1 ENTREPRENEURSHIP Training Course on Entrepreneurship Statistics September 2017 ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN Can DOĞAN / Business Registers Group
2 CONTENT General information about Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurial activity Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme Definitions Entrepreneurship Model Small Business Act Indicators Purpose, Priorities and Assessment Small and Medium Sized Enterprises Requested Statistics The Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan
3 ENTREPRENEURSHIP Becoming a more popular subject Very broad phenomenon Understanding the economic dynamism and looking for the ways out of crisis economic growth productivity innovation Employment Understanding the determinants
4 ENTREPRENEURSHIP Measuring can be by many aspects Regional development; the creation of new firms is supported for employment&economic value for troubled regions The participation of certain target groups (women or minorities, in the economy) Increasing firm creations Supporting high growth firms
5 ENTREPRENEUR Bearer of uncertainty of market dynamics Innovator the introduction of a new good or quality the introduction of a new method of production the opening of a new market the conquest of a new source of supply of new materials the carrying out of the new organization of any industry Risk taker
6 ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY Involves identifying opportunities within the economic system Recognising and acting upon profit opportunities Act of innovation Act of making a new entry
7 ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY Business creation but how? Self-employment or employer enterprises? High-growth companies and gazelles? Creating a competetive business enviroment
8 ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY Defining entrepreneurial activity in many aspects Many different approaches in the literature (innovators, as a factor of production etc.) For a comparable measure, standard definitions and indicators are necessary
9 ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDICATORS PROGRAMME Launched by OECD in 2006, joint programme with Eurostat after 2007 To build internationally comparable statistics on entrepreneurship and its determinants The goal is to establish a framework of relevant indicators for the study of entrepreneurship and to encourage countries to use the definitions, methodologies and classifications of the framework as much as possible when producing the data
10 ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDICATORS PROGRAMME Result of a strong collaborative effort by Eurostat and the OECD and a willing commitment by many National Statistics Offices to harmonise methods and produce results Publication by industry and by size class Also publication by entrepreneurial determinants
11 DEFINITIONS Entrepreneurs are those persons (business owners) who seek to generate value, through the creation or expansion of economic activity, by identifying and exploiting new products, processes or markets. Entrepreneurial activity is the enterprising human action in pursuit of the generation of value, through the creation or expansion of economic activity, by identifying and exploiting new products, processes or markets. Entrepreneurship is the phenomenon associated with entrepreneurial activity. *Formal definitions by OECD and Eurostat
12 DEFINITIONS An important distinction between Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurial Activity Where there are entrepreneurs, there will always be entrepreneurial activity but it is important to note that the latter is not dependent on the existence of the former individuals within businesses may demonstrate entrepreneurship without necessarily having a stake in the company. This means that all companies, even those without an entrepreneur at their helm, can be entrepreneurial. Companies owned by shareholders or trust funds for example and managed/run by salaried directors can still be entrepreneurial and the way they operate their businesses in identifying and exploiting new products, processes or markets can be of benefit to other businesses owned and managed by entrepreneurs.
13 DEFINITIONS Entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship are not concepts that relate exclusively to small businesses (or self-employed), as many studies often assuming so. Entrepreneurship reflects certain characteristics that relate to the processes through the creation of value through the identification and exploitation of new products, processes, and markets. This is not uniquely the preserve of small companies or entrepreneurs Clearly, large companies can be entrepreneurial, not ignored when formulating entrepreneurship policies
14 DEFINITIONS Something different about entrepreneurial businesses that sets them apart from other businesses They are in the business of doing something new, by creating/identifying new processes, products or markets. Not even all businesses or new ones are necessarily entrepreneurial
15 DEFINITIONS Businesses that has failed Many studies of entrepreneurship investigate and focus only on those entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial businesses that succeed. Failure is a very important part of the entrepreneurial process and much can be learned from understanding it. Entrepreneurs who failed were still entrepreneurial and, indeed, entrepreneurs
16 DEFINITIONS Concept of Value Policy makers are interested in facilitating or encouraging the growth of entrepreneurship because it is creating value in one domain or another, and, as noted above, these can be very diverse. Value covers both monetary and non-monetary returns. These values are identified as objectives or targets by policy makers, who will then develop policies designed to achieve these targets although clearly they are carried out by entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial firms. Some countries for example will focus on entrepreneurship s contribution to economic growth. Other countries however might focus on entrepreneurship s contribution to solving environmental problems or its contribution to social inclusion.
17 ENTREPRENEURSHIP MODEL Reflects the key factors affecting entrepreneurial performance Reflects the target indicators That policy makers believe have impact on ultimate objectives Ultimate objectives (value created by entrepreneur)
18 ENTREPRENEURSHIP MODEL
19 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) An overarching framework for the European Union policy on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) To improve the approach to entrepreneurship in Europe To simplify the regulatory and policy environment for SMEs To remove the remaining barriers to their development More entrepreneur in Europe
20 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) Main priorities of the SBA Promoting entrepreneurship Less regulatory burden Access to finance Access to markets and internationalization
21 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) 1. Promoting entrepreneurship The Commission s objective is to encourage people to become entrepreneurs and also make it easier for them to set up and grow their businesses.
