STUDY TO EXAMINE JOB PROFILE AND TASKS OF TRAIN CREW MEMBERS NOT DRIVING TRAINS BUT PERFORMING OTHER SAFETY CRITICAL TASKS ON BOARD OF TRAINS

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1 STUDY TO EXAMINE JOB PROFILE AND TASKS OF TRAIN EW MEMBERS NOT DRIVING TRAINS BUT PERFORMING OTHER SAFETY ITICAL TASKS ON BOARD OF TRAINS Authors Final Report Marta Carvajal, Nuria del Barrio, Sara Trenas, Javier Figuera, Rob te Pas, Miguel Angel Gonzalo, Lieuwe Zigterman Phone Date May, 2010 Version V1.0. File-category Revision history Version Date Author Modification V0.1. December 16 th, 2009 V0.2. January 22 nd, 2010 V0.3. April 29 th, 2010 Team V.0.3. May 6 th, 2010 Lieuwe Zigterman According with ERA comments of January 15 th, 2010 According with ERA comments of 15 th April, 2010 Suggestions for improvement of the English Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 1/165

2 Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 2/165

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS List of references... 8 Acronyms... 9 Executive Summary PART I - STUDY OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY Objectives and legal background Methodology First step Second step Third step PART II FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS Degree of regulation in Member States plus Norway Tasks assigned and job profiles identified for crew members Tasks assigned to crew members for passenger services Tasks assigned to Crew Members Tasks regulated by National Binding Rules Tasks considered safety relevant by Railway Undertakings Job profiles identified on passenger services Tasks assigned to crew members on freight services Tasks assigned to crew members Tasks regulated by National Binding Rules Tasks considered safety relevant by Railway Undertakings Job profiles on freight services Job requirements Job requirements for crew members on passenger services Job requirements for crew members on freight services Training and examination of crew members Training and examination for crew members on passenger services Training and examination for crew members on freight services Recognition of professional qualifications for crew members Recognition of professional qualifications for passenger services Recognition of professional qualifications for freight services Provisions to ensure that crew members competences are maintained Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 3/165

4 6.1. Provisions on passenger services Provisions on freight services Mobility of workers PART III - FACTS AND FIGURES Results of the First step Results of the Second step Job profiles and tasks on passenger services Job profiles and tasks on freight services Requirements and provisions for passenger services Requirements and provisions for freight services Results of thethird step Countries and Railway Undertakings object of analysis in the Third step of the study Job profiles and tasks on passenger services Tasks comparison of the different job profiles on passenger services Profile patterns on passenger services Job profiles and tasks on freight services Task comparison of the different job profiles on freight services Requirements and provisions for PP1 and PP2 on passenger services Differences with regard to requirements and provisions on passenger services Requirements and provisions for job profiles on freight services Differences with regards to requirements and provisions for freight services Mobility of workers Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 4/165

5 INDEX OF TABLES PART I - STUDY OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY Objectives and legal background Methodology Table 1. Summary of NSAs answers in First Step Table 2. Summary of NSAs and RUs answers in Second step Table 3. Countries object of analysis in the Third step PART II FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS Degree of regulation in Member States plus Norway Table 4. Degree of regulation in Member States plus Norway Tasks assigned and job profiles identified for crew members Table 5. Tasks identified by type of service Table 6. Assignment of tasks on passenger services Table 7. Tasks assignment for profile patterns Table 8. Tasks assignment on freight services PART III - FACTS AND FIGURES Results of the First step Table 9. Regulations on passenger services Table 10. Regulations on freight services Table 11. Task comparison of the different job profiles defined by MS plus Norway in on passenger services Table 12. Task comparison of the different job profiles defined by the countries in on freight services Results of the Second step Table 13. List of job profiles (JP) for passenger services in the 15 RUs Table 14. Job Profiles and Tasks on passenger service in the 15 RUs Table 15. Tasks assigned by at least 7 RUs Table 16. Overview of the JPs grouped by PPs Table 17. Job Profiles (JP) considered in each Profile Pattern (PP) identified Table 18. Job Profiles identified as PP1 and tasks assigned Table 19. Job Profiles identified as PP2 and tasks assigned Results of thethird step Table 20. Job Profiles and tasks on freight services Table 21. Summary of countries object of analysis in the Third step Table 22. Identification of job profiles (JP) in each RU Table 23. Job Profiles and Tasks on passenger services Table 24. Assignment of tasks by NSA or RUs Table 25. Countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rules Table 26. Tasks assigned by at least 50% of the countries Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 5/165

6 Table 27. Overview of job profiles and assigned tasks Table 28. Job profiles identifed as profile patterns Table 29. Overview of the JPs grouped by PPs Table 30. Assignment of tasks for PP Table 31. Countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rulesfor PP Table 32. Assignment of tasks for PP Table 33. Countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rulesof PP Table 34. Identification of job profiles (JP) in each country Table 35. Job profiles and tasks on freight services Table 36. Assignment of tasks by country Table 37. Countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rules Table 38. Selection criteria "profile pattern 1" for passenger services Table 39. Training "profile pattern 1" for passenger service Table 40. Examination "profile pattern 1" for passenger services Table 41. Recognition of professional qualification "profile pattern 1" for passenger services Table 42. Competence management and assessment "profile pattern 1" for passenger services Table 43. Selection criteria "profile pattern 2" for passenger services Table 44. Training "profile pattern 2" for passenger services Table 45. Examination "profile pattern 2" for passenger services Table 46. Recognition of professional qualification "profile pattern 2" for passenger services Table 47. Competence management and assessment "profile pattern 2" for passenger services Table 48. Selection criteria for freight services Table 49. Training for freight services Table 50. Examination for freight services Table 51. Recognition of professional qualification for freight services Table 52. Competence management and assessment for freight services Table 53. Mobility of workers Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 6/165

7 CONTENTS OF THE ENCLOSED CD ANNEX I - Questionnaire Script First Step ANNEX II - Data of the First Step ANNEX III - First Step Intermediate Report ANNEX IV - Questionnaire Script for interviews ANNEX V Interview Reports ANNEX VI - Second Step Intermediate Report ANNEX VII - Overview per country Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 7/165

8 STUDY TO EXAMINE JOB PROFILE AND TASKS OF TRAIN EW MEMBERS NOT DRIVING TRAINS BUT PERFORMING OTHER SAFETY ITICAL TASKS ON BOARD OF TRAINS FINAL REPORT List of references Directive 2007/59/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the certification of train drivers operating locomotives and trains on the railway system in the Community Commission Decision 2006/920/EC of 11 August 2006 concerning the technical specification of interoperability relating to the subsystem Traffic Operation and Management of the Trans-European conventional rail system Atkins Study : DG sponsored study Training and staff requirements for railway staff in cross-border operations Directive 2004/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on safety on the Community s railways and amending Council Directive 95/18/EC on the licensing of railway undertakings and Directive 2001/14/EC on the allocation of railway infrastructure capacity and the levying of charges for the use of railway infrastructure and safety certification (Railway Safety Directive). Corrigendum to Directive 2004/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on safety on the Community s railways and amending Council Directive 95/18/EC on the licensing of railway undertakings and Directive 2001/14/EC on the allocation of railway infrastructure capacity and the levying of charges for the use of railway infrastructure and safety certification (Railway Safety Directive) (OJ L 164, ) - OJ L 220, , p First step Intermediate Report of this study. V1.0 of August 14 th, 2009 Second step Intermediate Reports of this study. V1.0 of December 16 th, 2009 Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 8/165

9 Acronyms CM: Crew member : Company rule ERA: European Railway Agency IM: Infrastructure Manager JP: Job Profile MIN: Ministry MS: Member State NA: Not Applicable : National binding rule ND: No Data NSA: National Safety Authority PP: Profile Pattern PRM: Person with Reduce Mobility RU: Railway Undertaking SR: Safety Relevant TC: Training Centre Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 9/165

10 List of acronyms of countries: AT: Austria BE: Belgium BU: Bulgaria CZ: Czech Republic DE: Germany DK: Denmark EE: Estonia ES: Spain FI: Finland FR: France EL: Greece HU: Hungary IE: Ireland IT: Italy LV: Latvia LT: Lithuania LU: Luxembourg NL: the Netherlands NO: Norway PL: Poland PT: Portugal RO: Romania SK: Slovakia SI: Slovenia SE: Sweden UK: United Kingdom Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 10/165

11 Executive Summary This report presents the results of a study carried out to examine the current situation concerning national regulations of train crew members not driving trains but performing other safety tasks, in all Member States with a railway system, plus Norway. The study analyses job profiles and job tasks specified in national legislation and the ways these are implemented by the railway organisations. Of the 26 countries consulted (25 MS plus Norway), 22 answered the questionnaire. Of these 22 countries, 10 were selected for a more in-depth analysis consisting of interviews with the NSAs and some RUs.. Of the 22 countries that answered the questionnaire, 21 (96%) have CM other than drivers performing safety critical tasks. Of these 21 countries, 20 have regulating requirements and provisions. The percentage of countries that regulate the different requirements, of the 20 countries with, are as follows: Tasks - 75% Selection criteria - 95% Training - 65% Examination - 45% Certification and licensing - 40% Competence management and assessment - 65% Due to the difference between the tasks assigned to the staff on board passenger and freight trains, the analysis of tasks and job profiles have been carried out separately. The tasks assigned to CM on passenger services in at least 50% of the countries are those related to: Train preparation: shunting. Checks before departure. Departure process: correct closure of the doors. Communication with passengers (passenger safety). Train evacuation and passenger safety. Communication with driver, RU or others in emergency situations. Reporting any unusual occurrences. Ticket inspection. Dealing with customers: information, misbehaviour, support to PRM. Except for the tasks related to customer service, ticket inspection and dealing with passengers, the remaining tasks are regulated by in at least 50% of the countries. The tasks related to train preparation, checks before departure, departure process, communication with passengers and train evacuation and passenger safety are considered safety critical tasks by at least 50% of the RUs that assign the tasks to the CM. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 11/165

12 According to the assignment of tasks to job profiles, two different groups of similar profiles or profile patterns have been identified for passenger services: profile pattern 1 is found in 65% of the countries and profile pattern 2 is found in 35% of the countries. The main difference between the two profile patterns are the tasks assigned to: train preparation, checking brake status and safety equipment and communication with RU and others (fire brigade, police) in emergency situations. These tasks are only assigned to profile pattern 1. Similar customer service tasks are assigned to both profile patterns. In relation to requirements and provisions, the main difference in professional qualifications between the two profile patterns is the minimum education requirements to apply for the job: secondary school for profile pattern 1 and primary school for profile pattern 2. For both profile patterns, the specific training and professional competences that allow crew members to carry out their tasks are provided on-the-job. For freight services, the tasks assigned to CM in at least 50% of the countries are those related to: Train preparation: shunting and coupling. Checks before departure: brake status and end of train signal. Departure process. Loading. Communication with driver in emergency situations. All of them are regulated by and all of them are considered safety relevant by at least 50% of the RUs that assign the tasks to CM. Due to the variety of tasks assigned to the job profiles on freight services, it has not been possible to identify relevant profile patterns. A wide variation exists in the professional qualification requirements among the countries with CM for freight services. The most common minimum education requirement is completion of secondary school studies to apply for the job. The specific training for the job and the professional competences that allow CM to carry out their tasks are provided on-the-job. In 45% of the countries, a certification system exists that is regulated by for profile pattern 1 on passenger service. For profile pattern 2, no certification system exists in any of the countries. As regards crew members on freight services, a certification system regulated by exists in 56% of the countries. The opinion of the NSAs regarding implementing a European certification system is as follows: 4 support it, 1 do not support it, 4 have no opinion and 1 has not answered. In relation to the RUs: 7 of the 15 RUs, support the establishment of a European certification system, 7 do not support it and 1 has no opinion. Most of the countries (6) and the RUs (11) state that, in the event of implementing a European certification system, it should not to be established for every job profile, but should cover on-board safety functions only. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) 12/165

13 PART I - STUDY OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY 1. Objectives and legal background The study carried out to examine job profiles and tasks of train crew members, other than drivers, performing safety critical tasks on board, has produced the results presented herein below. The contract (tender ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01) for the execution of this study has been awarded by the European Railway Agency to the consortium of two Notified Bodies, Asociación de Acción Ferroviaria, Cetren and KEMA Rail Transport Certification. The invitation to tender was issued by the European Railway Agency in the framework of its activity related to the implementation of Directive 2007/59/EC 1 and published in the Official Journal of the European Union (Contract notice n 2008/S ). Directive 2007/59/EC on certification of train drivers initiates the process of step-by-step implementation of a European certification system for train drivers, but does not cover other crew members that may perform safety critical tasks, other than train drivers. Instead, the Directive provides, in regard to this group of staff, for further analysis and assessment to be carried out by the Agency and to be reported to the Commission: Article 28 - Report on other crew members 1. The Agency shall, in a report to be presented by 4 June 2009, and taking into account the TSI on operation and traffic management developed under Directives 96/48/EC and 2001/16/EC, identify the profile and tasks of other crew members performing safety critical tasks whose professional qualifications accordingly contribute to railway safety, which should be regulated at a Community level by means of a system of licenses and/or certificates which may be similar to the system established by this Directive. 1 DIRECTIVE 2007/59/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 October 2007 on the certification of train drivers operating locomotives and trains on the railway system in the Community Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 13/165

14 2. On the basis of this report, the Commission shall, by 4 June 2010, present a report and, if appropriate, make a legislative proposal on a certification system for the other crew members referred to in paragraph 1. The scope of this study is to gather reliable information about current regulation, practice and experience in EU countries in regard to train crew members other than train drivers, which enables the comparison and identification of similar approaches in legislation and/or binding rules. The study is expected to provide the Agency with useful information on the current situation in regard to requirements (established either in legal documents, published by the countries or in binding rules issued by appointed bodies) and practices in the work organisation of railway undertakings concerning the different tasks and job profiles of train crew members other than train driver. The final objective of this study is to give a picture of the tasks and job profiles of train crew members and the various forms these may take in different countries and Railway Undertakings, highlighting similarities and differences, to allow the Agency to produce the above mentioned report on the certification of train crew members. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 14/165

