1 Hello and thank you for your interest in the centenary of The Battle of Jutland. The Royal British Legion hopes that you find this toolkit useful in organising a commemorative event where you live whether for your community, association, school, or group of friends. Take a look through the contents and you will find more information on the battle and its significance, along with readings and suggestions for hosting a successful commemorative event. The kit is designed for you to choose for yourself which elements you find useful. Remembrance is about people coming together to honour service and sacrifice, so what matters most is that your event suits you and your community. You will find examples to guide you inside but there is no set format that needs to be followed deciding on the order of your commemorative service is part of what makes it meaningful. Although, as the nation s Custodian of Remembrance we know that the Two Minutes Silence can be a bit nerve-wracking, so we ve included the accepted form for that to make hosting it worry-free. The Battle of Jutland was the largest and most costly fleet engagement of the First World War, which took place over Wednesday 31 May and Thursday 1 June Its 100th anniversary provides an opportunity to commemorate the sacrifices and contributions made by all those from the Royal Navy, Merchant Navy, fishing fleets, shipbuilding towns and coastal communities who continue to guarantee our maritime nation s security in peace and war. The Royal British Legion is about more than Remembrance we also protect the interests of the Armed Forces community and are the nation s largest charity helping veterans, servicemen and women, and their families the whole year round. As a charity, we grew out of the First World War, but we (and our red poppy) continue in our important role which is just as needed today. If you are on social media, please drop us a line or send us a photo to share your commemorative event. Find us on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram. Best wishes, The Royal British Legion
3 ACT OF REMEMBRANCE THE B A T T L E O F JUT LAND
4 ACT OF REMEMBRANCE ACT OF REMEMBRANCE This is the Legion s accepted form for the Act of Remembrance, which sits at the heart of commemorative services. The prayer and blessing are suggestions only from the Legion s Bishop your event is free to draw on any reading or dedication which suits your event. If a bugler is unavailable to sound Last Post and Reveille, these can be downloaded from the Legion website. Two Minutes Silence Reveille Suggested prayer Teach us good Lord to serve Thee as thou deservest; to give and not to count the cost; to fight and not to heed the wounds; to toil and not to seek for rest; to labour and not to ask for any reward, save that of knowing that we do Thy will, through Jesus Christ our Lord. A Prayer of St Ignatius Loyola ( ) The Exhortation (Reader) They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old, Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun, and in the morning; We will remember them. (All) We will remember them. Last Post The Dedication When you go home, tell them of us and say; For your tomorrow, we gave our today. Kohima Epitaph Suggested blessing God grant to the living grace; to the departed rest; to the Church, The Queen, the Commonwealth, and all people, peace and concord; and to us and all His servants life everlasting; and the blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, be among you and remain with you always. Amen The National Anthem God save our gracious Queen! Long live our noble Queen! God save the Queen! Send her victorious, Happy and glorious, Long to reign over us, God save the Queen.
5 RECOMMENDED MUSIC Last Post* Reveille* National Anthem* Abide with Me I Vow to Thee My Country O Valiant Hearts How Great Thou Art Praise to the Lord Royal Navy March Past Heart of Oak Regimental March of HM Royal Marines A Life on the Ocean Wave Amazing Grace (Bagpipes) Highland Cathedral (Bagpipes) Panis Angelicus Judex Beethoven s Funeral March READINGS AND MUSIC Nimrod Elgar Solemn Melody Walford-Davies Judex from Mors & Vita Charles Gounod Cavalleria Rusticana Macasgni Handel s Largo from Xerses Handel Panis Angelicus Cesar Frank (Trumpet Solo) Cavatina Myers (Theme from Deer Hunter) Air on the G String Bach Eternal Father Strong to Save Naval Hymn (Jutland) O God Our Help in Ages Past The Day Thou Gavest Lord is Ended O Valiant Hearts Jerusalem (Blake s poem included in a collection of poetry for A Country at War in 1916). Set to music by Sir Hubert Parry 1916 (Somme) THE B A T T L E O F JUT LAND *Music supplied by The Central Band of The Royal British Legion Certain songs can be found on our website at