22 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) Challenges faced by entrepreneurs in Europe: Only 37% of Europeans would like to be self-employed, compared to 51% of people in the US and China Education should offer the right foundation for an entrepreneurial career Difficult access to finance and markets Difficulty in transferring businesses The fear of punitive sanctions in case of failure; Burdensome administrative procedures
23 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) 2. Less regulatory burden The Commission's Regulatory Fitness and Performance Programme ensures that EU legislation delivers results for citizens and businesses effectively, efficiently and at minimum cost. It aims to keep EU law simple, remove unnecessary burdens and adapt existing legislation without compromising on policy objectives.
24 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) 3. Access to finance for SMEs SMEs represent over 99% of businesses in the EU so it is crucial to support their growth and innovation. However, one of the most important issues facing SMEs is their difficulty accessing finance. The European Commission works to improve the financing environment for small businesses in Europe.
25 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) 4.SMEs access to markets The Commission aims to help European businesses face competition, access foreign markets, and find new business partners abroad. Going international increases SMEs' performance, enhances competitiveness, and reinforces sustainable growth.
26 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) SBA Assessment The purpose of the SBA Assessment is to improve SME policy-making in Partner Countries and to enhance the capacity of policy-makers. The objective is to improve the business environment 'on the ground' and to foster entrepreneurship and competitiveness. The SBA Assessment has been jointly developed and is undertaken by OECD, European Commision, European Bank, European Training Foundation
27 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) SBA Action 1 Entrepreneurial education to support growth and business creation increasing the prevalence and quality of entrepreneurial learning higher education for entrepreneurship
28 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) SBA Action 2 Create an environment where entrepreneurs can flourish and grow Better access to finance Supporting new businesses in crucial phases of their lifecycle and help them grow Unleashing new business opportunities in the digital age Easier business transfers Turning failure into success: second chances for honest bankrupts Regulatory burden: clearer and simpler rules
29 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) SBA Action 3 Role models and reaching out to specific groups New perceptions: entrepreneurs as role models New horizons: reaching out to women, seniors, migrants, the unemployed, young people Women Seniors Migrant entrepreneurs Unemployed, in particular young people
30 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) Need of indicators and statistics. Which type of statistics? Business statistics, i.e. value added by size class, birth rate of employer enterprises Statistics on policy inputs and outputs, i.e. budget of the SME agency Company-level data, i.e. company perception on policy measures
31 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) Statistics requested from NSOs: Business demography & structural statistics allowing analysis of the structure and dynamics of enterprises. This data is typically acquired from statistical business registers, which supplement business register data with tax data, surveys and clerical checks
32 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) Business demography & structural statistics requested Statistic Unit Source Number of enterprises, by sector and size class thousands Business statistical registers Number of persons employed, by sector and size class thousands Business statistical registers Value added, by size class (at factor costs) domestic currency Business statistical registers Exports, by enterprise size class % of total export Business statistical registers Birth rate of employer enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Death rate of employer enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Churn rate of employer enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Share of less than 1-year old enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Share of 1-year old enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Share of 2-year old enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Share of 3-year old enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Share of 4-year old enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Share of 5-year old enterprises % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Share of enterprises older than 5 years and younger than 10 years % of the population of active enterprises Business statistical registers Employment share of 0-3 years old enterprises % of employment in total economy Business statistical registers High-growth enterprises 1 rate, measured by employment growth % of the population of enterprises with ten or more employees Business statistical registers Gazelles 2 rate, measured by employment growth % of the population of enterprises with ten or more employees Business statistical registers
33 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) Other relevant statistics:nsos are expected to provide for each policy dimension Dimension 1: Entrepreneurial learning and women s entrepreneurship Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) GEM Survey Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity for Female Working Age Population GEM Survey Established Business Ownership Rate GEM Survey Dimension 2: Bankruptcy and Second Chance for SMEs Number of bankruptcies OECD Timely Indicators of Entrepreneurship Official data Dimension 5b: Public procurement SMEs' share in the total value of public contracts awarded Official data Dimension 8a: Enterprise skills Training enterprises, as share of all enterprises Eurostat, Continuing Vocational Training Survey Survey
34 SMALL BUSINESS ACT (SBA) Other relevant statistics:nsos are expected to provide for each policy dimension Dimension 8b: Innovation SMEs introducing product or process innovations Eurostat, Community Innovation Survey Survey SMEs introducing marketing or organisational innovations Eurostat, Community Innovation Survey Survey SMEs selling online Eurostat, Community Survey on ICT usage and e- Commerce in enterprises SMEs purchasing online Eurostat, Community Survey on ICT usage and e- Commerce in enterprises Gross domestic expenditure on R&D, as a percentage of GDP Direct government funding of business R&D, as a percentage of GDP Tax incentives for business R&D expenditures, as a percentage of GDP Survey Survey OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard Official data OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard Official data OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard Official data Dimension 9: SMEs in a Green Economy SMEs that have benefitted from public support measures for their production of green products Dimension 10: Internationalisation Share of export of SMEs Average value of export per enterprise Eurobarometer survey: How green are European SMEs? Survey Official data Official data
35 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) SMEs are defined in the EU recommendation 2003/361 SMEs represent 99% of all businesses in the EU The definition of an SME is important for access to finance and EU support programmes targeted specifically at these enterprises. The main factors determining whether an enterprise is an SME are staff headcount either turnover or balance sheet total
36 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Company category Staff headcount Turnover or Balance sheet Total Medium-sized < m 43 m Small < m 10 m Micro < 10 2 m 2 m
37 The Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan To unleash Europe's entrepreneurial potential, remove existing obstacles and revolutionize the culture of entrepreneurship in the EU To ease the creation of new businesses and to create a much more supportive environment for existing entrepreneurs to grow
38 The Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan 3 areas for immediate intervention: Entrepreneurial education and training to support growth and business creation Removing existing administrative barriers and supporting entrepreneurs in crucial phases of the business lifecycle Reigniting the culture of entrepreneurship in Europe and nurturing the new generation of entrepreneurs
39 INDICATORS Indicators vary because different policy needs and diverse perspectives on what is meant by entrepreneurship As firms enter and exit the market, theory suggests that the new arrivals will be more efficient than those they displace. Existing firms are forced to innovate and become more productive in order to compete. Many studies have given empirical support to this process of creative destruction first described by Joseph Schumpeter.