15 2. Methodology The study was carried out in three steps: First Step: Survey by questionnaire sent to National Safety Authorities. Second Step: Information gathered through personal interviews. Third Step: Conclusions based on the first and second steps. These steps are detailed in the remainder of this chapter First step The National Safety Authorities of all Member States, plus Norway, operating a railway system, have been sent the questionnaire in order to analyse their national legislation or regulations. The purpose of this step was the collection of basic information on current legislation or regulations applicable to the employment of staff assigned to accompany trains. This included researching the following matters: The possible existence of requirements applicable at a national level (legislation and National Binding Rules). The identification of various types of profiles or functions and tasks summarised within the staff group that could be defined as train crew members or train accompanying staff. The information was collected through a questionnaire which is included as Annex I (Questionnaire Script First Step) in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. Once the questionnaire was approved by the ERA, it was submitted to the NSAs of the 25 Member States operating railway systems plus Norway. It was sent mid-december of the 26 NSAs answered the questionnaire within 2 months. Each questionnaire returned was processed and analysed, and a summary was produced and returned to its respective NSA for approval. The objective of this summary was: To display the information collected in a uniform way. This information concerned current national legislation or regulations as well as any kind of National Binding Rules applicable to train crew members, other than Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 15/165

16 drivers, in order to identify all provisions at a national level binding to all RUs. To ask for any missing information considered necessary to complete the first step of the study. Of the 22 summary documents sent, answers were received from 16 countries. It is important to highlight that the information analysed in the First step was processed by the NSA at the beginning of The filled-in questionnaires, together with the summary documents, are included as Annex II (Data of the First step) in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. The perceived difference between the tasks assigned to the staff on board passenger trains and those on board freight trains was the reason for analysing the tasks and profiles separately for passenger and freight services. A summary of the above is shown in Table 1. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 16/165

17 Table 1. Summary of NSA answers in First Step TOTAL MS + Norway NSA replies received Countries having CM with safety related tasks Countries with for CM Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Of the total 20 countries with for CM Countries with CM in Countries Only passenger service Both passenger and freight service Only freight service regulating tasks by Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Denmark Estonia Estonia Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland France France France France France France Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Greece Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden the Netherlands the Netherlands the Netherlands United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom TOTAL Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 17/165

18 2.2. Second step The Second step was based on a survey regarding job profile and job tasks beyond those specified in national legislation or regulations in ten countries. The information was collected through personal interviews with National Safety Authorities as well as 15 RUs in 10 selected countries (9 Member States plus Norway). The information provided in the First step of the study enabled an overview to be seen of the current situation. This formed the basis for taking proper decisions to continue with the Second step. A more in-depth and detailed analysis beyond national obligations was then carried out in the Second step, related to the ten selected countries. This analysis concerned legal requirements and specifications as well as supplementary information on tasks assigned to crew members according to company regulations. In agreement with the Agency, the following countries were selected for the interviews: Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands. In order to guarantee that the selected countries are representative of the European railway market, the following aspects were taken into consideration: The existence of National Binding Rules for crew members on passengers trains only, or for both passenger and freight trains: o Countries with National Binding Rules to be applied only to crew members on passenger trains: France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Spain and Sweden. o Countries with National Binding Rules to be applied to crew members in both passenger and freight trains: Bulgaria, Poland and Slovenia. o Country with crew members but no applicable National Binding Rules: the Netherlands. Number of Railway Undertakings authorised for passenger transport: o Countries with more than one Railway Undertaking authorised for passenger transport: France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Sweden and the Netherlands. o Countries with only one Railway Undertaking authorised for passenger transport: Bulgaria and Spain. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 18/165

19 Countries with more than one Railway Undertaking authorised for freight transport: Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands. Geographical situation: o Northern Europe: Norway and Sweden. o Central Europe: France, Germany, Poland and the Netherlands. o Eastern Europe: Hungary, Slovenia and Bulgaria. o Southern Europe: Spain. Within these 10 countries, 15 representative Railway Undertakings were selected, having staff on board both passenger and freight trains or on board passenger trains only. For the personal interviews with NSAs and RUs, interview scripts were drafted taking into account the information collected during the First step of the study. The interview scripts were approved by the ERA and were tested during interviews in two selected countries (Spain and the Netherlands). Whenever the information resulting from the interviews needed to be clarified or extended additional questions were added to the questionnaire. The interview script used in the interviews is included as Annex IV (Questionnaire Script for interviews) in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. The interviews with the NSAs of the selected countries were firstly used for the confirmation of the information received during the First step. The report on the First step of the study was used for that purpose. Secondly, two other sets of questions were asked to the NSAs, related to the Mobility of Workers and Safety Management Systems. This additional set of questions was also included in the interview script prepared for the interviews with the RUs. The main objective of the interviews with the RUs was to describe the job profiles defined within their respective organisations; specifically which of them are defined in National Binding Rules and which are defined by company rules only. In addition, the tasks assigned to each job profile, the individual weight of each task in terms of a percentage of all job tasks, the relation between job tasks connected to operation and safety and a complete overview of the requirements and provisions applicable to each job profile were described. After the completion of the interviews, records were sent to the interview partners for approval in order to avoid misunderstanding. Additional questions were included whenever clarification or further information was considered necessary. The interview reports are included as Annex V in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 19/165

20 As a result of the interviews with the NSAs and RUs in this Second step, a more detailed and accurate overview of National Binding Rules could be established. In countries not seeming to have National Binding Rules regulating tasks for crew members at first glance, such as Hungary, Norway and Poland, it turned out that rules exist, established at a national level, that should be complied with by all the Railway Undertakings. In the case of Hungary, the NSA creates a regulatory basis. This is used by the RUs in order to establish their tasks. According to the RUs, these tasks are regulated by National Binding Rules. In Norway, the legislative situation changed after the date the first questionnaire was sent to the NSA (December 2008). During 2009, the Norwegian NSA established rules to be applied to staff on board trains by all Railway Undertakings. These rules have been in force since January As far as Poland is concerned, there are National Binding Rules for all Railway Undertakings, not originating from the NSA but from the Infrastructure Manager. In Germany, as a result of the information obtained through the interviews, it became clear that the tasks are regulated by the RUs and not through National Binding Rules. There was also an increase of the insight into countries with staff on board freight trains. In France, the interviewed Railway Undertaking has staff on board freight trains in certain specific cases and consequently national rules are applicable. According to the information obtained in the First step, there were no for crew members on freight services. However, during the interview with the incumbent RU for freight services, we were informed that in the event staff were on board freight trains then national legislation was applicable. As far as Bulgaria and Slovenia are concerned, the Railway Undertakings authorised for freight transport have no Crew Members on board trains. Therefore, in these countries the existing National Binding Rules are not applied to staff on board freight trains. Table 2 shows the current state of the 22 countries that answered the questionnaire in the First step, including the clarifications from the Second step, (as detailed in the preceding paragraphs) as well as the countries and RUs selected for the in-depth study. The report with the analysis carried out in the Second step of the study is included as Annex VI (Second step Intermediate Report) in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 20/165

21 NSA replies received Table 2. Summary of NSA and RU answers in Second step Countries with for CM Countries with CM in Only Both passenger passenger and service Freight service Austria Austria Austria Of the total 20 countries with for CM Only freight service Countries regulating tasks by Of the 15 countries regulating tasks by in: Passenger service Freight service Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Selected Countries Interviewed countries and RUs Selected RUs with CM on passenger services Selected RUs with CM on freight services Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria BDZ AED BDZ AED Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic Denmark Denmark Denmark Estonia Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland France France France France France France France SNCF SNCF Germany Germany Germany Germany DB AG / NOB Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary MAV START / GySEV Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway NSB / Flytoget Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland PKP Intercity PKP Cargo Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia SZ Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Renfe Sweden Sweden Sweden Sweden SJ / DSBFirst the Netherlands the Netherlands NS-H / NS-R United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 21/165

22 2.3. Third step In the Third Step, an analysis of the information gathered in the First and Second steps has been carried out with a focus on the job profile elements related to operation and safety. The objective of the Third step of the study is to indicate the extent to which job profiles found are comparable or differ from each other. The analysis gives an overview of the extent to which the job of train crew members is currently being defined by the various national regulations and in the various railway company organisations: Tasks that are part of the responsibility of crew members in all or most of the countries. Tasks that are part of the job profile only in a few cases, due to the specific organisation of the railway company. Proportion of job tasks that are part of all or most of the job profiles analysed compared with other job tasks. What level of turnover of staff exists between the railway companies. Differences in regard to competence requirements established at a national or company level which hinder the mobility of workers. The opinion of the interview partners concerning the introduction of a European certification scheme. In order to produce the proper analysis, taking into account that the regulation of tasks will be the basis for it, the information received from the 10 countries in the Second step has been compiled together with the information from the other countries, according to their answers to the first questionnaire. Passenger service: countries under Third step analysis 17 countries: o 10 countries interviewed: 7 countries with tasks regulated by 3 countries with tasks regulated by the RUs (Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands) o 7 countries that have regulating tasks but were not interviewed. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that of these 17 countries, 14 have regulating tasks (7 were interviewed and 7 were not). Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 22/165

23 Freight service: countries under Third step analysis: 9 countries: o 4 countries interviewed (the other 6 countries interviewed do not have tasks regulated for CM on freight services): 3 countries with tasks regulated by 1 country with tasks regulated by a RU o 5 countries that have regulating tasks but were not interviewed. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that of these 9 countries, 8 have regulating tasks (3 were interviewed and 5 were not). Table 3 shows a summary of the countries under Third step analysis. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 23/165

24 Table 3. Countries analysed in the Third step Countries with for CM Austria Countries regulating tasks by of the 20 countries with for CM Of the 15 countries regulating tasks by in: Countries with tasks regulated by on passenger services Countries with tasks regulated by on freight services Countries subject to the Third step on passenger services Countries selected for interviews Countries not interviewed but regulating tasks by Total Countries object of the Third step on freight services Countries selected for interviews Countries not interviewed but regulating tasks by Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Total Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland France France France France France France France France Germany Germany Germany Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden the Netherlands the Netherlands United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART I - 24/165

25 PART II FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS The findings and conclusions of this study are made through an analysis of the information received from the first questionnaire answered by 22 countries (21 MS, plus Norway) and through interviews with the NSAs and the RUs. A summary of each country is contained in Annex VII (Overview per country) included in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. 1. Degree of regulation in Member States plus Norway According to the information received during the First step, 21 of the 22 countries that answered the questionnaire have crew members other than drivers with safety related tasks. 20 of the 21 countries (with the sole exception of the Netherlands) have National Binding Rules for crew members regulating provisions and requirements related to one or several aspects of job profiles and 15 of these 20 countries regulate specific tasks through National Binding Rules. In relation to the regulation of requirements and provisions related to job profiles: Selection criteria, as a basic element for personnel selection, are regulated by National Binding Rules in most cases: with only one exception (Ireland), all countries have specific provisions for selection criteria established by National Binding Rules. Recognition of professional competence through a certification system is the least regulated provision by National Binding Rules: 40% of the countries (8 of the 20) have a certification system regulated by National Binding Rules. The rest of the countries, with one exception (France), which has a certification system regulated by company rules, do not have a certification system to recognise the professional competence of their crew members. This means that in most countries there is no national procedure for the mutual recognition of professional qualifications for crew members. Provisions for examinations have a similar level of regulation as the recognition of professional competence: nine countries (45%) have regulations for examination procedures which are binding for Railway Undertakings. Provisions for training to ensure that knowledge and skills of crew members are kept up to date, and provisions for a competence management system to ensure that individual competence are adequate, are subject to national regulation in 13 countries, or 65%. Table 4 summarises the degree of regulation in Member States, plus Norway. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 25/165

26 Table 4. Degree of regulation in Member States, plus Norway NSA replies received Countries having CM with safety related tasks Countries with for CM Countries regulating tasks by Selection criteria Regulation of Training Examination Certification system Competence management Specific requierements for international services Austria Austria Austria NO Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic NO NO Denmark Denmark Denmark NO Estonia Finland Finland Finland Finland NO NO France France France France NO Germany Germany Germany Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary NO Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland NO Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Norway Norway Norway Norway NO Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal NO NO Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia NO Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia NO Spain Spain Spain Spain NO NO Sweden Sweden Sweden NO NO the Netherlands the Netherlands NO REGULATION BY United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom NO NO Countries with Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 26/165

27 2. Tasks assigned and job profiles identified for crew members In order to analyse similar tasks in MS plus Norway, a number of significant tasks concerning the possible activities of crew members, both operative and commercial, were included in the questionnaire used for the personal interviews in the Second step. Operational tasks were identified considering those specified as Minimum elements relevant to professional qualifications for the tasks associated with accompanying trains in the Commission Decision 2006/920/EC Train Operation and Management (Commission Decision in force at the beginning of the study). Additionally, the experience of the team members and the answers received from the NSAs during the First step of the study were taken into account. Some other tasks identified during the interviews with the RUs have also been included. The Minimum elements relevant to professional qualification for the tasks associated with accompanying trains indicated in the Commission Decision 2006/920/EC taken into account were: Checks before departure, including brake tests and correct closure of the doors. Departure processes. Communication with passengers especially in relation to circumstances involving passenger safety, Degraded mode. Protection and warning measures as required by the rules and regulations or in assistance to the driver. Train evacuation and passenger safety especially if they are required to be on or near the line. Communicate with Infrastructure Manager s staff when assisting the driver or during evacuation incidents. Reporting on any unusual occurrences concerning the operation of the train, the condition of the rolling stock and the safety of passengers. These tasks were supplemented and put together in the following groups of activity: Train preparation, including shunting tasks. Train departure, from any station. Loading, only for freight trains; therefore this group of tasks is not subject to analysis for passenger services. Train run. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 27/165

28 Operation in degraded mode in different situations: o Actions in case of rolling stock failure. o Actions in case of infrastructure failure. o Actions in case of severe weather conditions. o General tasks in case of degraded mode. Operation in emergency situations. Customer service, only for passenger trains. In Table 5, all tasks identified in the study that may be assigned to crew members, are included. Only the tasks connected to Loading and Customer service are different for crew members involved in services either for passengers or for freight. A total of 59 tasks have been identified as tasks that can be carried out by crew members on passenger services: 48 operational tasks: From Train preparation to Operation in emergency situations. 11 commercial tasks: These are the typical commercial tasks carried out during the train journey (customer service, ticket inspection, etc.). Correspondingly, a total of 48 operational tasks have been identified as tasks that can be carried out by crew members on freight services. Due to the differences among the tasks identified for passenger and freight services, the analysis of the tasks assigned in the various countries and the analysis of the job profiles with similar tasks assigned has been performed separately: firstly the tasks and job profiles for passenger services and secondly for freight services. Due to the differences in the assignment of tasks for the various job profiles identified in each country, and in order to ease the analysis of similar job profiles in the different countries, groups of tasks have been identified. The assignment of these groups of tasks has allowed the identification of profile patterns. The profile patterns can be found in Point 2.2 in this Part II. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 28/165

