SHOWDOWN IN THE MIDDLE EAST

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1 SHOWDOWN IN THE MIDDLE EAST IRAN IRAQ WAR ( ) PERSIAN GULF WAR ( ) WAR IN IRAQ (2003 Present) WAR IN AFGHANISTAN (2001 Present)

2 Iran Iraq War Disputes over region since collapse of the Ottoman Empire Increased in 1971 due to disputes over control of the Shatt al-arab Waterway (used for oil shipping) 1975 Algiers Agreement was intended to allow both countries equal use of the waterway

3 Saddam stated that the Iranian Revolution violated the sovereignty of the Iranian Government and was a threat to the safety of Iraq Iran Iraq War Tensions increased between Saddam Hussein of Iraq Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran Sep 1980 Iraqi Causes for Invasion Khomeini stated that Saddam s Government was corrupt, oppressive and secularist and violated the very foundations of Islam Iranians attempted to assassinate the Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Disputes over control of the Shatt al-arab waterway increased Prevention of the possible spread of an Islamic Revolution in the Middle East Increased control of vital oil resources along the Iran-Iraq border

4 Lasted from Iran Iraq War U.S. supported Iraq to oppose expansion of Iran in the region Key Events of the War Tanker War: Iraq attacked all Iranian oil tankers leaving through the Persian Gulf USS Stark Incident: Iraqi F-1 Mirage Attack Aircraft fired missiles at the USS Stark in 1987 (Killing 37 and injuring 25)

5 Iran Iraq War USS Vincennes Incident: US Navy Missile Destroyer shot down Commercial Airliner in 1988 (Iranian Flight 655) killing 290 on board US Radar operators identified airliner as an Iranian Fighter Jet Iraqi use of Chemical Weapons accounted for at least 50,000 deaths during the war UN negotiated a cease fire Between Iraq & Iran on 20 August 1988

6 Persian Gulf War Lasted from Aug 1990 Feb 1991 Iraqi Reasons for Invading Kuwait Claimed Kuwait was a province of Iraq (Recognized their government in 1963) Iran-Iraq war put Iraq in debt to Kuwait (They refused to write off the millions) Collapsing oil prices affected Iraq Claimed Kuwait s slant drilling was stealing Iraqi Oil reserves Claimed Kuwait was exceeding OPEC quotas on oil production

7 Persian Gulf War 2 Aug 1990 Iraq Invaded Kuwait 7 Aug 1990 Operation Desert Shield established to protect Saudi Arabia from attack 23 Aug 1990 Saddam Hussein appeared on Iraqi TV with Western hostages (to prevent retaliations) 29 Nov 1990 U.N. Resolution #678 gave Iraq until 15 Jan 1991 to withdraw all troops from Kuwait United Nations Coalition Force of 34 different Nations

8 Persian Gulf War 17 Jan 1991 Air War began UN Forces used Carpet Bombing Iraqi responded by starting Scud Missile Attacks (Suspected of using Chemical Agents) 22 Jan 1991 Iraq fired missiles at Israel Saddam s attempt to start a Holy War

9 Persian Gulf War 29 Jan 1991 Iraqi forces crossed border into Saudi Arabia and attacked city of Khafji 23 Feb 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced General Norman Schwarzkopf used the Hail Mary maneuver with elements of the U.S. Army s 7 th Corps & 18 th Airborne Corps

10 Persian Gulf War: The 100 Hour War

11 Persian Gulf War Iraq s Scorched Earth Policy Saddam Hussein ordered his retreating forces to light every Kuwaiti Oil Rig on fire as they fled (26 Feb 1991)

12 Persian Gulf War Highway of Death Feb 1991 Iraqi troops tried to flee Kuwait US Tiger Battalion & A-10 Tank Killers caught them as they fled the city

13 War in Iraq 2003 Present Reasons for Invading Iraq Iraq had Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD s) Only in limited quantities (Most of the Information given by Iraqi sources was False) Refusal by Iraq to allow UN safety inspectors into facilities Ineffectiveness of UN Economic & Security sanctions on Iraq Belief that Iraq was harboring members of al-qaeda

14 War in Iraq Human Rights violations committed by Iraqi leaders Over 300 mass graves have been Found so far Mass murder and use of Chemical agents

15 War in Iraq 2 Oct 2002 US / UK joint resolution to use force was passed 48 NATO Nations formed Coalition of the Willing Initial Invasion Forces made up of 150,000 US 46,000 UK 2,000 Australia 200 Polish

16 War in Iraq 10 Jul 2002 Advanced CIA pre-invasion teams went in to support rebels 20 Mar Operation Iraqi Freedom began with invasion of 101 st Airborne and 82 nd Air Assault troops 12 Apr 2003 Baghdad had fallen to the US led coalition forces (NATO) 13 Dec Saddam Hussein is captured by US Forces

17 War in Iraq: Trial of Saddam Hussein Saddam had his son-in-laws murdered when they tried to escape his control by trying to leave the country Saddam s sons (Usay & Qusay) were both killed by US Forces Saddam was tried on 148 counts of murder by the Iraqi Interim government Saddam was found guilty and hung 48 out of 55 leaders have been captured

18 War in Iraq In 2005 the first free democratic elections were held in Iraq In 2006 Civil War between Sunni & Shia In 2007 US increased its forces by 21,500 In 2009 Combat forces began withdrawing from Iraq (British, Australian, & US) Sep 2010 Iraqi Freedom ended

19 War in Afghanistan Reasons for Invading Increased activities by al-qaeda World Trade Center in 1993 US Embassy bombings in 1998 USS Cole Bombing in 2000 World Trade Center (9/11) in 2001 Human Rights oppression by the Taliban government Elimination of al-qaeda leadership & infrastructure

20 AMERICAN S AT WAR Comparing the Cost of Conflict Span of War Title Americans Dead Estimated Cost of War American Revolution 4,435 $101,100, War of ,260 $90,000, Mexican War 13,283 $71,400, Civil War 558,052 $5,183,000, Spanish American War 2,446 $283,200, World War I 116,708 $18,676,000, World War II 407,316 $262,259,000, Korean Conflict 33,651 $67,386,000, Vietnam Conflict 58,168 $150,000,000, Gulf War 293 $61,100,000, PRESENT Enduring Freedom 1858 Unknown IRAQI Freedom 4484 $3.2 to 4 Trillion

21 COST in American Lives Comparing War Deaths to Murders in the S.E. United States Total Reported Murders by State State Sq Miles Population TOTALS GEORGIA 57,906 9,363, ,129 ALABAMA 52,423 4,599, ,355 MISSISSIPPI 48,434 4,365, ,321 LOUISIANA 53,821 6,431, ,420 FLORIDA 58,561 17,089, ,041 S. CAROLINA 31,189 4,321, ,134 N. CAROLINA 53,821 9,299, ,371 TENNESSEE 42,146 6,038, ,070 ARKANSAS 53,182 2,923, ,712 S.E. U.S. Totals 451,483 64,432,746 4,040 4,085 4,116 3,965 4,004 4,377 4,671 4,439 4,069 3, ,553 Total Reported Combat Deaths AFGHANISTAN 251,825 32,738, ,858 IRAQ 168,754 28,221, ,484 TOTALS 420,579 60,959, , ,342

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