1 The Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for ASEAN Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations (HADR)
2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Purpose Parties Definition of Terms and Principles 3.1 Definition of Terms Principles References Scope Consultation and Review Concept of Operations Phase 0 Disaster Preparedness and Training 1.2 Phase 1 Pre-Deployment Phase 2 Deployment Phase 3 Response Phase 4 Transition Phase 5 Re-deployment. 8.0 Organizational Structure Communications Procedures Respect for Domestic and International Laws Date of Entry into Effect List of Acronyms and Abbreviations Distribution 10 Annex A Basic Naval Support to HADR Operations Annex B Points of Contact
3 The Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for ASEAN Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations (HADR) 1.0 Purpose This SOP is enacted to provide common procedures among the ASEAN navies as reference for the planning, training, and conduct of HADR operations in accordance to international standards and principles. 2.0 Parties All ASEAN navies that intend to render HADR operations shall always be guided by this SOP. They shall be guided by its provisions in order to have a cohesive and prompt response during disasters. 3.0 Definition of Terms and Principles 3.1 Definition of Terms Affected State the state whose people or properties within its territory are affected by the disaster Assisting State a state who provides disaster relief or initial recovery assistance, whether through civil or military components Assisted Navy the navy of the state whose people or properties within its territory are affected by the disaster Assisting Navy the navy of the state who provides disaster relief or initial recovery assistance Combined Coordinating Center center that facilitates coordination and cooperation of foreign military forces to the affected state to support HADR missions Disaster a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses Disaster Management the range of activities, conducted prior to, during and after disasters, designed to maintain control over disasters and to provide a framework for helping persons and/or communities at risk in order to avoid, minimize or recover from the impact of the disasters Humanitarian Assistance (HA) Humanitarian assistance consists of activities conducted to relieve or reduce human pain, disease, hunger, 1
4 or privation created by conditions that might present a serious threat to life or that can result in great damage to or loss of property Liaison Naval Officers (LNOs) naval officers designated by the assisting or assisted navy to coordinate response and relief operations, receive and transmit information, and facilitate communications between the assisting and assisted navies. Assisting navy LNOs shall be posted at the coordination center of the assisted navy, while assisted navy LNOs shall be posted aboard the vessels or units of the assisting navy Mitigation includes structural and non-structural measures to limit the adverse impact of natural hazards, environmental degradation, and technological hazards Needs immediate and long-term needs regardless of the cause of the crisis, where humanitarian needs that exceed local capacity are generated Immediate needs are those required to save lives and mitigate immediate human suffering, including: search & rescue, water and sanitation/hygiene, food and nutrition, shelter, medical, security and safety of affected population and relief workers Long-term needs are those required to restore a sense of normalcy, including: rehabilitation, reconstruction, and development Needs Analysis a tool in identifying needs gaps by going over the cause of the needs and at the same time identifying solutions to help update and resolve differences, and determine outstanding (unfulfilled) needs/requirements and reasonably anticipated future needs Needs Assessments a tool in identifying needs gaps by going over the gaps in the results of any action made, to provide the basis for determining the capabilities & resources of various relief organizations, including foreign naval forces and assets One-Stop-Shop an integration of different government agencies in a single post or facility to hasten or expedite the issuances of CIQ clearances, port and harbor fees and tugboat and pilotage charges etc Points of Contact the persons with authority to receive and transmit information, facilitate communication with other ASEAN navies and the AHA Centre, and serve as point of contact for each member-navy. The term may also refer to a designated head/chief of office or unit Preparedness the activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective response to the impact of hazards, including the issuance of 2