29 Table 5. Tasks identified by type of service Common tasks for both passenger and freight service Specific tasks for passenger service Specific tasks for freight service 1 Train preparation 1.1 Shunting/coupling work Shunting Coupling 1.2 Check of train composition Check of train composition Check of train composition document / documentation 1.3 Checks and tests before departure Brake status / braking system(s) Signal handling-end of train signal Auxiliary systems (Lighting, air conditioning, heating, etc) Door release and locking Safety equipment (train protection devices, emergency signals, etc.) Others tasks Check doors, intercomunicator,speakers, alarms, fire protection resources 1.4 Comunication of Train preparation completed 2 Train departure (at any station) 2.1 Written orders handling 2.2 Door closing 2.3 Train departure (operations completed) 4 Train run 4.1 Emergency brake reset after use and report to the driver 4.2 On board communication (in particular passenger Safety) 5 Operation in degraded mode (on board or track failure) 5.1 Actions when rolling stock failure Brake failure Mechanical failure Safety equipment failure (dead man) Signalling equipment failure Servicing portable electronic devices Other tasks: rolling stock maintenance 5.2 Actions when Infrastructure failure Level crossing systems failure (Protect level crossing for train passing) Interrupted track Signalling failure (assistance to driver) Track circuits failure: complete train received communication 5.3 Actions when severe weather conditions Assistance to driver 5.4 General tasks in degraded mode Written orders handling Communications to RU, IM,others Train departure Driver assistance (in driving cab) Reporting on any unusual occurrences 6 Operation in emergency situations 6.1 Decisión on Train stop 6.2 Train protection 6.5 Train rescue 6.6 Train departure operations completed- 6.7 Information of / communication with IM Driver RU Others (fire brigade, police) 6.9 Reporting on any unusual occurrences 2.4 Other tasks: Look after freedom the way and the train's conditions Keep aisles free Passenger protection Passengers transfer 6.3 Passenger protection 6.4 Passenger Evacuation 6.8 Passenger information 7 Customer service 7.1 Customer information 7.2 Ticket inspection, selling, reimbursement 7.3 Dealing with passengers without ticket onboard 7.4 Misbehaviour of passengers 7.5 Support at access and egress for PRM 7.6 Luggage loading and handling 7.7 Children travelling alone 7.8 Parcel transport 7.9 Catering on board 7.10 In sleeping cars (treatment of ID-cards, tickets...) 7.11 Cleaning 3 Loading 3.1 Check load type 3.2 Check certificate of load 3.3 Written orders handling 3.4 Check emergency plan 3.5 Check identification plates 3.6 Check specific documents related to dangerous goods 3.7 Train departure (operation completed) Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 29/165

30 2.1. Tasks assigned to crew members for passenger services As indicated in Part I, point 2.3, the passenger service of 17 countries are analysed. Of these 17 countries, 14 have National Binding Rules regulating tasks while 3 have regulations under the responsibility of the RUs. In the following paragraphs, the assignment of tasks to crew members and whether the tasks is considered as safety relevant or not, is presented Tasks assigned to Crew Members In Table 6, it is shown that 28 (58%) of the 48 operational tasks identified in the study are assigned to crew members in at least 50% of the countries. It is noteworthy that there is no task assigned to crew members in 100% of the countries. The tasks assigned to crew members in at least 50% of the countries include, besides those that are regulated by National Binding Rules, some of those identified in the group Train preparation, including specific ones such as Checks and tests before departure and those specified in Operation in emergency situations. The tasks identified in the case of Operation in degraded mode are not considered by most of the countries as tasks to be carried out by crew members, except for those tasks directly related to passenger safety (passenger protection and passenger transfer), communication with the driver, RU or others and reporting on any unusual occurrences. 5 of the 11 tasks identified as Customer services are considered as tasks to be assigned to crew members in at least 50% of the countries. Similarly to the case of operational tasks, none of the commercial tasks are assigned to crew members in 100% of the countries. To summarise, the tasks assigned in at least 50% of the countries are those related to: Train preparation: shunting. Checks before departure, including checking train composition, brake test, checking auxiliary systems and safety equipment, and correct closure of the doors. Departure process. Communication with passengers especially in relation to circumstances involving passenger safety. Train evacuation and passenger safety. Communication with driver, RU or others in emergency situations. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 30/165

31 Reporting on any unusual occurrences. Ticket inspection Dealing with customers: information, misbehaviour, support to PRM. Only the tasks related to Operation in degraded mode are not considered as tasks to be assigned to crew members in most of the countries. The details of the assignment of tasks in the various countries can be found in Part III, point 3.2. of this report Tasks regulated by National Binding Rules Table 6 shows the tasks regulated by National Binding Rules in at least 50% of the 14 countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rules. 16 of the 48 operational tasks identified in the study are considered as safety relevant by at least 50% of the countries regulating tasks. None of the 48 tasks are regulated by National Binding Rules in all of the 14 countries. Most of the 16 relevant tasks considered as safety relevant by at least 50% of the countries coincide with the Minimum elements relevant to professional qualifications for the tasks associated with accompanying trains indicated in the Commission Decision 2006/920/EC: Train preparation: shunting. Checks before departure, including checking train composition and brake tests. Departure process. Communication with passenger especially in relation to circumstances involving passenger safety. Assistance to driver. Train evacuation and passenger safety Communication with driver or RU in emergency situations Reporting any unusual occurrences None of the operational tasks directly related to Degraded Operations, except those directly related to passengers, are considered by at least 50% of the countries as relevant for crew members. Therefore, this group of tasks is not regulated by National Binding Rules in at least 50% of the countries for this group of staff. The commercial tasks are not subject to regulation at national level in most of the countries. Two of them, out of the 14 countries with tasks regulated by National Binding Rules, regulate some of the tasks related to Customer service. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 31/165

32 The breakdown of the tasks regulated by National Binding Rules can be found in Part III, point 3.2. of this report Tasks considered safety relevant by Railway Undertakings Through the analysis of the 15 RUs interviewed in the Second step, it can be seen which tasks assigned to crew members by at least 50% of the RUs are considered safety relevant by all of them. The tasks assigned to crew members by at least 50% of the RUs are those related to: Train preparation: shunting. Checks before departure, including checking train composition, brake test, end of train signal, checking auxiliary systems and safety equipment and correct closure of the doors. Departure process. Communication with passengers especially in relation to circumstances involving passenger safety. Train evacuation and passenger safety. Communication with driver, RU or others in emergency situations. Reporting on any unusual occurrences. Ticket inspection. Dealing with customers: information, misbehaviour, support to PRM. These groups of tasks are the same as the tasks considered by the 17 countries analysed in the Third step to be assigned to crew members. Of these tasks, the following ones are considered safety relevant by all of the RUs assigning them: Train preparation: shunting. Checks before departure: brake test and end of train signal. Departure process. Communication with passengers especially in relation to circumstances involving passenger safety. Train evacuation and passenger safety. All of these tasks, according to the information shown in Point above, are regulated by in at least 50% of the 14 countries that regulate tasks. The details of the tasks considered as safety relevant by RUs can be found in Part III, Table 14 of this report. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 32/165

33 Table 6. Assignment of tasks on passenger services Tasks considered in the study for passenger service Tasks assigned by at least 50% of the 17 countries (*) Tasks regulated by in at least 50% of countries over 14 countries that regulate tasks in Tasks assigned by at least 7 RUs over the 15 interviewed 1 Train preparation 1 Train preparation % 1 Train preparation % 1 Train preparation % 1.1 Shunting/coupling work 1.1 Shunting/coupling work 1.1 Shunting/coupling work 1.1 Shunting/coupling work Shunting Shunting Shunting Shunting Coupling 1.2 Check of train composition 1.2 Check of train composition 1.2 Check of train composition 1.2 Check of train composition Check of train composition Check of train composition Check of train composition Check train composition document/documentation Check train composition document/documentation Check train composition document/documentation Check train composition document/documentation Checks and tests before departure 1.3 Checks and tests before departure 1.3 Checks and tests before departure 1.3 Checks and tests before departure Brake status / braking system(s) Brake status / braking system(s) Brake status / braking system(s) Brake status / braking system(s) Signal handling-end of train signal Signal handling-end of train signal Signal handling-end of train signal Signal handling-end of train signal Auxiliary systems (Lighting, air conditioning, heating, etc) Auxiliary systems (Lighting, air conditioning, heating, etc) Auxiliary systems (Lighting, air conditioning, heating, etc) Door release and locking Door release and locking Door release and locking Safety equipment(protection devices, emergency signals,etc.) Safety equipment(protection devices, emergency signals,etc.) Safety equipment(protection devices, emergency signals,etc.) Others tasks Check doors, intercomunicator, speakers,alarms, fire protection resources 1.4 Comunication of Train preparation completed 1.4 Comunication of Train preparation completed Comunication of Train preparation completed Other tasks 2 Train departure (at any station) 2 Train departure (at any station) 2 Train departure (at any station) 2 Train departure (at any station) 2.1 Written orders handling I 2.1 Written orders handling I Door closing 2.2 Door closing Door closing Door closing Train departure (operations completed) 2.3 Train departure (operations completed) Train departure (operations completed) Train departure (operations completed) Other tasks Look after freedom the way and the condition of train Keep aisles free 4 Train run 4 Train run 4 Train run 4 Train run 4.1 Emergency brake reset after use and report to the driver 4.1 Emergency brake reset after use and report to the driver Emergency brake reset after use and report to the driver Emergency brake reset after use and report to the driver On board communication (in particular passenger Safety) 4.2 On board communication (in particular passenger Safety) On board communication (in particular passenger Safety) On board communication (in particular passenger Safety) Other tasks 5 Operation in degraded mode (on board or track failure) 5 Operation in degraded mode (on board or track failure) 5 Operation in degraded mode (on board or track failure) 5 Operation in degraded mode (on board or track failure) 5.1 Actions when rolling stock failure Actions when rolling stock failure Brake failure Brake failure Mechanical failure Mechanical failure Safety equipment failure (dead man) Safety equipment failure (dead man) Signalling equipment failure Servicing portable electronic devices Other tasks: rolling stock maintenance 5.2 Actions when Infrastructure failure Level crossing systems failure (Protect level crossing for train passing) Interrupted track Signalling failure (assistance to driver) Track circuits failure:complete train received communication Other tasks 5.3 Actions when severe weather conditions Assistance to driver Other tasks 5.4 General tasks in degraded mode 5.4 General tasks in degraded mode 5.4 General tasks in degraded mode 5.4 General tasks in degraded mode Written orders handling Communications to RU, IM,others Communications to RU, IM,others Communications to RU, IM,others Passenger protection Passenger protection Passenger protection Passenger protection Passengers transfer Passengers transfer Passengers transfer Passengers transfer Train departure Train departure Train departure Train departure Driver assistance (in driving cab) Driver assistance (in driving cab) Reporting on any unusual occurrences Reporting on any unusual occurrences Reporting on any unusual occurrences Reporting on any unusual occurrences Other tasks 6 Operation in emergency situations 6 Operation in emergency situations 6 Operation in emergency situations 6 Operation in emergency situations 6.1 Decisión on train stop 6.1 Decisión on train stop Decisión on train stop Decisión on train stop Train protection 6.2 Train protection Train protection Train protection Passenger protection 6.3 Passenger protection Passenger protection Passenger protection Passenger evacuation 6.4 Passenger evacuation Passenger evacuation Passenger evacuation Train rescue 6.5 Train rescue Train departure operations completed- 6.6 Train departure operations completed Train departure operations completed Train departure operations completed Information of / communication with 6.7 Information of / communication with 6.7 Information of / communication with 6.7 Information of / communication with IM Driver Driver Driver Driver RU RU RU RU Others (fire brigade, police) Others (fire brigade, police) Others (fire brigade, police) Passenger information 6.8 Passenger information Passenger information Passenger information Reporting on any unusual occurrences 6.9 Reporting on any unusual occurrences Reporting on any unusual occurrences Other tasks 7 Customer service 7 Customer service 7 Customer service 7.1 Customer information 7.1 Customer information Customer information Ticket inspection, selling, reimbursement 7.2 Ticket inspection, selling, reimbursement Ticket inspection, selling, reimbursement Dealing with passengers without ticket onboard 7.3 Dealing with passengers without ticket onboard Dealing with passengers without ticket onboard Misbehaviour of passengers 7.4 Misbehaviour of passengers Misbehaviour of passengers Support at access and egress for PRM 7.5 Support at access and egress for PRM Support at access and egress for PRM Luggage loading and handling 7.6 Luggage loading and handling Children travelling alone 7.8 Parcel transport 7.9 Catering on board 7.10 In sleeping cars (treatment of ID-cards, tickets...) 7.11 Cleaning 7.12 Other tasks (*)All of these tasks are considered safety relevant by all of the 17 countries Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 33/165

34 2.2. Job profiles identified on passenger services With the objective of analysing the extent to which job profiles identified in the 17 countries are similar, a comparison of assigned tasks has been carried out. 40 different job profiles have been identified in the 17 countries. According to the assignment of tasks to the 40 job profiles identified, two different groups of similar job profiles or profile patterns have emerged. The tasks assigned to each profile pattern in at least 50% of the countries are shown in Table of the 40 job profiles identified in the 17 countries (53%), may be considered as profile pattern 1 and 10 (25%) may be considered as profile pattern 2. The other 9 job profiles identified (22%), are considered as exotic, due to the difference in tasks assignment among them, which makes it impossible to assign them to one of the two defined profile patterns. Within the 17 countries, profile pattern 1 has been found in 11 of them and profile pattern 2 in 6. The most important difference between the two profile patterns is the assignment of tasks related to Train preparation : while 8 of the 11 tasks identified as Train preparation are assigned to profile pattern 1, only one is assigned to profile pattern 2. The rest of the assigned tasks are very similar for both profile patterns. In summary, in at least 50% of the countries, profile pattern 1 is assigned the tasks related to: Train preparation: shunting. Checks before departure, including checking train composition, brake test, checking auxiliary systems and safety equipment, and correct closure of the doors. Departure process. Communication with passengers especially in relation to circumstances involving passenger safety. Train evacuation and passenger safety. Communication with driver, RU or others in emergency situations. Reporting on any unusual occurrences. Ticket inspection. Dealing with customers: information, misbehaviour, support to PRM. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 34/165

