Boundaries show areas of tactical responsibility. In the offense, these are referred to as zones of action. In the defense and retrograde, they are referred to as sectors of responsibility. When described orally, lateral boundaries are described from rear to front in the offense and from front to rear in the defense and retrograde.
2 (2) Rear boundaries are used when the area of responsibility for forward units must be precisely defined. When a rear boundary is not delineated, the rear limit of a unit area of responsibility is determined by visualizing a rear boundary drawn generally parallel to the front, preferably along a natural terrain feature, and connecting at the rearward limit of the unit lateral boundaries. (3) If a rear boundary is shown, the size indication along the boundary corresponds to the low unit. Arm or branch is shown when required to prevent confusion Figure 1 - Rear Boundary. Figure 1 - Rear Boundary (4) Desirably, boundaries are drawn along terrain features easily recognizable on the ground, and are situated, if possible, so the key terrain features, avenues of approach, and river are wholly inclusive of the one unit. They are shown by a solid line if currently in effect or made effective by the order prepared. Their use is based on the techniques and tactics peculiar to the type of tactical operation in which they are used. (5) Future or proposed boundaries are shown by a broken line and labeled to indicate the effective time, if appropriate Figure 2 - Proposed Boundary. Figure 2 - Proposed Boundary (6) A symbol is placed on the boundary to show size and designation of the highest units that share the boundary. (7) If the units are of unequal size, the symbols of the higher unit are shown and the designation of the lower is given completely to show its size. The boundary between the 52d Infantry Division and the 230th Infantry Brigade (separate) is shown in Figure 3 - Lateral Boundary. Figure 3 - Lateral Boundary (8) On overlays or sketches accompanying written or oral orders that specify task organization, unit designation on battalion boundaries indicate the numerical designation. If the battalion is organized into a task force, the letters TF precedes the numerical designation. A unit symbol is identified as task force by placing the symbol ( ) over the unit size designation ( ). Company boundaries are labeled with the appropriate letter unless the company is organized into a team. In the latter case, the boundary is labeled with the abbreviation TM and the letter designation or a code name. On other boundaries, only the unit designation needed for clarity is required. Branch designations may be added when necessary for clarity. When unequal-size units have a boundary in common, the designation of the smaller unit is spelled out.
3 c. Axis of advance. (1) An axis of advance arrow should extend only as far as this form of control is essential to the overall plan. Normally, it is shown from the line of departure (LD) to the objective following an avenue of approach. It indicates that the commander may maneuver his forces and place them freely to either side of the axis to avoid obstacles, engage the enemy, or bypass enemy forces that could not threaten his security or jeopardize the accomplishment of his mission. The commander ensures that such deviation does not interfere with adjacent units, that his unit remains oriented on the objective, and that the location and size of the bypassed enemy forces are reported to higher headquarters. Boundaries may be assigned as an additional control measure when using the axis of advance, if the situation so dictates. (2) An axis of advance is shown below, identified by a code. It could be identified by a unit designation Figure 4 - Axis of Advance. (3) To differentiate between a ground axis of advance and an air assault of advance, a twist is placed in the shaft of the open arrow, symbolic of a propeller Figure 5 - Air Assault Axis of Advance. Figure 5 - Air Assault Axis of Advance Figure 4 - Axis of Advance d. Direction of attack arrows. This control measure is used when the commander desires to specify the direction in which the center of mass of a subordinate unit must move in an attack to ensure the accomplishment of a closely coordinated plan of maneuver (for example, in a night attack or counterattack). A direction of attack arrow should extend from the line of departure to the objective and is not labeled Figure 6 - Direction of Attack Arrow. (1) The arrow should be used only where necessary because it restricts the maneuver of the subordinate unit. (2) When a unit is directed to seize successive objectives with its main attack along a certain line, either one arrow extending through the objectives to the final objective or a series of arrows connecting the objectives may be used. Figure 6 - Direction of Attack Arrow (3) The double arrowhead is used to distinguish the main attack for the command as a whole Figure 7 - Arrowhead Indicating the Main Attack.
4 e. Graphic portrayal of units assigned a security mission. (1) To show the general location of a unit with a security mission, arrows generally indicate the terrain over which the unit operates and the farthest extension of its mission Figure 8 - Unit With Security Mission. Figure 8 - Unit With Security Mission (2) Show the primary security mission. f. Graphically portray supply routes. (1) The main supply route (MSR) is the route(s) designated within an area of operations where most of the traffic flows in support of the operation. Label the route MSR and assign it a code name. NOTE: Do not use the term MSR below division level. ( a) In the defense, the division extends the MSR forward to the brigade trains. The brigade's supply route (SR) extends from the battalion trains to a point at the rear of the forward company defense sectors. ( b) In the offense, the proposed SR is shown forward to the objective or as far as the battalion supply officer (S4) can visualize sustainment for the operation. Forward of the LD, show it as a broken line. (2) Show the symbols to show the division (offensive action) is shown in Figure 9. Figure 9 - Divisions main supply route (MSR). (3) Show sustainment facilities on the operation overlay, or the S-4 disseminates their location, as appropriate. g. Portray unit locations. (1) To show the location of a unit on an overlay, draw the symbol so that its center corresponds with the coordinates where the unit is located (Figure 10).