5 timely and effective early warnings and the temporary evacuation of people and property from threatened locations Prevention the activities that provide outright avoidance of the adverse impacts of hazards, and the means to minimize related environmental, technological and biological disasters Recovery the decisions and actions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring or improving the pre-disaster living conditions of the stricken community, while encouraging and facilitating necessary adjustments to reduce disaster risk Response the provision of assistance or intervention during or immediately after a disaster to meet the life preservation and basic subsistence needs of those people affected. It can be of an immediate, short term, or protracted duration. 3.2 Principles Do No Harm - military responders must be aware of the possibility that interventions designed with the intention of producing positive outcomes can have unintended negative effects and should strive to avoid harmful unintended consequences when supporting HADR operations Impartiality assistance is provided without discriminating as to ethnic origin, gender, nationality, political opinions, race or religion. Relief of the suffering must be guided solely by needs and priority must be given to the most urgent cases of distress Neutrality assistance must be provided without engaging in hostilities or taking sides in controversies of a political, religious or ideological nature 4.0 References 4.1 United Nations General Assembly resolution 46/182 states that each State has the responsibility first and foremost to take care of the victims of natural disasters and other emergencies occurring on its territory. It defines the role of the UN in coordinating international humanitarian assistance when a Government requests external support. The Resolution 46/182 was unanimously adopted by UN Member States in Guidelines on the Use of Foreign Military and Civil Defense Assets in Disaster Relief (Oslo Guidelines) provides principles and procedures for requesting and coordinating military and civil-defense assets when these resources are deemed necessary and appropriate for humanitarian response. 4.3 Asia-Pacific Regional Guidelines for the Use of Foreign Military Assets in Natural Disaster Response Operations (APC MADRO) is a 3
6 reference guide for Member States who plan and execute foreign military support for international disaster response, and humanitarian entities. 4.4 ASEAN Regional Forum Strategic Guidance for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief is designed to provide high level guidance for both civil and military actors in the humanitarian assistance and disaster relief arena. It provides a common point of reference for ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) members to promote a common understanding of civil-military cooperation and coordination procedures for improving interoperability and cooperation between ARF participants, and so reduce their response time in disaster relief. 4.5 ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) is a legally-binding regional multi-hazard and policy framework for cooperation, coordination, technical assistance and resource mobilization in all aspects of disaster management in the 10 ASEAN Member states. 4.6 Standard Operating Procedure for Regional Standby Arrangements and Coordination of Joint Disaster Relief and Emergency Response Operations (SASOP) provides the guides and templates to initiate the establishment of the ASEAN Standby Arrangements for Disaster Relief and Emergency Response, the procedures for joint disaster relief and emergency response operations, the procedures for the facilitation and utilization of military and civilian assets and capacities, and the methodology for the periodic conduct of the ASEAN regional disaster emergency response simulation exercises (ARDEX). 4.7 Standard Operating Procedures for ASEAN Armies Cooperation in HADR Operations in Southeast Asia Region that serves as a guide for procedures for joint HADR operations and the facilitation and utilization of ASEAN armies assets and capacities. 4.8 Standard Operating Procedures for the Utilization of ASEAN Military Assets for HADR Operations 4.9 Concept Paper on the Use of ASEAN Military Assets and Capabilities in HA/DR discusses the utilization of military assets and capacities in support of the ASEAN Standby Arrangements as provided for under the AADMER Concept Paper on Establishment of Logistics Support Framework is aimed as a guide at promoting and achieving effective cooperation among ASEAN defense and military establishments in areas of common interests to complement existing mechanisms and institutions such as the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) and ASEAN Coordination Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA), and engender a multiplier effect on present initiatives. 4