35 It is remarkable that in the case of profile pattern 1, all of the countries with this profile pattern assign the same 11 operational tasks. These tasks are related to: Checks before departure: brake test, end of train signal handling and correct closure of the doors. Departure process. Communication with passengers especially in relation to circumstances involving passenger safety. Train evacuation and passenger safety. Communication with driver in emergency situations. On the contrary, none of the tasks related to Customer Service are assigned to profile pattern 1 in all of the countries where this profile exists. Profile pattern 2 is assigned, in at least 50% of the countries, the tasks related to: Checks before departure: auxiliary systems. Departure process. Communication with passengers especially in relation to circumstances involving passenger safety. Train evacuation and passenger safety. Communication with driver in emergency situations. Reporting any unusual occurrences. Ticket inspection. Dealing with customers: information, misbehaviour, support to PRM. Only one single task assigned to this profile, passenger evacuation, is assigned in all of the countries where this profile exists. The tasks assigned to profile pattern 1 but not to profile pattern 2 are: Train preparation: shunting. Checking train composition. Checks before departure: brake test, signal handling, check safety equipment and correct closure of the doors. Communication with RU or others in degraded mode and in emergency situations. Both profile patterns have assigned similar customer service tasks. The details of the comparison and the analysis of the assignment of tasks to the 40 different job profiles identified in the 17 countries can be found in Part III, point 3.3.and point 3.4. of this report. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 35/165

36 Table 7. Tasks assignment for profile patterns Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 36/165

37 2.3. Tasks assigned to crew members on freight services As indicated in Part I, point 2.3, 9 countries are object of analysis for freight service. Of these 9 countries, 8 have regulating tasks while one has regulations under the responsibility of the RUs. In the following paragraphs, the assignment of tasks to CM is presented together with whether the task is considered as safety relevant or not Tasks assigned to crew members Table 8 shows the tasks that are assigned to crew members by at least 50% of the 9 countries having crew members on freight services. These tasks are those related to: Train preparation: shunting and coupling. Checks before departure: brake status and end of train signal. Departure process. Loading. Communication with driver in emergency situations. One task related to Checks before departure (checking train composition) that is regulated by National Binding Rules is not considered by most of the RUs as a task to be assigned to crew members on freight services. The details of these tasks can be found in Part III, point 3.5 of this report Tasks regulated by National Binding Rules Table 8 shows the tasks identified in at least 50% of the 9 countries that regulate tasks for crew members on freight services. This relates to those tasks that are regulated by National Binding Rules. The tasks regulated by National Binding Rules are those related to: Train preparation: shunting and coupling. Checks before departure: checking train composition, brake status and end of train signal. Departure process. Loading. Communication with driver in emergency situations. None of these tasks are regulated by National Binding Rules in any of the countries. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 37/165

38 Tasks considered safety relevant by Railway Undertakings Through the analysis of the 3 RUs with crew members on freight services from the Second step, it can be deduced that almost all the tasks that are assigned by the RUs are considered safety relevant for all three of them. The details of these tasks can be found in Part III, Table 20 of this report. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 38/165

39 Table 8. Task assignment on freight services Tasks considered in the study for freight service Tasks regulated by by at least 50% of countries over 8 countries regulating CM in freight service Tasks assigned to CM by at least 50% of 9 countries that assign tasks 1 Train preparation 1 Train preparation % 1 Train preparation % 1.1 Shunting/coupling work 1.1 Shunting/coupling work 1.1 Shunting/coupling work Shunting Shunting Shunting coupling coupling coupling Check of train composition 1.2 Check of train composition Check of train composition Check of train composition Check of train composition document / documentation 1.3 Checks and tests before departure 1.3 Checks and tests before departure 1.3 Checks and tests before departure Brake status / braking system(s) Brake status / braking system(s) Brake status / braking system(s) Signal handling-end of train signal Signal handling-end of train signal Signal handling-end of train signal Auxiliary systems (Lighting, air conditioning, heating, etc) Door release and locking Safety equipment (train protection devices, emergency signals, etc.) Others tasks Check doors, intercomunicator,speakers, alarms, fire protection resources 1.4 Comunication of Train preparation completed 1.4 Comunication of Train preparation completed Comunication of Train preparation completed Other tasks 2 Train departure (at any station) Written orders handling 2.2 Door closing 2.3 Train departure (operations completed) Other tasks 2.4 Look after freedom the way and the train's conditions Keep aisles free 3 Loading 3 Loading 3 Loading 3.1 Check load type 3.1 Check load type Check load type Check certificate of load 3.2 Check certificate of load Written orders handling 3.4 Check emergency plan 3.5 Check identification plates 3.6 Check specific documents related to dangerous goods 3.6 Check specific documents related to dangerous goods Check specific documents related to dangerous goods Train departure (operation completed) 3.7 Train departure (operation completed) Other tasks 4 Train run Emergency brake reset after use and report to the driver 4.2 On board communication (in particular passenger Safety) 4.3 Other tasks 5 Operation in degraded mode (on board or track failure) Actions when rolling stock failure Brake failure Mechanical failure Safety equipment failure (dead man) Signalling equipment failure Servicing portable electronic devices Other tasks: Rolling Stock Maintenance 5.2 Actions when Infrastructure failure Level crossing systems failure (Protect level crossing for train passing) Interrupted track Signalling failure (assistance to driver) Track circuits failure: complete train received communication Other tasks 5.3 Actions when severe weather conditions Assistance to driver Other tasks 5.4 General tasks in degraded mode Written orders handling Communications to RU, IM,others Train departure Driver assistance (in driving cab) Reporting on any unusual occurrences Other tasks 6 Operation in emergency situations 6 Operation in emergency situations 6 Operation in emergency situations 6.1 Decisión on Train stop 6.2 Train protection 6.5 Train rescue 6.6 Train departure operations completed- 6.7 Information of / communication with 6.7 Information of / communication with 6.7 Information of / communication with IM Driver Driver Driver RU Others (fire brigade, police) 6.9 Reporting on any unusual occurrences 6.10 Other tasks Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 39/165

40 2.4. Job profiles on freight services A total of 10 job profiles have been identified in the 9 countries with crew members on freight services. In order to investigate the extent to which job profiles identified in the 9 countries are similar, a comparison of assigned tasks has been made. In Part III, Table 35 of this report, the tasks assigned to each of the profiles are shown. Due to the variety of tasks assigned to the 10 job profiles, it is impossible to carry out a sound analysis in order to obtain conclusions on profile patterns on freight services. Of the 10 job profiles, 4 (40%), are assigned the majority of tasks related to: Train preparation: shunting and coupling. Checks before departure, including checking train composition, brake test, check auxiliary systems and safety equipment, and correct closure of the doors. Departure process. Loading. Degraded mode. Emergency situation. Communication with the driver, RU or others in emergency situations. Reporting any unusual occurrences. For the other 6 job profiles, the assignment of tasks is such that it is not possible to find enough common tasks to identify a profile pattern. It is possible to conclude that the tasks that are common to the 10 job profiles are those related to: Train preparation: shunting and coupling. Checks before departure, including checking train composition, brake test, check auxiliary systems and safety equipment, and correct closure of the doors. Departure process. Loading. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 40/165

41 3. Job requirements The analysis of the requirements and provisions applicable to train crew members and the extent to which job profiles are developed in different Member States plus Norway has been carried out taking into consideration the profile patterns identified through the assignment of tasks Job requirements for crew members on passenger services As has been indicated in chapter two, profile patterns have been identified for passenger services by analysing the assigned tasks. Profile Pattern 1 Minimum age: In 100% of the countries, the minimum age to apply for this profile pattern is 18 years. 7 of the 11 countries with staff considered as profile pattern 1 have National Binding Rules regulating the minimum age (details in Part III, Table 38). Education: o Minimum education requirements for the job before appointment: in most of the countries with profile pattern 1 (64%), the minimum requirement to apply for the job is Secondary School education. In 45% of them, this requirement is regulated by National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 38). o Specific education for the job: 7 of the 11 countries with this profile pattern have specific education requirements for the job that are provided to the personnel by means of specific training once the employee is appointed. This specific training is regulated by National Binding Rules in 4 countries (details in Part III, Table 38). Language skills: knowledge of a foreign language is required for profile pattern 1 in 73% of the countries (details in Part III, Table 38). Medical requirements: o Before appointment: In 100% of the countries, a medical examination is carried out before the employee can take up the job position. The minimum content of the medical examination is very similar in most of the countries: general examination, examination of sensory functions and screening for drug abuse. 9 of the 11 countries with profile pattern 1 have National Binding Rules regulating medical requirements before appointment (details in Part III, Table 38). Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 41/165

42 o After appointment: Regular medical checks are established in all 11 countries: in 6 of them the regular medical checks are established in National Binding Rules while in the remaining 5, the regulation is through company rules. There is a wide variation in the periodicity of the regular medical checks: from every year up to every five years. In general, the periodicity is related to the age of the employee (details in Part III, Table 42). Psychological requirements: o Before appointment: with the exception of Norway (Norway will implement this in the near future), all countries carry out psychological examination before appointment. With one exception, the Netherlands, all countries that carry out psychological examination establish minimum requirements by National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 38). o After appointment: regular psychological checks are carried out in 3 countries; 2 of them have National Binding Rules regulating these checks (details in Part III, Table 42). Professional competences: The professional competences that allow the staff considered as profile pattern 1 to execute their tasks are acquired during specific education in 10 countries: 6 of them establish requirements for professional competences through company rules while in the other 4 there are National Binding Rules regulating professional competences. In 9 of the 10 countries, the specific education is provided by the RU (details in Part III, Table 38). Profile Pattern 2 Minimum age: With one exception, the minimum age in all countries applied for this profile pattern is 18 years of age. 3 of the 6 countries with staff considered as profile pattern 2 have National Binding Rules regulating minimum age (details in Part III, Table 43). Education: o Minimum education requirements for the job before appointment: a wide variation exists in the minimum education requirements, with the exception of Spain that does not have a specific minimum education requirement. In the rest of the countries, i.e. in 33% of countries, the common requirement is Primary School education. In all countries, this requirement is regulated by company rules (details in Part III, Table 43). o Specific education for the job: 5 of the 6 countries with this profile pattern have specific education requirements for the job that are provided to the personnel by means of specific training once the Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 42/165

43 employee is appointed. This specific training is regulated by company rules in all countries (details in Part III, Table 43). Language skills: Knowledge of a foreign language is required for profile pattern 2 in 4 of the countries: in all of them, the foreign language requirement is regulated by company rules (details in Part III, Table 43). Medical requirements: o Before appointment: with one exception (Spain), a medical examination is performed in all countries before starting the job. The minimum content of the medical examination is very similar: general examination, examination of sensory functions and screening for drug abuse. All countries regulate medical requirements through company rules (details in Part III, Table 43). o After appointment: regular medical checks are established in all countries with the exception of Spain: in 2 countries the regular medical checks are established in National Binding Rules while in the others the regulation is through company rules (details in Part III, Table 47). Psychological requirements: o Before appointment: in 4 countries, a psychological examination is carried out before starting the job: in 3 of them, the requirements for psychological examination are established by National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 43). o After appointment: Regular psychological checks are carried out in 2 countries; one of them has National Binding Rules regulating the regular psychological checks and one has its own company rules (details in Part III, Table 47). Professional competences: The professional competences that allow the staff considered as profile pattern 2 to execute their tasks is given during specific education in 5 countries: 4 of them establish professional competences through company rules and one has National Binding Rules. In all countries concerned, the specific education is provided by the RU (details in Part III, Table 43). Differences in regard to job requirements on passenger services The main difference between profile pattern 1 and profile pattern 2 in relation to job requirements is: Pre-education: Profile pattern 1: Secondary school education as a minimum requirement in most of the countries. Profile pattern 2: Primary school as the most common requirement. The rest of the provisions are substantially the same for both profile patterns. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 43/165

44 3.2. Job requirements for crew members on freight services Minimum age: 6 of the 9 countries with crew members on freight services require a minimum age of 18 to apply for the job: in all of them the regulation is established by National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 48). Education: o Minimum education requirements for the job before appointment: a wide variation has been found in the minimum education requirements for the job. The most common requirement, in 33% of countries this is Secondary School education. 5 of the 9 countries regulate this requirement by National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 48). o Specific education for the job: 5 of the 9 countries have specific education requirements for the job that are provided to the personnel by means of specific training once the employee is appointed. This specific training is regulated by company rules in 4 countries (details in Part III, Table 48). Language skills: No knowledge of a foreign language is required in most of the countries (details in Part III, Table 48). Medical requirements: o Before appointment: In all countries, a medical examination is carried out before starting the job. The minimum content of the medical examination is very similar in most of the countries: general examination, examination of sensory functions and screening for drug abuse. With one exception (Ireland), medical requirements are regulated by National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 48). o After appointment: Regular medical checks are established in all the 9 countries and in all of them by National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 52). Psychological requirements: o Before appointment: In all countries, a psychological examination is carried out before starting the job: in 5 of them, the requirements for psychological examination are established by National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 48). o After appointment: Regular psychological checks are carried out in 5 countries; in all of them according to regulations through National Binding Rules (details in Part III, Table 52). Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 44/165

45 Professional competences: The professional competences that allow the staff to execute their tasks are established by National Binding Rules in 5 countries, while in the other 4, professional competences are established by company rules. In most of the countries, there is specific training to acquire the professional competences. In all of them, this specific training is provided by the RU (details in Part III, Table 48).. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 45/165

46 4. Training and examination of crew members. The analysis of the provisions for training and examination of crew members and the extent to which these provisions are defined, has been executed considering the profile patterns identified Training and examination for crew members on passenger services Profile Pattern 1 Training 5 of the 11 countries with profile pattern 1 have National Binding Rules regulating training, including training programs and training methods. In the other 6 countries, training is regulated by company rules. With one exception, in which the party responsible for training is an authorised Training Centre, in all countries the railway company itself is responsible for training. In 3 countries, training is also possible in authorised Training Centres. Provisions related to trainers, assessment and approval are regulated by National Binding Rules in 3 countries. In the other 8, the assessment and approval of trainers is carried out by the RU itself. The periodicity for the assessment of trainers is variable, from two times a year to every 5 years, depending on the RU. The details of the collected data for training can be found in Part III, Table 39. Examination All countries with profile pattern 1, have established examination procedures for this group of staff. In 6 of the 11 countries, the examination procedures are established by National Binding Rules. 3 of these 6 countries, require that the RU is responsible for the examination, 1 requires that the responsible is the authorised Training Centre and 2 authorise the RU but under the supervision of the NSA. The details of the data collected for examination can be found in Part III, Table 40. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 46/165