5 Figure 10 - Location of a unit. (2) Show the location of a trains area, observation posts, or logistical activity. Ensure the center of the symbol corresponds with the element's coordinates. Figure 11 shows the location of an observation post. Figure 11 - Location of an observation post. (3) Use the offset technique for clarity when space precludes normal placement of symbols. "Bend" offset staffs as required. Dash the offset staff for future or proposed locations. Extend offset staffs vertically from the bottom center of the symbol (except for command posts [CPs]). The end of the offset staff shows the exact locations of CPs and aid stations, as well as the center of mass for other units or installations. Ensure the staff for a CP symbol is always on the left edge (Figure 12). Figure 12 - Offset technique. (4) Locate units. ( a) Show the locations of attacking units with boundaries (and CP symbols, when the locations of the CPs are known) or with unit symbols. ( b) Show the location of the reserve with an assembly area symbol and with a CP or unit symbol. ( c) Normally show the reserve units of a force assigned a defense position or battle position with a line enclosing the area occupied or to be occupied--in other words, a "goose egg." Number or letter these positions for convenience. Figure 13 shows an occupied and unoccupied company assembly area (reserve location). Figure 14 shows an occupied and unoccupied reserve company battle position. Figure 13 - Occupied and unoccupied company assembly area (reserve location).
6 Figure 14 - Occupied and unoccupied reserve company battle position. h. Identify objective(s). (1) Identify each objective by the abbreviation "OBJ" and a number, letter, or name designation (Figure 15). Figure 15 - Objective. (2) An objective assigned by higher headquarter may be given entirely to one subordinate unit or may be divided. If divided, the objective may be shown graphically as separate objectives and numbered accordingly, or they may be divided into two objectives by a boundary line. i. Pinch out a unit. (1) Show this type operation by drawing the boundary across the front of the unit, usually along a well-defined terrain feature such as a stream, ridge, or highway. (2) The following example shows that Company A will be pinched out after seizing OBJ 1; then, Company B will seize OBJ 2 and continue the attack to seize OBJ 3 (Figure 16). Figure 16 - Pinching out a unit. j. Show the defensive battlefield. The defensive battlefield is organized into the covering force area and the main battle area (MBA) (Figure 17). Figure 17 - Organizing the defensive battlefield.
7 k. Show the defended areas. If an area is occupied and the defense of the area is prepared, enclose the area with a line (including the size symbol of the defending unit), and orient the closed side of the symbol toward the most likely enemy threat. If desired, enter the military symbols of the unit in the center of the enclosed area. Figure 18 shows a defensive area for 2d Pit, C Co, 1st Bn, 6th Inf, and a proposed defensive area for B Co, 3d Bn, 52d Inf. l. Show control measures as required. (1) Line of departure (LD). The LD is a control measure to coordinate the advance of an attacking unit (Figure 19). The LD should be-- ( a) Clearly defined on the ground and on the map. ( b) Roughly perpendicular to the direction of the attack. ( c) Under control of friendly units. ( d) Marked on both ends. Figure 18 - Defensive area. Figure 19 - Line of departure. (2) Line of contact (LC) (Figure 20). Figure 20 - Line of contact. ( a) When units are in contact with the enemy, show the frontline as a series of arcs, and label the ends of the arc "LC." ( b) If the LC is used as an LD, mark it "LD/LC." ( c) If the LC is not used, show the LD with a solid line marked "LD." (3) Phase line (PLs). Use PLs to control the progress of units for reference in issuing orders or receiving reports. They should be easily recognized terrain features, normally perpendicular to the direction of advance. Also use a PL to control fires and unit movement, and even to limit the advance of attacking elements. Units report their arrival at or clearance of a phase line, but they halt only if ordered to do so. Draw a PL as a solid line with the letters "PL" at each end of the line, or where appropriate to allow easy identification. Identify a PL further by a number, a letter, or code name (using phonetic letters, colors, flowers, cars, or any other code system) under or beside the PL abbreviation (Figure 21).