40 INDICATORS help policy makers to understand how the policies they put in place or adjust will affect entrepreneurship and, eventually, higher-level objectives for the economy and society. In order for countries to benefit from the experience of others, it is also essential that the entrepreneurship indicators allow for comparisons across countries by type of entrepreneurship.
41 INDICATORS Core indicators of entrepreneurial performance
42 INDICATORS Structural indicators on enterprise population Number of enterprises by size class Employment by size class Value added by size class Exports by size class
43 INDICATORS Entrepreneurial performance Employer enterprise birth rates Employer enterprise death rates One- and two-year survival rates Share of one- and two-year-old employer enterprises in the population Share of high-growth firms (employment or turnover) Share of gazelles (employment or turnover) Employment creation by enterprise births Employment destruction by enterprise deaths
44 INDICATORS Timely indicators of entrepreneurship Enterprise entries Enterprise exits Entrepreneurial determinants Knowledge creation and diffusion Access to finance Entrepreneurial capabilities Regulatory framework Market conditions Entrepreneurial culture
45 INDICATORS Questions to be answered by indicators Relationships between entrepreneurial determinants and entrepreneurial performance Do more innovative entrepreneurs grow faster or more strongly than noninnovative entrepreneurs in terms of employment or turnover? Do firms that receive venture capital show different growth patterns? Relations between entrepreneurial performance and entrepreneurial impacts the precise contribution of firm births, firm deaths and gazelles to employment and productivity growth
46 SOME INDICATORS Some indicators from Entrepreneurship at a Glance, 2016 by OECD Around half of firms with 50 or more employees and between 10% and 20% of self-employed firms in G7 economies, for example, expect to increase employment in the next six months In all countries, most micro and small firms do not export; indeed, only between 10% and 40% of SMEs are direct exporters On average, men are more likely than women to declare that they would have access to money to set up a business (34% for men and 27% for women) On average, 5.1% of employed men aged are self-employed, compared with 3.6% for women, while 29.2% of employed men aged 55+ are self-employed compared with 15.9% for women.
47 SOME INDICATORS Some indicators from Entrepreneurship at a Glance, 2016 by OECD Around half of firms with 50 or more employees and between 10% and 20% of self-employed firms in G7 economies, for example, expect to increase employment in the next six months In all countries, most micro and small firms do not export; indeed, only between 10% and 40% of SMEs are direct exporters On average, men are more likely than women to declare that they would have access to money to set up a business (34% for men and 27% for women) On average, 5.1% of employed men aged are self-employed, compared with 3.6% for women, while 29.2% of employed men aged 55+ are self-employed compared with 15.9% for women.
48 SOME INDICATORS Indicators from Entrepreneurship at a Glance, 2016 by OECD New enterprise creations Enterprise exits Bankruptcies Self-employment Outlook and prospects of job creation Enterprises by size Employment by enterprise size Value added by enterprise size Turnover by enterprise size Compensation of employees by enterprise size
49 SOME INDICATORS Indicators from Entrepreneurship at a Glance, 2016 by OECD Labour productivity by enterprise size Birth rate of enterprises Death rate of enterprises Survival of enterprises Employment creation and destruction by enterprise births and deaths High-growth enterprises rate Incidence of traders Trade concentration Exports and imports by enterprise size Market proximity
50 SOME INDICATORS Indicators from Entrepreneurship at a Glance, 2016 by OECD Exports and imports by enterprise ownership Self-employment by gender Self-employment among the youth Earnings from self-employment Inventors by gender Perception of entrepreneurial risk Venture capital investments
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