47 Profile Pattern 2 Training With one exception, in all countries with profile pattern 2, training, including training programs and training methods are regulated by company rules. In all countries, the railway company itself is responsible for training. In France, where training is regulated by National Binding Rules, training is provided by the RU or by an authorised Training Centre. Training as well as the approval of trainers is regulated by company rules in 5 Countries. In France, in which the approval of trainers is regulated by National Binding Rules, the RU has to prepare a training dossier, including provisions for trainers, and the NSA must approve the dossier. In all countries, the assessment of trainer competence is regulated by company rules. The periodicity for the assessment of trainers is variable, from two days per year to every 5 years, depending on the RU. The details of the data collected for training can be found in Part III, Table 44. Examination All countries with profile pattern 2 have established examination procedures for this group of staff. The regulation of the examination procedures is very similar to the regulation of training: in France, the examination procedures are regulated by National Binding Rules, while in all other countries these provisions are regulated by company rules. In all countries, the RU carries out the exams. The details of the data collected for examination can be found in Part III, Table 45. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 47/165

48 4.2. Training and examination for crew members on freight services Training With only one exception (United Kingdom), all countries with crew members on freight services have National Binding Rules regulating training, including training programs and training methods. 3 of the 8 countries with national regulations require training to be performed by an authorised Training Centre or RU, 3 require training to be performed by an RU and 2 require the authorised Training Centre to be responsible for training. Provisions related to the approval of trainers are regulated by National Binding Rules in 7 countries and the assessment of trainers in 5. The details of the data collected for training can be found in Part III, Table 49. Examination All countries with crew members on freight services have established examination procedures for this group of staff. In 7 of the 9 countries, the examination procedures are established by National Binding Rules. 2 of these 7 countries require that the NSA is responsible for the examination, 3 require that the responsible is the authorised Training Centre and 2 authorise the RU to carry out the exams. The details of the data collected for examination can be found in Part III, Table 50. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 48/165

49 5. Recognition of professional qualifications for crew members The analysis of the recognition of professional qualifications for crew members and the extent to which this recognition is developed has been performed taking into considering the profile patterns identified Recognition of professional qualifications for passenger services Profile Pattern 1 5 of the 11 countries with profile pattern 1 have recognition of the professional qualifications through a certification system regulated by National Binding Rules. 4 of these 5 countries require that the NSA is responsible for issuing or validating the certificate and 1 entitles the RU to issue the certificate. The details of the data collected for recognition of professional qualifications for profile pattern 1 can be found in Part III, Table 41. Profile Pattern 2 None of the 6 countries with profile pattern 2 establishes a certification system through National Binding Rules. The details of the data collected for recognition of professional qualification for profile pattern 2 can be found in Part III, Table Recognition of professional qualifications for freight services 5 of the 9 countries with crew members on freight services have professional qualifications recognised through a certification system regulated by National Binding Rules. In all of these 5 countries, the NSA or the Ministry is responsible for issuing the certificate. The details of the data collected for the recognition of professional qualifications for freight services can be found in Part III, Table 51. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 49/165

50 6. Provisions to ensure that crew members competences are maintained In line with the procedure for job requirements, the analysis of the provisions to ensure that crew members competences are maintained and the extent to which these provisions are developed, has been performed taking into consideration the profile patterns identified Provisions on passenger services Profile Pattern 1 With one exception (the Netherlands), all countries with profile pattern 1 have established a procedure to maintain the competences of this group of staff. 5 of the 10 countries with established procedures have National Binding Rules regulating this issue. The procedure consists of: Regular training courses: 9 of the 10 countries have regular training courses and one of them has a continuous training program. The periodicity of the training courses is variable, from yearly to every 5 years. Re-examination: 9 of these 10 countries have established a re-examination procedure. As happens with the regular training courses, the periodicity of the re-examination is variable, from every two years to every 5 years. Re-certification: 3 of these 10 countries have a re-certification system established. The details of the data collected for competences management provisions for profile pattern 1 can be found in Part III, Table 42. Profile Pattern 2 With one only exception, Spain, 5 of the 6 countries with profile pattern 2, have established a procedure to maintain the competences of this group of staff. 4 of these 5 countries regulate the procedure by company rules. The procedure consists of: Regular training courses: 4 of the 5 countries have regular training courses and one of them has a continuous training program. The frequency of the training courses fluctuates from every 4 months to every 3 years. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 50/165

51 Re-examination: 4 of these 5 countries have established a re-examination procedure. In accordance with the regular training courses, the periodicity of the re-examination is variable, from yearly to every 3 years. Re-certification: One of these 5 countries (France) has established a recertification system, regulated by company rules. The details of the data collected for the recognition of professional qualifications for profile pattern 2 can be found in Part III, Table Provisions on freight services All 9 countries with crew members on freight services have established a procedure to maintain the competence of this group of staff. 8 of these 9 countries regulate the procedure by National Binding Rules. 7 of the 9 countries have established a re-examination process and 6 of them are regulated by National Binding Rules. 6 of these 9 countries have established a re-certification procedure and 5 of them are regulated by National Binding Rules. The details of the data collected for the recognition of professional qualifications on freight services can be found in Part III, Table 52. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 51/165

52 7. Mobility of workers The questions related to mobility of workers were included in the questionnaire used during the interviews carried out in the Second step. Therefore, the information provided in the study is the information related to the 10 selected countries interviewed (10 NSAs plus 15 RUs). The details of the data collected for mobility of workers can be found in Part III, point 3.5 of this report and in Annex VII (Overview per country) included in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. According to the information received from the NSAs, only one (Bulgaria) states that they have a legal framework for the recognition of professional qualifications, which provides the basis for the mobility of workers. According to the information received from the 15 Railway Undertakings, 8 state that they have no experience regarding the mobility of workers among railway companies due to the fact that most of them are the only RU or the incumbent one, while 7 state that they have some experience, but that when they recruit personnel from another RU they have to pass specific company training, mainly due to the different types of rolling stock used by each RU. This specific company training (specific training as well as professional competences) is established for personnel regardless of whether they come from another RU or not. As a consequence, personnel coming from another RU have to pass the same training as personnel from outside the railway sector. The company requirement for specific company education for the job and specific professional competence makes staff turnover difficult. Therefore, the mobility of workers is limited due to specific company requirements in relation to training and professional competence. The opinion of NSAs about the necessity of improving the mobility of workers is: 4 (Bulgaria, Hungary, Norway and Sweden) support the idea, 1 (Slovenia) states that it is not relevant due to the existence of only one RU, 2 (Poland and the Netherlands) do not support the idea, 1 (France) has no opinion, 1 (Germany) is indifferent and 1 (Spain) did not answer The opinion of RUs about improving mobility is: 13 support it while 2, do not. Regarding the certification system, 3 (Bulgaria, Poland and Slovenia) have a certification system established by National Binding Rules, 2 (France and the Netherlands) have a certification system established by company rules and 5 (Germany, Hungary, Norway, Spain and Sweden) have no certification system. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 52/165

53 The opinion of NSAs about implementing a European certification system is: 4 (Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Sweden) support it, 1 (the Netherlands) does not support it, 4 (France, Germany, Norway and Slovenia) have no opinion and 1 (Spain) has not answered. 7 of the 15 RUs support the establishment of a European certification system, 7 do not support it and one has no opinion. Most of the NSAs (6) and the Railway Undertakings (11) state that, in the event of the implementation of a European certification system, it should not be established for every job profile, but only for on-board safety functions. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART II - 53/165

54 PART III - FACTS AND FIGURES 1. Results of the First step The purpose of the First step of the study was to collect basic information about current legislation or regulations applicable to the employment of staff assigned to the job task of accompanying trains, mainly: The existence of requirements applicable at a national level (legislation and National Binding Rules): o Selection criteria o Professional competences o Training o Examinations o Recognition of professional qualifications o Competences management and assessment The identification of different types of profiles or functions and tasks summarised in the staff group that could be called train crew members or train accompanying staff The information was obtained through an appropriate questionnaire survey on the level of the National Safety Authorities. The questionnaire sent to the NSAs is included as Annex I (Questionnaire Script First step) and the answers received from the NSAs can be found in Annex II (Data of the First step), both of them are included in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. 22 of the 26 countries object of the study (25 MS plus Norway) having a railway system answered the questionnaire (The NSAs in Greece, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Romania did not provide a response). 21 of the 22 countries that answered have crew members with safety related tasks and one of them, Estonia, does not have crew members, other than drivers, with safety related tasks. Of these 21 countries, one (the Netherlands) does not have any regulations at a national level nor National Binding Rules specifically for crew members. Therefore, 20 countries (19 MS plus Norway) have National Binding Rules for crew members not driving trains but performing other safety related tasks. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 54/165

55 Of these 20 countries: 8 have regulations for crew members on both passenger and freight service. 11 have regulations only for crew members on passenger service. 1 has regulations only for crew members on freight services. Regarding tasks, 13 countries of the 20 with National Binding Rules relating to crew members regulate tasks: 6 regulate tasks for both passenger and freight services. 6 regulate tasks only for passenger services. 1 regulates tasks only for freight services. It is important to note at this point that, once the interviews were carried out with 10 selected countries during the Second step of the study, the number of countries with National Binding Rules regulating crew members on passenger and freight services as well as the information of the number of countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rules, according to the information received, have changed. The analysis of the information received in the First step can be found in Annex III (First step Intermediate Report) included in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. A summary of the regulation of tasks and requirements and provisions in the 20 countries with National Binding Rules regulating crew members, is shown in the following figures, in terms of a percentage. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 55/165

56 Overview of the legal situation in Member States plus Norway Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 56/165

57 Regulation of requirements and provisions in 20 countries with Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 57/165

58 Regulation of requirements and provisions for crew members Before carrying out the analysis of the data collected regarding the job profiles identified in each country and the tasks assigned to them, an analysis of the regulation of the different requirements and provisions in each country was carried out. According to the information received from the 20 NSAs, (details can be found in chapters 7 and 8 of the First step Intermediate Report, Annex III included in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document), the following Tables 9 and 10 reflect how requirements and provisions are regulated on passenger and freight services. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 58/165

59 Table 9. Regulation of requirements and provisions on passenger services Passenger service Relevant Nº countries % Information Selection criteria Education Language skills Age Medical requirements Psychological requirements Professional competences Training Training programs Minimum duration Training methods Periodic refresher training RUs: 6 Authorised to provided training TCs+RUs:4 Ensuring the existence of training TCs: 4 Trainer competence and qualification Officially approval of trainers 9 45 Assessment of training Responsible for the assessment Examination NSA: 2 Establishment of the examination procedure NSA+RU: 1 Responsible for the examination procedure RUs: 6 Recognition of examiners 8 40 TCs+RUs:1 TCs: 2 Recognition, certification and licensing system Recognition of professional qualifications 7 35 Certification system 7 35 NSA: 2 Responsible for the certification 7 35 RUs: 5 Licensing system 8 40 Responsible for the licensing 8 40 NSA: 1 RUs: 6 Competences management and assessment TCs+RUs:1 Establishment of the procedures Responsible for competences management Assessment procedure of competences Re-examination Re-certification 5 25 Periodical medical and psychological checks Requirements regulated by in less than 50% of countries % of 20 countries with CM and regulating them. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 59/165

60 Table 10. Regulation of requirements and provisions on freight service Freight service Nº countries % Selection criteria Education 4 20 Language skills 3 15 Age 6 30 Medical requirements 6 30 Psychological requirements 5 25 Professional competences Relevant Information Training Training programs 8 40 Minimum duration 8 40 Training methods 7 35 Periodic refresher training 8 40 RUs:3 Authorised to provided training 8 40 TCs+RUs:3 Ensuring the existence of training 8 40 TCs: 2 Trainer competence and qualification 7 35 Officially approval of trainers 6 30 Assessment of training 6 30 Responsible fo the assessment 6 30 Examination NSA : 2 Examination procedure establish 7 35 RUs: 2 Responsible for the examination procedure 7 35 TCs+RUs:1 Recognition of examiners 5 25 TCs: 2 Recognition, certification and licensing system Recognition of professional qualifications 6 30 MIN: 1 Certification system 5 25 NSA: 2 Responsible for the certification 5 25 RUs: 2 Licensing system 4 20 Responsible for the licensing 4 20 MIN: 1 NSA: 1 RUs: 1 Competences management and assessment TCs+RUs:1 Establishment of the procedures 9 45 Responsible for the competences management 9 45 Assessment procedure of competences 7 35 Re-examination 7 35 Re-certification 4 20 Periodical medical and psychological checks 9 45 Requirements regulated by in less than 30% of countries % of 20 countries with CM and regulating them. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 60/165

61 As a first conclusion, it is possible to assert that the majority of requirements and provisions are subject to regulation by National Binding Rules in most of the countries with the exception of those provisions related to Recognition, certification and licensing on passenger services that are subject to regulation by National Binding Rules in only a few countries. Job profiles and tasks on passenger and freight services In order to identify the different types of profiles or functions and tasks summarised in the staff group that could be called train crew members or train accompanying staff, a number of representative tasks was included in the questionnaire sent to the NSAs. These tasks were identified by the Consortium team, taking into consideration the tasks laid down in the Commission Decision 2006/920/EC Train Operation and Management and the personal experience of some members of the team. The tasks were divided into groups of activities: Train preparation, including shunting tasks Train departure, from any station Loading, only for freight trains Train run Operation in degraded mode, divided into different situations: o actions in the event of stock failure o actions in the event of infrastructure failure o actions in the event of severe weather conditions o general tasks in degraded mode Operation in emergency situations Customer service, only for passenger trains It is important to note that of the 20 countries with crew members performing safety tasks and with National Binding Rules regulating them and according to the answers of the NSAs to the questionnaire, 13 countries regulate tasks: 6 of them only for passenger services, 6 for both passenger and freight services and 1 only for freight services. Therefore, the analysis of job profiles and tasks in order to identify profile patterns had been carried out in 12 countries for passenger services and in 7 for freight services. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 61/165

62 In order to make a proper comparison among the tasks assigned to each job profile to identify similarities among them, a compilation of the tasks have been made taking into account the following task groups: Train preparation. Train departure. Train run. Operation in degraded mode. Emergency situations. Customer service. Due to the fact that the activities to be executed in train preparation may be considered very different in nature, the following sub-activities were also identified within the summary of tasks: Shunting/coupling. Checking train composition. Checks before departure. Communication of train completed. In addition, the different degraded modes have been taken into account: Rolling stock failure. Infrastructure failure. Severe weather conditions. As well as some general tasks: Passenger protection and Driver assistance. With this summary of tasks, it was possible to identify similarities among the defined job profiles in order to identify certain profile patterns. The following Tables 11 and 12 show the tasks assigned to each job profile and, through the assignment of tasks, the identification of profile patterns. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 62/165