8 Figure 21 - Phase Line. (4) Initial delay position (IDP). An IDP is where a delaying action begins, trading space for time. The delay sector is defined by boundaries. The initial and all subsequent delay positions can be related to a time-phased forward edge of the battle area (FEBA). The initial and subsequent delay positions are specified, and PLs may be used to report the progress of the battle. The enemy is held forward of delay lines until the specified time or until permission is granted to withdraw. The initial and successive delay positions are shown on boundaries by coordination points with a solid line between them. Although most IDPs are given a code name, they may have a number, letter, or a variety of code names. The letter abbreviation (IDP) can be to the flank of the coordination symbol (when at the flank, it is in parentheses) or on the line itself. Its time phase is indicated as a date-time group having a two-digit day and a four-digit hour, both connected. The month indicator can be a three-letter type or spelled out, depending upon the desires of the commander. Place the letters "IDP" in parentheses between the line code name, letter, or number and the date-time group (Figure 22). Figure 22 - Initial delay position. (5) Delay lines (DLs). These show the location of a succeeding delay position. Draw delay positions (other than initial) the same, but place the letter abbreviation along the line, and none are placed to the flanks at the coordinating points. (6) Coordinating points. ( a) Coordinating points are designated on boundaries as specific points for coordination of fires and maneuver between adjacent units. They are indicated whenever a boundary crosses the FEBA and should be indicated whenever the boundary crosses the covering force. Coordinating points are also used where DLs and internal boundaries intersect. ( b) Coordinating points should be located at some terrain feature easily recognizable both on the ground and on a map. Their location on a boundary indicates the general trace of the FEBA, covering force, or DL as visualized by the commander who designates them. ( c) Show the symbol for a coordinating point by a circle with an "X" centered in it (Figure 23). Label the symbol as appropriate. Figure 23 - Coordinating point.
9 (7) Checkpoints. Checkpoints, Figure 24, are shown graphically by a number, letter, or code word inside an upright rectangle with a pointed bottom. They are easily recognizable terrain features or objects, such as crossroads, churches, lone buildings, stream junctions, hills, bridges, and railroad crossings. They may be selected throughout the area of operation. By referring to these points, the subordinate commander can quickly and accurately report his location. Higher can use it to designate objectives, boundaries, assembly areas, phase lines, and so forth. Figure 24 - Checkpoint. (8) Contact points. Contact points, shown graphically by squares with a staff extending from the bottom center, are designated at the units to make physical contact. Contact points may also be used to delineate areas of responsibility in specific localities when boundaries are obviously unsuitable such as between elements of a flank guard (Figure 25). Figure 25 - Contact point. (9) Passage points (PP). Show a passage point much like a checkpoint, with the letters "PP" with the number or letter of the passage point within the symbol. Place them along the LD or FEBA of the unit being passed through. The PPs will show where the commander wants the subordinate units to pass. (10) Linkup points. A linkup point should be an easily identifiable point on the ground and map. It is used to facilitate the joining, connecting, or reconnecting of elements of a unit or units. They are used when two or more Army elements are to join each other, when Army and sister service elements are to join each other, and when Army or sister service and allied elements are to join each other. The linkup is an operation in itself and is conducted as part of an airborne or airmobile operation, an attack to assist in the breakout of an airborne or airmobile operation, an attack to assist in the breakout of an encircled force, or an attack to join an infiltrating force. The battalion may participate in a linkup as part of a larger force, or it may, itself, conduct a linkup. The symbol for a linkup point is similar to the one for a checkpoint, but with a dot in the center. Place a number, name, or code name near the symbol to ensure it is clear that it refers to that symbol (Figure 26). Figure 26 - Linkup point. (11) Points of departure (PDs). These normally are shown along the LD for night attacks. They look like a checkpoint, but contain the letters "PD" and a letter or number. The point of the arrow is at the bottom of its location. EVALUATION PREPARATION: SETUP: Provide the soldier with all the material and equipment listed in the condition statement. BRIEF SOLDIER: Tell the soldier to prepare an overlay for the operation indicated in the OPORD. REFERENCES REQUIRED RELATED LINKS
Chapter 5 N B C R e c o n i n t h e C o m b a t A r e a During combat operations, NBC recon units operate throughout the framework of the battlefield. In the forward combat area, NBC recon elements are
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Employing the Stryker Formation in the Defense: An NTC Case Study CPT JEFFREY COURCHAINE Since its roll-out in 2002, the Stryker vehicle combat platform has been a major contributor to the war on terrorism.
Training and Evaluation Outline Report Status: Approved 18 Jan 2017 Effective Date: 15 Mar 2018 Task Number: 71-DIV-6500 Task Title: Conduct Area Security for Divisions Distribution Restriction: Approved
Chapter 1 ORGANIZATION AND FUNDAMENTALS The nature of modern warfare demands that we fight as a team... Effectively integrated joint forces expose no weak points or seams to enemy action, while they rapidly
By 1LT Derek Distenfield and CW2 Dwight Phaneuf This article explains how Task Force Commando; 10th Mountain Division utilized both human factors and emerging technology to better utilize Unmanned Aircraft
Training and Evaluation Outline Report Status: Approved 07 Jan 2015 Effective Date: 03 Oct 2016 Task : 71-8-7648 Task Title: Plan Offensive Operations During Counterinsurgency Operations (Brigade - Distribution