7 5.0 Scope This SOP acknowledges the primacy of state sovereignty, and is non-binding. It focuses on emergency response activities and is not intended to apply to rehabilitation and reconstruction activities. Likewise, this SOP is not intended to be prescriptive, or directive, but functions as a supplement to existing plans and agreements, or may act as a guide to operational start points. 6.0 Consultation and Review Authorized bodies of respective Parties shall meet periodically for future review and amendments of this SOP. The outcome of the meetings shall be approved by the ASEAN Navy Chiefs Meeting (ANCM). 7.0 Concept of Operations In undertaking HADR operations, the following phases should serve as planning guide. Other basic naval support to HADR operations (see Annex A) must be taken into consideration as well. 7.1 Phase 0 Disaster Preparedness and Training Measures, Training and Exercises: ASEAN navies through the designated secretariat under this SOP shall conduct regular meetings, trainings, subject matter exchanges and naval exercises (Map Exercises, Command Post Exercise and Incident Command System & Field Exercises) to enhance effectiveness and inter-operability among its membernavies Technical Cooperation (Scientific and Technical Research): In order to increase preparedness and to mitigate disasters, the ASEAN navies may undertake technical cooperation including but not limited to the following: a. Mobilization of relief goods and other resources for HADR operations both within and outside the ASEAN member states; b. Developing technology to enhance disaster imaging and to standardize the data and information exchange for prevention and mitigation of disasters and calamities Earmarked Assets and Capabilities: Each navy may earmark naval assets and capabilities, which may be available for disaster relief and emergency response. Such earmarked assets and capacities shall be communicated to all Parties and AHA Centre. 5
8 In case no assets and capabilities have been earmarked by the Parties, assisting navies shall convey to the assisted navy their capabilities or services that they can offer to calibrate available capabilities between assisting navies and assisted navy. 7.2 Phase 1 Pre-deployment Designation of Points of Contact (POCs) All navies shall designate Points of Contact who have the authority to receive and transmit information, facilitate communication with other ASEAN navies and the AHA Centre, and serves as point of contact for each member. POCs are also required to coordinate with the Competent Authorities (CAs) with regards to approval of request and offer of assistance, and on other matters not within their jurisdiction Designation of Liaison Naval Officers (LNOs) Assisting navies shall designate LNOs at the Incident Command Post while the assisted navy shall designate LNOs aboard the assisting navy s ships to facilitate coordination and ensure control of HADR operations. LNOs should perform necessary protocols and situation briefing to the assisting navy s ships that they are designated to The LNOs shall provide periodic reports every four (4) hours through the fastest available means of the activities for the last four (4) hours, problems encountered, initial actions taken, recommendations, intentions for the next four (4) hours and other matters Facilitation of Diplomatic Clearances Assisting navies shall request for diplomatic clearances through their Defense Attachés for the entry of assisting navy s ships and embarked aircraft to the territory of assisted states and facilitate the boarding of the designated LNOs thereof Situational awareness and needs assessment prior deployment Assisted navy shall provide the assisting navies a comprehensive situational awareness and needs assessment prior to their deployment and arrival of their naval ships. 6
9 7.3 Phase 2 Deployment Prior to arrival to the territory of assisted state, the assisting navies shall coordinate through their designated LNOs for the following: Customs, Immigration and Quarantine (CIQ) checks and port/harbor pilot charges at the one-stop-shop if there is any. The assisted navy may facilitate and coordinate if possible the reduction or waiver of port, pilotage and tugboat charges of the assisting navies ships for HADR Operations. The Point of Contact (POC) or the Defense Attachés shall provide the present position of the assisting navy ships while on transit and volume of relief goods, to the LNOs The assisted navy shall designate the LNOs to provide the following for the smooth conduct of HADR operations: a. Briefing on the strategic and operational framework b. Force structure and organization c. Mission and objectives d. Constraints or restraints e. Logistics f. Force protection g. Required capabilities h. Updated needs assessment and necessary data/information on the development of the disaster situation. i. Coordinating instructions, communications, MSRs, APODs, and SPODs j. Details of the incident command system k. Updates on the on-going disaster relief and emergency response operations l. Coordination details for the deployment of the assisting navies assets and capabilities to support the on-going disaster relief and emergency response efforts m. Daily security assessment in the area operations of the HADR Operations disaster site n. Other necessary requirements (e.g. charts and maps, meteorology, oceanography, communications, liaison personnel, interpreter) needed for HADR operations The assisting navies shall not burden the assisted navy on its logistical requirements. They shall bear all necessary and collateral expenses that are essential for HADR operations. 7.4 Phase 3 Response: The assisted navy shall coordinate the force protection to the assisting navies, ensure coordination and coherence of all efforts and control the conduct of HADR operations. 7