63 Table 11. Task comparison of the different job profiles defined by MS plus Norway in on passenger services Tasks 1. Train preparation Country Activity area/job profile BE BU FIN FR DE IT LV PT SLK SLV ES UK Attendant Head of Train Conductor/ Conductor of sleeping car Conductor as shunting foreman 1.1 Shunting/Coupling work X X X X X X X X X X 1.2 Checking of train composition X X X X X X X X X 1.3 Checks and tests before departure Brake status X X X X X X X X Others X X X X X X X X 1.4 Communication train completed X X X X X X 2. Train departure X X X X X X X X 4. Train run X X X X X X X X 5. Operations in degraded mode 5.1 Rolling stock failure X X X X 5.2 Infrastructure failure X X X X X 5.3 Severe weather conditions X X X X X 5.4 Common: Passenger protection X X X X X Driver s assistant X X X X 6. Emergency situations X X X X X(1) X X X X 7. Customer service X X X (1) Only communitation with driver Profile pattern 1 Almost all the defined tasks Exotics Profile pattern 2 Only train preparation tasks Customer service Accompanying agent Chief guard/ Guard Train accompanying staff Driver's assistant of traction RST Train conductor Chief of train/ Train conductor Train leader Accompanying agent Train operation assistant Train manager/ Guard Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 63/165

64 Table 12. Task comparison of the different job profiles defined by MS plus Norway in on freight services Tasks Country Activity area/job profile BE BU IE LV SLK SLV UK Attendant Head of train Staff accompanying dangerous goods Staff accompanying other goods Person working with dangerous goods Driver's assistant of traction RST Head of train Train leader Train manager/ Guard 1. Train preparation 1.1 Shunting/Coupling work X X X X X 1.2 Checking of train composition X X X X X X X 1.3 Checks and tests before departure Brake status X X X X X Others X X X X 1.4 Communication train completed X X X X X X 3. Loading X X X 4. Train run X 5. Operation in degraded mode 5.1 Rolling stock failure X X 5.2 Infrastructure failure X 5.3 Severe weather conditions X 5.4 Common: Driver assistant X 6. Emergency situations X(1) X X X (1) Ony communication with driver Profile pattern 1 Profile pattern 2 Exotics All the defined tasks Only train preparation Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 64/165

65 Profile patterns for passenger services Comparing the tasks reflected in the Table 11 above, it was possible to identify two different profile patterns for passenger services: Profile pattern 1 (PP1): This profile pattern groups the majority of the tasks previously defined, including those related to customer service. In this profile pattern, it is possible to include the following countries and their respective profiles: o Belgium: o France: o Germany: o Italy: o Slovakia: o United Kingdom: Attendant. Accompanying Agent. Chief Guard/Guard. Train accompanying staff. Chief of train/train conductor. Train manager/guard. The main difference among these job profiles is that the task related to shunting/coupling work for the job profile Chief of train/train conductor of Slovakia has not been established by National Binding Rules. In relation to customer service, there are two different job profiles that do not comprise the activities established by National Binding Rules related to customer service: Attendant of Belgium and Train manager/guard of the United Kingdom. Of the 14 job profiles identified in this First step as crew members on passenger services, 6 may be considered as PP1 (42%). Profile pattern 2 (PP2): this profile only groups tasks related to train preparation. In this profile, it is possible to include the following countries and profiles: o Bulgaria: o Finland: o Spain: Head of train. Conductor/Conductor of sleeping car. Conductor, as Shunting foreman. Train operation Assistant. Finland has been included in this group because shunting has been considered one of the actions previous to train run included in train preparation activities. Of the 14 job profiles identified in this First step as crew members on passenger services, 4 may be considered as PP2 (29%). The number of tasks assigned by Latvia, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain to their identified job profiles makes it difficult to assign them to any of their identified profile Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 65/165

66 patterns. Neither Latvia nor Portugal assigns any of the tasks related to Train preparation as characteristic tasks for profile pattern 2. Of the typical tasks for profile pattern 1, both Latvia and Portugal assign 4 of them to their identified profiles, i.e. 28% of the total Job profiles of Slovenia and Spain could be similar to profile pattern 1, as they do assign tasks coming from various groups of activities. However, they do it in such numbers that it makes it difficult to include them as profile pattern 1: Slovenia assigns 3 tasks and Spain 4. This is the reason why job profiles identified by Latvia, Portugal and Spain have been considered as Exotics. Profile patterns for freight services According to Table 12, it is possible to identify two profile patterns with similar assigned tasks: the first one with almost all the tasks assigned (two job profiles from Slovakia and United Kingdom) and the second one with tasks related to Train preparation and Loading (three job profiles from Belgium, Bulgaria and Ireland). Due to the differences in the assignment of tasks in the other 4 job profiles identified, it is not possible to include these four job profiles in the two profile patterns identified. Among the tasks assigned to Staff accompanying dangerous goods in Belgium, those related to Shunting/coupling and Brake status, are not included, so it is not possible to assign them to profile pattern 2. The job profiles identified in Latvia and Slovenia cannot be considered within profile pattern 1: of all 14 tasks in profile pattern 1, Latvia assigns 4 to its job profile and Slovenia 3, not including the most representative tasks of Train preparation. In summary, these are the profile patterns identified on freight services: Profile pattern 1 (PP1): this profile groups most of the defined tasks. In this profile, it is possible to include the following countries and profiles: o Slovakia: o United Kingdom: Head of train. Train manager/guard. Of the 9 job profiles identified as crew members on freight services, 2 may be considered as PP1 (22%) Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 66/165

67 Profile pattern 2 (PP2): this profile groups all the tasks related to train preparation (and loading in one case). In this profile, it is possible to include the following countries and profiles: o Belgium: o Bulgaria: o Ireland: Attendant. Head of train. Person working with dangerous goods. Of the 9 job profiles identified for crew members on freight services, 3 may be considered as PP2 (33%) The profiles defined by National Binding Rules in Latvia and Slovenia and the profiles Staff accompanying dangerous goods and Staff accompanying other goods in Bulgaria have been considered as exotics (45%), due to the diference in task assignment that makes it impossible to assign them to one of the two defined profile patterns. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 67/165

68 2. Results of the Second step The information provided by the First step Intermediate Report and its analysis gave an overview of the overall situation and allowed the ERA to make the appropriate decisions to go ahead with the Second step of the study. A more in-depth and detailed analysis, concerning legal requirements and specifications as well as supplementary information on further tasks assigned to crew members according to company-based work organisation and job description beyond national obligations was then carried out in the Second step, related to ten selected countries. The criteria followed to select these 10 countries, which should be representative of the European railway market, is explained in Part I. Point 2 Methodology of this report. The 10 selected countries are: Bulgaria France Germany Hungary Norway Poland Slovenia Spain Sweden The Netherlands Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 68/165

69 The selected RUs in each of the 10 selected countries were: COUNTRY RU passengers RU freight Bulgaria DBZ EAD DBZ EAD France SNCF SNCF Germany Hungary Norway DB Fernverhehr Nord-Ostsee-Bahn MÁV Start GySEV NSB Flytoget Poland PKP Intercity PKP Cargo Slovenia Slovenske Zeleznice Spain Renfe Sweden the Netherlands SJ DSB NS Reizigers NS Hispeed Total Interviews carried out on the level of National Safety Authorities and Railway Undertakings of the 10 selected countries were the basis for the analysis which led to a general overview of the current situation in Member States, plus Norway, and Railway Undertakings: Identification of the different job profiles defined by the RUs in the staff group called crew members. Identification of the tasks assigned to each job profile. The individual weight / proportion of task expressed as a percentage of all job tasks. Relation between job tasks related to operation and safety on one side and other job tasks on the other. An analysis regarding the variety found in regard to the job profile, the individual weight / proportion between safety related aspects and other operational/commercial tasks. The extent to which job profiles found in different countries and RUs are comparable and differ from each other. Overview of specifications and requirements applicable to train crew members. The extent to which the job of train crew member as currently developed in different national regulations or in varying company work organisations has a common, comparable basis. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 69/165

70 The extent to which there is mobility of employees among railway companies and, if possible, differences with regard to the competence requirements established at a national or company level which potentially prevent greater mobility of workers. The script questionnaire used for the interviews is included in Annex IV (Questionnaire Scrip for interviews) and the reports of the interviews are included in Annex V (Interviews reports), both of them are in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document Job profiles and tasks on passenger services The total number of job profiles identified by studying the 15 RUs was 32 for passenger service and 4 for freight service. The names of the job profiles identified by the RUs on passenger services are shown in Table 13 below. To identify the different types of job profiles summarised in the staff group called crew members, a number of representative tasks, the same ones that were used for the First step of the study, were included in the questionnaire during the interviews with the RUs. Table 14 shows an overview of the job profiles and the assignment of tasks by each of the 32 job profiles on passenger services and whether the task is regulated by National Binding Rules or by company rules. In addition, those tasks considered as safety relevant by the RUs are indicated. It is important to indicate that in the case of the Slovenian RU, Slovenske Zeleznice, there are two job profiles, Ticket Inspector and Head of Train, which according to the assignment of tasks made in the analysis, could be considered the same. According to the information given by the RU, there are two different job profiles, although they have similar tasks assigned. Therefore, in the study they have been considered as two different job profiles. The analysis of the assignment of these groups of tasks made by the RUs indicates the extent to which job profiles found in different RUs are comparable with or differ from each other. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 70/165

71 Table 13. List of job profiles (JP) for passenger services in the 15 RUs Country RU Job profile Bulgaria BDZ AED JP1: Head of Train JP2: Conductor JP3: Conductor of luggage France SNCF JP1: Agent d'accompagnement (Accompanying Agent) Germany Hungary Norway Poland Slovenia Spain Sweden the Netherlands DB AG JP1: Zugführer (Head of Train) JP2: Zugschaffner (Ticket Inspector) Nord-Ostsse-Bahn (NOB) JP1: Zugführer (Head of Train) MÁV START Zrt. GySEV NSB Flytoget PKP Intercity Slovenske Zeleznice (SZ) Renfe SJ DSBFirst NS Hispeed (NS-H) NS Reizigers (NS-R) JP1: Ticket Inspector JP2: Guard of sleeping car JP1: Conductor JP2: Leader Conductor JP3: International Leader Conductor JP1: On board Responsible (Head of Train) for locomotive driving train JP2: On board Responsible (Head of Train). EMU train JP3: Conductor Assistant JP4: Passenger service (Train Steward) JP1: Service Attendant JP1: Conductor (Head of Train) JP2: Train Attendant (Ticket Inspector) JP1: Ticket Inspector JP2: Head of Train JP1: Interventor-Supervisor (Ticket Inspector) JP2: Tripulante (Train Steward) JP3: Mecánico (Mechanic) JP1: On board Responsible including shunting and brake test (Head of Train) JP2: On board Responsible (Head of Train) JP3: Departure signaller JP4: Ticket Inspector JP1:Train Manager (Head of Train) JP1: Hoofdconducteur (Main Ticket Inspector) JP1: Hoofdconducteur (Main Ticket Inspector) JP2: Vertrek Assistant (Departure Asisstant) Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 71/165

72 Table 14. Job profiles and Tasks on passenger services in the 15 RUs Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 72/165

73 With the objective of knowing the extent to which job profiles identified by RUs in their work organisation were similar, a comparison of assigned tasks has been made. To make this comparison, the tasks assigned by at least 7 RUs (47% of the total number of 15 RUs analysed) to one or more of their job profiles had been taken into consideration. This criterion was used to take into account the tasks that are assigned to crew members by about 50% of the RUs. Table 15 below shows all the tasks considered. Those that are assigned by at least 7 RUs are marked in colour. In order to identify similarities in job profiles or profile patterns, Table 16 shows an overview of the job profiles and the assignment of the tasks mentioned above by each RU to their job profiles. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 73/165

74 Table 15. Tasks assigned by at least 7 RUs Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 74/165

75 Table 16. Overview of the JPs grouped by PPs Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 75/165

76 In Table 16 above, two important groups of job profiles or profile patterns that have been assigned similar tasks could be identified: A first group or profile pattern that has almost every task of each different group of activities assigned: Train preparation. Train departure from any station. Train run. Operation in degraded mode. Operation in emergency situations. Customer service. A second group or profile pattern that has the tasks of mainly the following groups assigned: Train departure from any station. Train run. Operation in degraded mode but mainly the tasks directly related to passenger safety. Operation in emergency situations but mainly the tasks directly related to passenger safety. Customer service. The important differences between the two groups of job profiles are the tasks related to train preparation and the tasks related to operation in degraded mode and in emergency situations. Whilst the first group has been assigned the most relevant train operation tasks, including those related to degraded mode and emergency situations as well as those related to passenger safety, the second one has only been assigned the tasks related to train departure and passenger safety. Both of them have been assigned the tasks related to customer service. It is important to highlight that within the first group, there is also a difference between the RUs that consider shunting as a task to be assigned to crew members (BDZ, DB AG, NOB, GySEV, NSB, PKP Intercity and SJ), and the RUs that considered this task beyond the scope of the crew members activities (MÁV, SZ, NS Hispeed and NS Reizigers) As a conclusion of the analysis, two different profile patterns on passenger services can be identified: Profile Pattern 1 (PP1): All the relevant train operation tasks. Of the 32 job profiles identified in the 15 studied RUs, 17 may be considered as PP1 (53%). Profile Pattern 2 (PP2): Almost no operational tasks except those related to train departures. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 76/165

77 Of the 32 job profiles identified in the total of 15 studied RUs, 9 may be considered as PP2 (28%). Both Profile Patterns 1 and 2 share passenger safety and customer service tasks. Of the 32 job profiles, there remain 6 (19%) that are considered as Exotics due to the fact that the tasks assigned to them do not fit with either of the profile patterns identified. Accordingly, it is very difficult to see a common set of activities for these profiles. Therefore, the majority (53%) of the job profiles identified as crew members by the RUs may be considered as PP1. Table 17 below shows the job profiles considered in each profile pattern and Tables 18 and 19 give an overview of the assignment of tasks and the tasks that are considered safety relevant in each job profile identified as PP1 (17 JPs in 11 RUs and in 8 countries) and PP2 (9 JPs in 7 RUs and in 5 countries). Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 77/165