6 RECOMMENDED READINGS RECOMMENDED READINGS JULIET DEARDEN REMEMBERS HER GRANDFATHER MY BOY JACK Rudyard Kipling Have you news of my boy Jack? Not this tide. When d you think that he ll come back? Not with this wind blowing, and this tide. Has any one else had word of him? Not this tide. For what is sunk will hardly swim, Not with this wind blowing, and this tide. Oh, dear, what comfort can I find? None this tide, Nor any tide, Except he did not shame his kind Not even with that wind blowing, and that tide. Then hold your head up all the more, This tide, And every tide; Because he was the son you bore, And gave to that wind blowing and that tide! Lieutenant-Commander Peregrine Robert Dearden RN was one of 18 survivors from HMS Queen Mary in the Battle of Jutland. These are excerpts from a letter to his mother: 5 JUNE 1916 Dearest Mother, We arrived in this camp the day before yesterday and are looking very ragged at present, having no money or clean clothes. We, being myself and six other officers from two destroyers. We left harbour as usual not expecting anything special to happen. About 3.45pm on the 31st we went to action stations and had everything ready and about 4.45pm we opened fire and after about an hour and a half of engagement there was a terrific explosion forward and I was sent on the top of our turret to see what was happening and had to put on lung respirators owing to clouds of smoke and fire. I could see nothing for about a minute and then all cleared away as the foremost part of the ship went under water. I then told the officer of the turret that the ship was sinking rapidly and so many as possible were got up out of the turret. The whole foc sle was almost blown off and I immediately took off all my gear except my shirt and vest, everyone else going in all standing, as soon as in the water I swam clear and astern of the ship about 30 yards when she suddenly blew up completely. I was luckily sucked under water and so all the wreckage chucked about did not come with its full weight on my head. I held my breath for a long time and at last came to the surface. I started looking around for something to support me as much as possible. As you know I never had a Gieve waistcoat and am now glad I had not. The surface of the water was simply covered with oil fuel which tasted and smelt horribly (my presence of mind) I smothered myself all over with it which I really think saved my life as the water was frightfully cold I should say that about fifty hands went over the side but about half these were killed during the second explosion. Most of the remainder of us held out on two or three spars and other wreckage on the surface. Shortly afterwards several of our destroyers came up but only one stopped and you know as well as I do how many were saved by her. This was about half hour after we had been in the water and it nearly drove me frantic when she steamed off when I was only about twenty five to thirty yards away from her. She would not even leave her whaler behind to pick up the remaining fifteen or twenty of us in the water, although I shouted to them to do so. Afterwards it was terrible seeing everyone else collapse and drown and I had not the strength to help any of them The people with Gieve waistcoats on were the first I noticed to drown as they were held a little too high out of the water and when they became weak their heads fell forward in the water. I was put to bed and had a good ten hours sleep after which I got up and had breakfast feeling somewhat restored. I am at present in the citadel fortress at Mainz and really had a most interesting journey down the Rhine. I think Aunt Mabel s fortune telling about a lucky hand must have been true. Will you let me know how many officers and men from the QM were saved and also the names of the officers? I was very well treated in the German destroyer in which I was picked up and was given an egg for breakfast. I hope Jim is keeping well and will continue to have good fortune. With very best love to you all. Your loving son. Peregrine. Story provided with the kind consent of the Dearden family.
7 THE B A T T L E O F JUT LAND Registered charity number:
9 THE B A T T L E O F JUT LAND WHAT: WHERE: WHEN: Registered charity number:
11 A SHORT HISTORY AND REFLECTION On 31 May 1 June 2016, it will be 100 years since the Battle of Jutland. This was the only major naval battle of the First World War and took place between the German High Sea Fleet and the British Grand Fleet. Over 6,000 British sailors lost their lives, although there was no clear winner in this battle. Jutland will always be remembered for the huge sacrifices that our naval personnel made. Britain is an island nation with no town more than 75 miles from the sea. Many families therefore have relatives who served at sea and this is the perfect moment to reflect, not only on the sacrifices made during this sea battle but also to commemorate the maritime contribution and the sacrifices that have been and continue to be made by all those from the Royal Navy, Merchant Navy and costal fleets who serve to ensure our nation s security. In 1914, Britain had the biggest and strongest navy in the world. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz ( ) greatly expanded the size and quality of the Imperial German Navy, until the German Navy grew to become one of the greatest maritime forces in the world, second only to the British Royal Navy. After the British success at Dogger Bank in holding back the German attack in January 1915, the German Imperial Navy chose not to confront the numerically superior British Royal Navy in a major battle for more than a year, preferring to rely on its lethal U-boat fleet. However, in May 1916, with the majority of the British Grand Fleet anchored far away at Scapa Flow, Vice Admiral Rheinhard Scheer believed the time was right to resume attacks on the British coastline. Scheer ordered 19 U-boats to position themselves for a raid on the North-East coastal town of Sunderland, using air reconnaissance craft to keep an eye on the British Fleet. Bad weather hampered the airships, however, and Scheer called off the raid, instead ordering his fleet to head north, to the Skagerrak, a waterway located between Norway and Denmark off the Jutland Peninsula, where they could attack the Allied naval interests and with luck, punch a hole in the stringent British blockade. Unbeknownst to Scheer, however, a newly created intelligence unit in Britain had cracked the German communication codes and warned the British Grand Fleet s commander, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, of Scheer s intentions. Consequently, on the night of 30 May, a British fleet of 28 battleships, nine battle cruisers, 34 light cruisers and 80 destroyers set out from Scapa Flow, bound for positions off the Skagerrak. [1/2]
12 On 31 May, a British naval force commanded by Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty spotted a German squadron of battle cruisers and confronted them some 75 miles off the Danish coast. The Germans opened fire first and, in a duel lasting around 55 minutes, sunk two British battle cruisers (HMS Indefatigable and HMS Queen Mary) with the loss of over 2,000 sailors. With the surprise arrival of the main German fleet, Beatty now reversed the trap and led the Germans north towards Jellicoe s main battle fleet. Deploying his fleet into a battle line, Jellicoe s massed guns now trapped the Germans in a T, forcing them to turn away to avoid severe damage. The German battle cruiser flagship, Lützow, was disabled by 24 direct hits but was able, before it sank, to sink the British ship, HMS Invincible. Scheer, the German commander, eventually broke off the action by a massed torpedo attack which forced Jellicoe s turn away, avoiding heavier British losses but losing contact as a result. Darkness fell and the Germans were able to break through behind Jellicoe s line in the early hours of June 1st. Intercepted German signals showing their intended destination were not passed through to Jellicoe by the Admiralty. And despite the courageous fight put up by small destroyer flotillas the Germans were able to reach the safety of their bases avoiding an inevitable annihilation in a resumption of action on 1 June. At 02:00 on 1 June, Jellicoe ordered the Grand Fleet back to its bases 104,000 men aboard 250 ships fought for 12 hours. Sinking more ships and inflicting heaving casualties, the Germans claimed victory (German losses, including a battleship and a battle cruiser, totaled 11 ships and 2,500 deaths; the British 14 ships, including three battle cruisers and over 6,000 deaths). However, on June 2nd only 10 German capital ships were seaworthy while the British were ready to go back to sea in 4 hours with 23 capital ships. Moreover, on 4 July, Vice Admiral Scheer advised the Kaiser that a further fleet action was not an option, and that the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare was Germany s best hope for victory at sea. So, despite heavy losses, the Battle of Jutland critically left British naval superiority on the North Sea intact. [2/2] THE B A T T L E O F JUT LAND
13 KEY FACTS The Battle of Jutland was fought over 36 hours from 31 May to 1 June 1916 There were a total of 250 ships in the battle; 151 British Grand Fleet and 99 German High Seas Fleet There were 100,000 sailors overall engaged in the Battle, of which 1 in 10 were wounded More than 8,500 were killed in total; 6,000 British, 2,500 German Death was sudden and on a huge scale Queen Mary 1,266, Indefatigable 1,017, Invincible 1,026, Defense 903, Black Prince 857 (German: Wiesbaden 589, Fraulenlob 320) One thousand men lost their lives when a magazine exploded on the British battlecruiser Indefatigable The British Grand Fleet was under the command of Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, who after the war became one of the founders of The Royal British Legion There was no clear winner in this battle, but it did convince the Germans never again to challenge the British Navy in the North Sea This was the first time in history that a carrier-based aeroplane (from HMS Engadine) was used for reconnaissance in naval combat There were four Victoria Crosses awarded after the Battle, one for 'Jutland Jack Cornwell' HM The Queen s father George VI, the then Prince Albert, Duke of York took part in the battle, and was mentioned in despatches for his action as a turret officer aboard Collingwood The last surviving veteran of the battle, Henry Allingham, a British RAF airman, died on 18 July 2009, aged 113, by which time he was one of the last surviving veterans of the First World War