10 7.4.2 The assisting navies shall work with the assisted navy s organizational or force structure and command relationship without deviating from their respective chain of command while conducting HADR operations The assisted navy shall determine the end state and priority of efforts (e.g. search and rescue, transportation support, delivery of relief and other disaster response related activities) that will be performed by the assisting navies The assisting and assisted navies, through their defense attachés, shall prepare and submit to the AHA Centre a report on the status and outcome of the actual provision of assistance within 24 to 48 hours of their arrival on the site of the disaster To ensure effective and prompt response in times of emergency, each ASEAN Navy shall be guided by a stipulated standard response time for deployment after receiving the request for assistance from the affected state or upon an offer for ASEAN humanitarian assistance being accepted. The time frame for deployment is for the first 30 days after the event of disaster or unless decided by the affected state. The following common response categories are proposed: Search and Rescue : within 0-48 hours Emergency Relief : within 0-5 days Relief Assistance : within 0-4 weeks 7.5 Phase 4 Transition Assisting navies may shift to transition upon completion of their assigned mission or upon recall by their higher authorities and comply with the parameters set for transition. Assisting navies that are recalled by their higher authorities shall duly inform the assisted navy Transition is accomplished upon completion of one or more of the following: a. When assisting navies have completed HADR tasks or transferred them to the Affected State or other organizations. b. At the expiration of a time frame or based on conditions imposed by the Affected State or the Assisting States. c. Assisting navies have informed the affected state that HADR tasks are completed and they are about to depart All assisting navies who responded to the HADR operations shall prepare a comprehensive report using the needs analysis and assessment for the AHA Centre and furnish the affected state the following details: 8
11 a. Introduction b. Chronology of Significant Events c. Details of Disaster Coordination Activities d. Details of Operations Conducted e. Lessons Learnt f. Challenges Encountered g. Recommendations h. Attachments/Annexes After completing this process, the assisted navy shall compile the lessons learnt from the operations for dissemination in future regional meetings, forum, capacity-building activities, and planning for simulation exercises. The lessons learnt shall also serve as inputs for the periodic review that will also be scheduled by the designated secretariat under this SOP. 7.6 Phase 5 Re-deployment The assisted navy will inform the assisting navies when to begin the withdrawal process from the disaster site when the Commander, Incident Command Post (ICP) has determined and declared that the desired end-state has been achieved If for some reason the assisting navy needs to re-deploy back to their home station or country, they will inform the Commander, ICP through their LNOs accordingly. 8.0 Organizational Structure The structure of the coordination mechanism will be dependent on the affected state s national structure and unique circumstances. Assisting navies with its assets need to remain flexible in integrating with existing structures and circumstances. The assisted navy shall endeavor to establish a combined coordinating center based on APC MADRO to facilitate the conduct of HADR operations by assisting navies. 9.0 Communications Procedures ASEAN Navies shall endeavor to develop a procedure to enhance communications interoperability for the conduct of HADR operations. It is the responsibility of the ASEAN Navies to provide Points of Contact in Annex B. The standard language for communications shall be English. Communications are not limited to the following: a. For strategic communications, each navy shall provide communications channel of their Operations Center b. For tactical communications of ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore, each navy shall provide a standard channel suitable in their area of operations. 9