78 Table 17. Job Profiles (JP) considered in each Profile Pattern (PP) identified RU Profile Pattern 1 Profile Pattern 2 Exotics Bulgaria France Germany Hungary Norway BDZ AED SNCF DB AG Nord-Ostsse- Bahn (NOB) MÁV START Zrt. GySEV NSB Flytoget JP1: Head of Train JP2: Conductor JP1: Zugführer (Head of Train) JP2: Zugschaffner (Ticket Inspector) JP1: Zugführer (Head of Train) JP1: Ticket Inspector JP1: Conductor JP2: Lead Conductor JP3: International Leader Conductor JP1: On board responsible Locomotive driving train (Head of Train) JP1: Agent d'accompagnement (Accompanying Agent) JP2: Guard of sleeping car JP2: On board responsible EMU train (Head of Train) JP3: Conductor Assistant JP1: Service Attendant JP3: Conductor of luggage JP4: Passenger service (Train Steward) Poland PKP Intercity JP1: Conductor (Head of Train) JP2: Train Attendant (Ticket Inspector) Slovenia Spain Sweden the Netherlands Slovenske Zeleznice (ZS) Renfe SJ DSBFirst NS Hispeed (NS- H) NS Reizigers (NS-R) JP1: Ticket Inspector JP2: Head of train JP1: On board Responsible including shunting and brake test (Head of Train) JP1: Hoofdconducteur (Main Ticket Inspector) JP1: Hoofdconducteur (Main Ticket Inspector) JP1: Interventor-Supervisor (Ticket Inspector) JP2: On board Responsible (Head of Train) JP3: Departure signaller JP1:Train Manager JP2: Tripulante (Train Steward) JP3: Mecánico (Mechanic) JP4: Ticket Inspector JP2: Vertrek Assistant (Departure Asisstant) Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 78/165

79 Table 18. Job Profiles identified as PP1 and tasks assigned Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 79/165

80 Table 19. Job Profiles identified as PP2 and tasks assigned Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 80/165

81 The tasks assigned to at least 8 JPs (47% of the total 17 JPs) identified as PP1 are as follows (in blue, the tasks that are considered by 100% of the RUs as safety relevant): Train preparation tasks: - Checking train composition : 82% - Checking train composition document : 82% - Checks and test before departure : o brake status/braking system : 94% o signal handling-end of train signal : 76% o Auxiliary systems (lighting, air conditioning, heating) : 100% o Door release and locking : 100% o Safety equipments (protection devices, emergency signals) : 82% - Communication of train preparation completed : 65% Train departure from any station: - Door closing : 88% - Train departure (operations completed) : 76% Train run: - Emergency brake-reset after use and report to the driver : 94% - On-board communication (in particular passenger safety): 94% Operation in case of degraded mode: - Actions in the event of rolling stock failure o Brake failure : 82% o Mechanical failure : 59% o Safety equipment failure : 47% - General tasks in degraded mode o Communication to RU, IM, others : 47% o Passenger protection : 88% o Passenger transfer : 88% o Train departure (operations completed) : 82% o Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 88% Operation in the event of emergency situations: - Decision to stop train : 94% - Train protection : 76% - Passenger protection : 94% - Passenger evacuation : 100% - Train rescue : 53% - Train departure-operations completed : 82% - Information of / communication with driver : 82% - Information of / communication with RU : 71% - Information of / communication with others : 53% - Passenger information : 88% - Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 82% Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 81/165

82 Customer service: - Customer information : 100% - Ticket inspection : 100% - Dealing with on board passengers without a ticket :100% - Misbehaviour of passengers : 100% - Support at access and egress for PRM : 82% - Luggage loading and handling : 53% From these tasks, the following ones are regulated by in at least 50% of the countries (in blue, the tasks that are considered by 100% of the RUs as safety relevant): Train preparation tasks: - Checks and tests before departure : o brake status/braking system : 94% o signal handling-end of train signal : 76% Train departure from any station: - Door closing : 88% - Train departure (operations completed) : 76% Operation in the event of degraded mode: - General tasks in degraded mode o Passenger protection : 88% o Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 88% Operation in the event of emergency situations: - Passenger protection : 94% - Passenger evacuation : 100% - Train departure-operations completed : 82% - Information of / communication with driver : 82% - Information of / communication with RU : 71% To summarise, it is possible to conclude that tasks related to operation and those related to passenger safety in the event of degraded mode or emergency situations are regulated by National Binding Rules. It is important to highlight that all tasks considered safety relevant by the RUs are regulated by National Binding Rules, but not all tasks regulated by National Binding Rules are considered safety relevant by the RUs. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 82/165

83 The tasks assigned to at least 47% of JPs identified as PP2 are as follows (in blue, the tasks that are considered by 100% of the RUs as safety relevant): Train preparation: Checks of auxiliary systems (lighting, air conditioning, heating, etc): 56% Train departure from any station: Door closing : 67% Train departure (operation completed) : 89% Train run: Emergency brake-reset after use and report to driver : 89% On-board communication (in particular, passenger safety) : 89% Operation in the event of degraded mode: Passenger protection : 89% Passenger transfer : 78% Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 67% Operation in the event of emergency situations: Decision to stop train : 67% Train protection : 56% Passenger protection : 89% Passenger evacuation : 100% Information of / communication with driver : 67% Passenger information : 67% Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 67% Customer service: Customer information : 100% Ticket inspection : 78% Dealing with on board passengers without a ticket : 89% Misbehaviour of passengers : 89% Support access and egress for PRM : 78% Luggage loading and handling : 78% Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 83/165

84 From these tasks, the following ones are regulated by in at least 50% of the countries (in blue, the tasks that are considered by 100% of the RUs as safety relevant): Train departure from any station: Train departure (operation completed) : 89% Operation in the event of degraded mode: Passenger protection : 89% Operation in the event of emergency situations: Passenger protection : 89% Passenger evacuation : 100% It is important to highlight that in the case of PP2, not all the tasks considered safety relevant by the RUs are regulated by National Binding Rules and not all tasks regulated by National Binding Rules are considered safety relevant by the RUs. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 84/165

85 2.2. Job profiles and tasks on freight services In the Second step of the study, three RUs with crew members on freight services have been analysed: BDZ Cargo from Bulgaria, SNCF from France and PKP Cargo from Poland. Table 20 shows the job profiles and the assignment of tasks by the three RUs on freight services and whether the tasks are regulated by National Binding Rules or by company rules. It is important to highlight that in the case of SNCF, the Agent de Dessert is a crew member only when the freight train halts in an unattended station. In the case of PKP Cargo, the Assistant does not accompany all trains. His/her main activities are similar to those of the driver, but without the authorisation to drive. With this limited information, it was not possible to carry out a sound analysis. Therefore, in the Second step only a collection of data and a brief description of the main aspects that characterise job profiles on freight services have been presented. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 85/165

86 Table 20. Job Profiles and tasks on freight services Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 86/165

87 The following tasks are assigned to all job profiles (in blue the tasks that are considered safety relevant by all of the RUs): Train preparation: Coupling Checks and tests before departure o Brake status / braking system o Signal handling-end of train signal Loading: Check load type Check specific documents related to dangerous goods Operation in degraded mode: Actions in the event of rolling stock failure o Brake failure Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 87/165

88 2.3. Requirements and provisions for passenger services In relation to the requirements applicable to train crew members and the extent to which job profiles are developed in different national regulations, the analysis carried out in the Second step allows us to conclude, in relation to passenger service: Profile Pattern 1 Besides the assignment of tasks that typify this profile pattern, the following requirements are similar to the majority of job profiles identified as PP1: Minimum age: 18 years old in all RUs. Minimum education: secondary school in 64% of the RUs. Minimum medical and psychological requirements established according to in 73% of the RUs. Professional competence: established by the RUs during specific training, according to programs and methods established by company rules, in 64% of the RUs. Examination: procedures and content established by the RUs according to their internal rules in 82% of the RUs. The exams are carried out by the company in 91% of the RUs. Certification system: these exist in 55% of the RUs, in accordance with in 27% and in accordance with in another 27%. Maintenance of competence: there is a procedure in 82% of the RUs, 64% of which are established by company rules. 64% of the RUs re-assess competence and carry out re-examinations and regular medical checks. 56% of the RUs carry out regular psychological test but 18% of these are in accordance with. Profile Pattern 2 Besides the assignment of tasks that typify this profile pattern, the following requirements are similar to the majority of job profiles identified as PP2: Minimum age: 18 years old in all RUs. Minimum education: there is no minimum common education requirement; primary school is the most frequent (43%) Minimum medical requirements are established by in 86% of the RUs, while the other 14% do not establish medical requirements. Minimum psychological requirements are established by in 57% of the RUs, while the other 43% do not establish psychological requirements. Professional competence: given by the RUs during specific training, according to programs and methods established by company rules in 86% of the RUs, while in the other 14% no specific professional competence is established. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 88/165

89 Examination: procedures and content fixed by the RU according to internal rules in 86% of the RUs and the exams are carried out by the RU in all of them. Certification system: There exists in 14% of the RUs and according to their company rules. Maintenance of competence: 86% of the RUs have established procedures to maintain the competence, all of them according to company rules. 57% of the RUs re-assess the competence and carry out re-examinations, all of them according to company rules. 86% of the RUs carry out regular medical checks. On the other hand, 86% of the RUs do not carry out regular psychological checks. The most important differences between both profile patterns are: minimum education requirements and the certification system. The details of who requirements and provisions are developed in the different countries and RU are in the Second step Intermediate Report included as Annex VI in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document Requirements and provisions for freight services In relation to the requirements applicable to train crew members and the extent to which job profiles are developed under different national regulations, the analysis carried out in the Second step allows to conclude that, for freight services, besides the assignment of tasks, the following requirements are similar to the majority of job profiles on freight services: Minimum age: 18 years old, regulated by in all RUs. Minimum education: secondary school education is a minimum requirement in 2 of the 3 RUs. Minimum medical requirements are established by in all RUs. Minimum psychological requirements are established by in 2 of the 3 RUs. Professional competence: given by the RU, or NSA in the case of BDZ, during specific training, according to programs and methods established by National Binding Rules in 2 of the 3 RUs. Examination: procedures and contents are established by National Binding Rules in all RUs. The exams are carried out by NSA in one RU and by an authorised Training Centre in the other two. Certification system: established according to National Binding Rules in two RUs and according to company rules in one RU. Maintenance of competence: two RUs have procedures established according to National Binding Rules and one RU by company rules. There is established re-assessment of the competence in two RUs and re-examination and recertification in all of them, two of which are in accordance with. Regular medical checks are carried out in all the RUs, in all of them in accordance with. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 89/165

90 The details of who requirements and provisions are developed in the different countries and RU are in the Second step Intermediate Report included as Annex VI in the CD (Annexes) attached to this document. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 90/165

91 3. Results of thethird step In this Third step, an analysis of the information gathered in the First and Second steps has been carried out with a special focus on the job profile elements related to operation and safety. The objective of this Third step of the study is to indicate the extent to which job profiles found in all Member States plus Norway and in the Railway Undertakings of the 10 selected countries are comparable with and/or are different from each other. The analysis gives an overview of the extent to which the job of train crew members is currently developed in different national regulations and in the different railway company work organisations: Tasks that are part of the responsibility of crew members in all or in most countries. Tasks that are part of the job profile only in a few cases, due to individual work organisation of the railway company. Share of job tasks that are part of all or most of the job profiles analysed compared with other job tasks. The level of staff turnover among the railway companies. Differences in regard to the competence requirements established at a national or company level to potentially prevent a larger mobility of workers. The opinion of the interview partners with regard to the introduction of a European certification scheme. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 91/165

92 3.1. Countries and Railway Undertakings object of analysis in the Third step of the study In order to produce the proper analysis, taking into account that the basis is the regulation of tasks, the information received from the 10 countries subject to the Second step has been integrated with the information of the other countries that, although they have not been interviewed, they also define tasks nationwide through National Binding Rules, according to their answers to the first questionnaire. Passenger service: countries under Third step analysis 17 countries: o 10 countries interviewed: 7 countries with tasks regulated by. 3 countries with tasks regulated by RUs. o 7 countries that have regulating tasks but were not interviewed. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that of these 17 countries, 14 have regulating tasks (7 were interviewed and 7 were not). Freight service: countries object of Third step analysis: 9 countries: o 4 countries were interviewed (the other 6 countries interviewed do not have tasks regulated by CM on freight services): 3 countries with tasks regulated by. 1 country with tasks regulated by RU. o 5 countries that have -regulating tasks but were not interviewed. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that of these 9 countries, 8 have regulating tasks (3 were interviewed and 5 were not). Table 21 shows a summary of the countries subject to the Third step. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 92/165

93 Table 21. Summary of countries object of analysis in the Third step Countries with for CM Austria Countries regulating tasks by of the 20 countries with for CM Of the 15 countries regulating tasks by in: Countries with tasks regulated by on passenger services Countries with tasks regulated by on freight services Countries subject to the Third step on passenger services Countries selected for interviews Countries not interviewed but regulating tasks by Total Countries subject of the Third step on freight services Countries selected for interviews Countries not interviewed but regulating tasks by Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Belgium Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Total Finland Finland Finland Finland Finland France France France France France France France France Germany Germany Germany Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Hungary Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Italy Italy Italy Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Latvia Norway Norway Norway Norway Norway Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Portugal Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovakia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Slovenia Spain Spain Spain Spain Spain Sweden Sweden Sweden the Netherlands the Netherlands United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 93/165

94 3.2. Job profiles and tasks on passenger services A total of 40 job profiles have been identified in the 17 countries subject to analysis in this Third step. The names given by the NSAs and RUs to their job profiles have been listed in Table 22. Table 23 shows the different job profiles identified by each NSA and RU and the tasks assigned to each one, and if the task is regulated by National Binding Rules or by company rules. These tasks were identified by the Consortium team, taking into consideration the tasks laid down in the Commission Decision 2006/920/EC Train Operation and Management, the personal experience of the team and the answers received from the NSA during the first step of the study. Some other tasks identified during the interviews with the RUs have also been included. The tasks are divided into groups of activities: Train preparation, including shunting tasks. Train departure from any station. Loading, only for freight trains; therefore this group of tasks is not subject to analysis on passenger services. Train run. Operation in degraded mode in different situations: o actions in the event of rolling stock failure. o actions in the event of infrastructure failure. o actions in the event of severe weather conditions. o general tasks in the event of degraded mode. Operation in emergency situations. Customer service, only for passenger trains. The analysis of the assignment of these groups of tasks assigned by the NSA and the RUs indicates the extent job to which profiles found in the different RUs are comparable with or differ from each other. As indicated in the Second step, in the case of the Slovenian RU, Slovenske Zeleznice, there are two job profiles - Ticket Inspector and Head of Train - which, according to the assignment of tasks could be considered as the same. Due to the information given by the RU, there are two different job profiles in spite of the similar tasks assigned, therefore in the study both job profiles have been taken into consideration. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 94/165