15 250 Miles SHIPS IN BATTLE SINGLE LOSS OF LIFE BRITISH Denmark BATTLE OF JUTLAND Great Britain 151 BRITISH 99 GERMAN HMS Queen Mary [1,266] SMS Wiesbaden  HMS Indefatigable [1,017] SMS Fraulenlob  HMS Invincible [1,026] GERMAN HMS Defense  HMS Black Prince  31 MAY HOURS 1 JUNE ,000 SAILORS MORE THAN 8,500 FOUNDER OF THE ROYAL BRITISH LEGION The British Grand Fleet was under the command of Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, who after the war became one of the founders of The Royal British Legion. KILLED 1in 10 WOUNDED MORE THAN MORE THAN BRITISH GERMAN 6,000 2,500 FOUR VICTORIA CROSS MEDALS AWARDED AFTER THE BATTLE
17 JUTLAND JACK S STORY John Travers Cornwell, Boy 1st Class (RN) was born on 8 January 1900, at Leyton. When the First World War broke out his father promptly joined the Army, and Jack joined the Royal Navy. He went through preliminary training at Devonport from 27 July 1915 and became a Boy 1st Class on the light cruiser HMS Chester for active service in Admiral David Beatty s 1st Battlecruiser Squadron. A few months after Jack Cornwell joined his ship, Admiral Beatty came to grips with the German High Seas Fleet near Jutland on 31 May 1916; he was mortally wounded in action, and died two days later in Grimsby hospital. He was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross [London Gazette, 15 September 1916]: Mortally wounded early in the action, Boy, First Class, John Travers Cornwell remained standing alone at a most exposed post, quietly awaiting orders, until the end of the action, with the gun s crew dead and wounded around him. His age was under sixteen and half years. The Times History of the War records that Cornwell had been brought ashore, he had died at Grimsby of his wounds, and through one of the stupid blunders which are inseparable from officialdom he had been buried in what was no better than a pauper s grave. No sooner was the truth known of the lad s last hours of life and the manner of his death than public opinion demanded a befitting reinternment. Accordingly the body was exhumed, and there was an impressive funeral in Manor Park Cemetery. A picture of the boy, standing by his gun, with Admiral Sir David Beatty s report of the incident, occupies a position of honour in more than 12,000 schools. On 23 March 1917, a large company witnessed at the Mansion House the presentation to the Board of Admiralty of Mr. Frank O. Salisbury s picture, John Cornwell, V.C., on H.M.S. Chester. Sir Edward Carson, the First Lord, received the picture and paid a high tribute to the dead lad s courage and example. I ask people who grumble if they ever heard the story of John Travers Cornwell... I feel that this boy, who died at the post of duty, sends this message to the people of the Empire: Obey your orders, cling to your post, don t grumble, stick it out. THE B A T T L E O F JUT LAND
19 HOW THE LEGION HELPS THE ROYAL NAVY TODAY FRANK HUGHES STORY Frank Hughes, 90, a Normandy veteran from Darlington, County Durham, served in the Royal Navy from 1943 to He was part of the D-Day Landings on board HMS Waveney and helped Canadian soldiers land on the beaches. In July 2015 he was the victim of an online scam, and contacted the Legion for help. The Benefits and Money Advice team supported Frank who had to take out a 4,000 loan with Lloyds due to an online romance scam. He could not afford to repay the money, and the Benefits and Money Advice team contacted Lloyds on Frank s behalf to explain his circumstances. They managed to get the loan written off in full. Frank said: The help from the Legion has been absolutely excellent. They ve taken a huge weight off my mind and I can t thank them enough for helping me. On top of the financial support they also gave me food vouchers as I didn t have enough money to buy food. It s been a difficult time but I feel much happier now that the Legion stepped in to help me. It s great to know they are there for people like me. Frank has been an active member of his local Royal British Legion branch in Darlington for many years and raises money for the Poppy Appeal. I love the camaraderie with other veterans, he said. I enjoy supporting a charity that helps fellow veterans. THE B A T T L E O F JUT LAND
21 HOW THE LEGION HELPS THE ROYAL NAVY TODAY PETER EDGE S STORY Chief Petty Officer Peter Edge serves in the Royal Navy. He was diagnosed with Hodgkin s lymphoma in March 2013 while on a Royal Navy ship, after originally thinking he had a football injury. He was quickly disembarked. Following chemotherapy he was given the allclear in September The family found the whole experience extremely difficult and Peter s wife received counselling as a result of the stress of Peter s illness. A friend mentioned Poppy Breaks, and after Peter enquired, he and the family enjoyed a Poppy Break in North Devon in October This was fantastic and really boosted family morale. THE B A T T L E O F JUT LAND