12 10.0 Respect for Domestic and International Laws Assisting navies shall adhere to the domestic laws of the affected state and international laws in the conduct of HADR operations Date of Entry into Effect The terms and conditions of this SOP shall become effective on dd-mm-yy. The provisions of this SOP shall remain in effect until repealed, modified or amended in writing by the Parties List of Acronyms and Abbreviations AADMER ADMM ADSOM AHA Centre ANCM APOD ARDEX CIQ ICP LNO MSR POC SOP SPOD UNDAC ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response ASEAN Defense Minister s Meeting ASEAN Defense Senior Official s Meeting ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management ASEAN Navy Chiefs Meeting Airport of Disembarkation ASEAN Regional Disaster Emergency Response Simulation Exercises Customs, Immigration and Quarantine Incident Command Post Liaison Naval Officer Main Supply Route Point of Contact Standard Operating Procedure Seaport of Disembarkation United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination 13.0 Distribution The ANCM Permanent Secretariat shall determine the distribution of the SOP. 10
13 Annexes Annex A Basic Naval Support to HADR Operations Security This includes providing security for the storage facilities as well as providing security for convoys and personnel delivering emergency aid. Foreign naval forces might also provide security for dislocated civilian camps including maintenance of security within the camps themselves, places of worship, facilities for information dissemination, temporary shelter for threatened persons, and other HADR related activities. Relief Includes prompt aid to prevent loss of life, destruction of property and alleviate the suffering of disaster victims by providing immediate relief supplies such as water, food, shelter and first aid. One important role is to assist or facilitate the dissemination of relief information. Specific tasks may include but not limited to the following: Search and Rescue Evacuation of civilians Delivery of water, food, medical supplies/personnel, and shelter materials Establish/provide communications between relief officials and affected areas Transportation for civilian relief agencies. Civilian relief agencies may already have relief supplies and/or personnel (including medical professionals), but lack the means to rapidly reach disaster victims. Security for relief agency personnel, such as the use of military escorts (for issues and concerns regarding close civil-military cooperation). Affected Population Support This is designed to support the return or resettlement of affected persons or community. Missions include camp organization, basic construction, and administration; provision of food, potable water, supplies, medical attention; basic security concerns; and placement (movement or relocation to other countries, camps, and locations). If required to execute this type of mission, the foreign naval forces should use the services and facilities of civilian agencies and the Humanitarian Community. Foreign naval forces should avoid establishing and administering camps if at all possible. Technical Assistance
14 Short-term technical assistance in areas including, but not limited to, communications restoration, relief supply management, medical care, and provision of emergency transportation for persons of risk, high priority relief supply delivery, establishment and training of Search, Rescue and Recovery Teams and de-mining. Foreign naval forces must establish implementing procedures and set priorities regarding technical advice and assistance to the affected area and relief agencies as soon as possible. The technical assistance policies should clarify what assistance may be provided as well as the source of authority for assistance. Consequence Management (CM) Operations CM operations eliminate the negative impact of 1) intentional or inadvertent release of weapons of mass destruction (chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear materials (CBRN) and 2) epidemics (infectious disease, biological) and natural disasters. CM operations involve those essential services and activities required to manage, mitigate, or reduce problems resulting from catastrophic events. Such services may include transportation, communications, public works, firefighting, rescue, information planning, care of mass casualties, resources support, health and medical services, urban search and rescue, disposal of hazardous materials, distribution of food, and energy-related services.
15 Annex B Points of Contact A. Operations Center B. Communications Channel Royal Brunei Navy A. Operations Center B. Communications Channel A. Operations Center B. Communications Channel A. Operations Center B. Communications Channel A. Operations Center B. Communications Channel A. Operations Center Royal Cambodian Navy Indonesian Navy Royal Malaysian Navy Myanmar Navy Philippine Navy Headquarters Philippine Navy, Naval Operations Center Telephone : Mobile : Skype : navalops.center B. Communications Channel a. BHF Marine Band Channel 16 (156.8MHz), when connected may change to MHz (Primary) or MHz (Secondary) frequency channel for later communication. b. HF/SSB MHz USB (Primary) USB (Secondary) Republic of Singapore Navy SAF Defense Attaches (DAs) in the affected countries would be designated as POCs for the purpose of the SOP.
16 Royal Thai Navy A. Operations Center B. Communications Channel A. Operations Center B. Communications Channel Vietnam People s Navy