95 Table 22. Identification of job profiles (JP) in each RU Country RUs Job profiles Belgium Bulgaria BDZ AED JP1: Attendant for passenger trains JP1: Head of Train JP2: Conductor JP3: Conductor of luggage Finland JP1: Conductor of the passenger traffic France SNCF JP1: Agent d'accompagnement (Accompanying Agent) Germany DB AG Nord-Ostsse-Bahn (NOB) JP1: Zugführer (Head of Train) JP2: Zugschaffner (Ticket Inspector) JP1: Zugführer (Head of Train) Hungary Italy Latvia Norway Poland Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden the Netherlands UK MÁV START Zrt. GYSEV NSB Flytoget PKP Intercity Slovenske Zeleznice (SZ) Renfe SJ DSBFirst NS Hispeed (NS-H) NS Reizigers (NS-R) JP1: Ticket Inspector JP2: Guard of sleeping car JP1: Conductor JP2: Leader Conductor JP3: International Leader Conductor JP1: Train accompanying staff JP1: Drivers' assistant of the traction rolling stock JP1: On board responsible (Head of Train). Locomotive driving JP2: i On board responsible (Head of Train). EMU train JP3: Conductor Assistance JP4: Passenger service (Train Steward) JP1: Service Attendant JP1: Conductor (Head of Train) JP2: Train Attendant (Ticket Inspector) JP1: Assistant train driver JP1: Chief of train crew JP2: Train conductor JP1: Ticket Inspector JP2: Head of Train JP1: Interventor-Supervisor (Ticket Inspector) JP2: Tripulante (Train Steward) JP3: Mecánico (Mechanical) JP1: On board Responsible including shunting and brake test (Head of Train) JP2: On board Responsible (Head of Train) JP3: Departure signaller JP4: Ticket Inspector JP1:Train Manager (Head of train) JP1: Hoofdconducteur (Main Ticket Inspector) JP1: Hoofdconducteur (Main Ticket Inspector) JP2: Vertrek Assistant (Departure Assistant) JP1: Train manager/ guard Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 95/165

96 Table 23. Job Profiles and Tasks on passenger services Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 96/165

97 In order to analyse the tasks assigned to each job profile, the following tables show, for each task: Table 24: Number of NSAs or RUs that assign the task to at least one of their job profiles and the percentage out of the total number of 17 countries subject to this Third step of the study. Table 25: countries that regulate the task by National Binding Rules and the percentage out of the total number of 17 countries subject to this Third step of the study. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 97/165

98 Table 24. Assignment of tasks by NSA or RUs Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 98/165

99 Table 25. Countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rules Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 99/165

100 The tasks assigned to crew members in at least 50% of the countries are: Train preparation tasks: o Shunting : 65%. o Checking train composition : 59%. o Checking train composition document/documentation : 65%. o Checks and tests before departure : Brake status : 71%. Signal handling-end of train signal : 71%. Auxiliary systems (lighting, air conditioning, etc) : 65%. Door release and locking : 65%. Safety equipment : 53%. o Communication train preparation completed : 53%. Train departure from any station: o Door closing : 82%. o Train departure (operations completed) : 82%. Train run: o Emergency brake-reset after use : 76%. o On-board communication (in particular, passenger safety) : 82%. Operation in degraded mode: o General tasks: Communication to RU, IM, others : 53%. Passenger protection : 76%. Passenger transfer : 76%. Train departure : 71%. Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 65%. Operation in emergency situations: o Decision to stop train : 71%. o Train protection : 82%. o Passenger protection : 82%. o Passenger evacuation : 88%. o Train departure, operations completed : 71%. o Information of/ communication with driver : 82%. o Information of/ communication with RU : 71%. o Information of/ communication with others : 53%. o Passenger information :76%. o Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 65%. Customer service: o Customer information : 65%. o Ticket inspection : 65%. o Dealing with on-board passengers without a ticket : 65%. o Misbehaviour of passengers : 65%. o Support at access and egress for PRM : 53%. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 100/165

101 From these tasks assigned to crew members in at least 50% of the countries, the tasks regulated by National Binding Rules, also in at least 50% of the countries, are: Train preparation tasks: o Shunting : 57%. o Checking train composition : Checking train composition document/documentation : 50%. o Checks and tests before departure : Brake status : 57%. Signal handling-end of train signal : 57%. Train departure from any station: o Door closing : 79%. o Train departure (operations completed) : 79%. Train run: o Emergency brake reset after use : 50%. o On-board communication (in particular, passenger safety) : 57%. Operation in degraded mode: o General tasks: Passenger protection : 64%. Passenger transfer : 50%. Train departure : 57%. Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 50%. Operation in emergency situations: o Decision to stop train : 57%. o Train protection : 64%. o Passenger protection : 71%. o Passenger evacuation : 79%. o Train departure, operations completed : 64%. o Information of/ communication with driver : 71%. o Information of/ communication with RU : 64%. o Passenger information : 57%. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 101/165

102 3.3. Tasks comparison of the different job profiles on passenger services With the objective of verifying the extent to which job profiles identified by NSA and RUs are similar, a comparison of assigned tasks has been made. To make this comparison, the tasks assigned to crew members in at least 50% of the countries subject to the analysis in this Third step have been taken into consideration. Table 26 below shows all tasks considered and those assigned by at least 50% of the countries are marked in blue. An overview of the job profiles and the assignment of said tasks in each country are shown in Table 27. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 102/165

103 Table 26. Tasks assigned by at least 50% of countries Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 103/165

104 Table 27. Overview of job profiles and assigned tasks Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 104/165

105 In Table 27 above, two important groups of job profiles or profile patterns that have been assigned similar tasks can be identified: A first group or profile pattern that has almost every task of each different group of activities assigned: Train preparation. Train departure from any station. Train run. Operation in degraded mode. Operation in emergency situations. Customer service. A second group or profile pattern that mainly includes the tasks of the following groups assigned: Train departure from any station. Train run. Operation in degraded mode but mainly the tasks directly related to passenger safety. Operation in emergency situations but mainly the tasks directly related to passenger safety. Customer service. The important differences between both groups of job profiles are the tasks related to train preparation and the tasks related to operation in degraded mode and in emergency situations. While the first group has been assigned the most relevant train operation tasks, including those related to degraded mode and emergency situations, as well as those related to passenger safety, the second one has been assigned the tasks related to train departure and passenger safety. Both of them have been assigned the tasks related to customer service. It is important to highlight that within the first group, there is also a difference between the countries that consider the shunting task as a task to be assigned to crew members (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway and Sweden), and the countries that considered this task beyond the scope of the crew members activities (Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Netherlands). As a result of the previous considerations, job profiles identified by country have been grouped together. Table 28 shows the job profiles of each country that could be considered under each profile pattern. Table 29 shows the job profiles grouped by profile pattern and the tasks assigned to each one. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 105/165

106 Table 28. Job profiles identified as profile patterns Belgium Bulgaria Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Latvia Norway RUs Profile Pattern 1 Profile Pattern 2 Exotics BDZ AED SNCF DB AG Nord-Ostsse- MÁV START Zrt. GySEV NSB Flytoget JP1: Attendant for passenger trains JP1: Head of Train JP2: Conductor JP1: Zugführer (Head of Train) JP2: Zugschaffner (Ticket Inspector) JP1: Zugführer (Head of Train) JP1: Ticket Inspector JP1: Conductor JP2: Leader Conductor JP3: International Leader Conductor JP1: Train accompanying staff JP1: On board responsible Locomotive driving train (Head of Train) JP1: Agent d'accompagnement (Accompanying Agent) JP2: Guard of sleeping car JP2: On board responsible EMU train (Head of Train) JP3: Conductor Assistance JP1: Service Attendant JP3: Conductor of luggage JP1: Conductor of the passenger traffic JP1: Drivers' assistant of the traction rolling stock JP4: Passenger service (Train Steward) Poland PKP Intercity JP1: Conductor (Head of Train) JP2: Train Attendant (Ticket Inspector) Portugal JP1: Assistant train driver Slovak Republic JP1: Chief of train crew JP2: Train conductor Slovenia Slovenske Zeleznice (ZS) JP1: Ticket Inspector JP2: Head of train Spain Renfe JP1: Interventor-Supervisor (Ticket Inspector) JP2: Tripulante (Train Steward) JP3: Mecánico (Mechanical) Sweden SJ DSBFirst JP1: On board Responsible including shunting and brake test (Head of Train) JP2: On board Responsible (Head of Train) JP3: Departure signaller JP1:Train Manager JP4: Ticket Inspector the Netherlands United Kingdom NS Hispeed (NS-H) NS Reizigers (NS-R) JP1: Hoofdconducteur (Main Ticket Inspector) JP1: Hoofdconducteur (Main Ticket Inspector) JP1: Train manager/ guard JP2: Vertrek Assistant (Departure Assistant) Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 106/165

107 Table 29. Overview of the JPs grouped by PPs Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 107/165

108 As a conclusion of this analysis, two different profile patterns on passenger services can be identified: Profile Pattern 1 (PP1): Here all the relevant train operation tasks are assigned. Of the 40 job profiles identified in the 17 countries, 21 job profiles (53%) could be considered as PP1. Profile Pattern 2 (PP2): Here almost none of the operational tasks are assigned except those related to train departure. Of the 40 job profiles identified in the 17 countries, 10 job profiles (25%) could be considered as PP2 Both Profile Patterns 1 and 2 share passenger safety and customer service tasks. The job profiles that do not meet the criteria of profile pattern 1 and 2, 9 job profiles (22%) in total, have been called Exotics, due to the difficulty to assign them to one of the two defined profile patterns. Job profiles identifed as PP 53% 25% 22% PP1 PP2 Exotics Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 108/165

109 3.4. Profile patterns on passenger services As a conclusion of chapter 3.3. two profile patterns for passenger services have been identified: Profile pattern 1: which groups all the relevant operational tasks assigned: Train preparation. Train departure from any station. Train run. Operation in degraded mode. Operation in emergency situations. Customer service. Profile pattern 2: which mainly groups the tasks assigned of the following groups: Train departure from any station. Train run. Tasks related to passenger safety in operation in degraded mode and in operation in emergency situations. Customer service. In order to analyse the tasks assigned to job profiles identified as profile pattern 1, the following tables show, on a task-by-task basis: Table 30: the number of countries that have assigned the tasks to at least one of their job profiles and the percentage of the 11 countries with PP1. Table 31: the number of countries that regulate the tasks by National Binding Rules and the percentage of the 11 countries with PP1. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 109/165

110 Table 30. Assignment of tasks for PP1 Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 110/165

111 Table 31. Countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rules for PP1 Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 111/165

112 All job profiles identified as PP1 have the following common tasks assigned: Checks and tests before departure o Brake status/ braking system o Signal handling-end of train signal o Door release and locking Train departure from any station: o Door closing o Train departure (operations completed) Train run: o Emergency brake reset after use and report to the driver o On-board communication (in particular passenger safety) Operation in emergency situations: o Decision to stop train o Passenger protection o Passenger evacuation o Information of/ communication with driver Of the previous tasks, the task Door release and locking of checks and tests before departure is not regulated by National Binding Rules in the majority of the countries that is, in at least 50% of them. The rest of the tasks are regulated by National Binding Rules in at least 50% of the countries. In order to analyse the tasks assigned to job profiles identified as profile pattern 2, the following tables show, on a task-by-task basis: Table 32: the number of countries that have assigned the tasks to at least one of their job profiles and the percentage of the 6 countries with PP2. Table 33: the number of countries that regulate the tasks by National Binding Rules and the percentage of the 6 countries with PP2. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 112/165

113 Table 32. Assignment of tasks for PP2 Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 113/165

114 Table 33. Countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rules for PP2 Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 114/165

115 One task is assigned to job profiles identified as PP2 by all countries: Passenger evacuation in the event of operation in emergency situation. The majority of countries, at least 50%, assigned the following tasks to job profiles identified as PP2: Checks and test before departure o Auxiliary systems (lighting, air conditioning, heating, etc) : 67% Train departure from any station: o Door closing : 67% o Train departure (operations completed) : 83% Train run: o Emergency brake reset after use and report to the driver : 67% o On-board communication (in particular passenger safety) : 83% Operation in degraded mode: o Passenger protection : 83% o Passenger transfer : 83% o Train departure : 50% o Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 50% Operation in emergency situations: o Decision to stop train : 50% o Train protection : 67% o Passenger protection : 83% o Passenger evacuation : 100% o Information of/ communication with driver : 67% o Passenger information : 50% o Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 67% Customer service: o Customer information : 83% o Ticket inspection : 83% o Dealing with on-board passengers without a ticket : 83% o Misbehaviour of passengers : 83% Of these tasks, the following ones are regulated by National Binding Rules in at least 50% of the countries with PP2: Train departure from any station: o Door closing : 75%. o Train departure (operations completed) : 80%. Operation in degraded mode: o Passenger protection : 80%. o Train departure : 67%. o Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 67%. Operation in emergency situations: o Train protection : 50%. o Passenger protection : 80%. o Passenger evacuation : 83%. o Information of/ communication with driver : 50%. o Reporting on any unusual occurrences : 50%. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 115/165

116 3.5. Job profiles and tasks on freight services A total of 10 job profiles have been identified in the 9 countries with crew members on freight services subject to this Third step of the study. The names given by the NSAs and RUs to their job profiles have been listed in Table 34. According to the response of the Slovenian NSA to the first questionnaire as well as the answer during the interview, one crew member job profile on freight services is identified by National Binding Rules. The information received from the incumbent Slovenian RU is that there are no such crew members in their company. For the purpose of this analysis, this job profile as identified by the Slovenian NSA has been taken into account. Table 35 shows the different job profiles identified by each NSA and RU and the tasks assigned to each one, and whether the task is regulated by National Binding Rules or by company rules. These tasks were identified by the Consortium team, taking into consideration the tasks laid down in the Commission Decision 2006/920/EC Train Operation and Management, the personal experience of the members of the team and the answers received from the NSAs during the First step of the study. Some other tasks identified during the interviews with the RUs have also been included. The tasks are divided into groups of activities: Train preparation, including shunting tasks. Train departure, at any station. Loading, only for freight trains. Train run. Operation in degraded mode, divided into different situations: o actions in the event of rolling stock failure. o actions in the event of infrastructure failure. o actions in the event of severe weather conditions. o general tasks in degraded mode. Operation in emergency situations. The analysis of the assignment of these groups of tasks by the NSAs and the RUs indicates the extent to which job profiles found in the different RUs are comparable with or differ from each other. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 116/165

117 Table 34. Identification of job profiles (JP) in each country Country RUs Job profiles Belgium JP1: Attendant Bulgaria BDZ AED JP1: Head of Train JP2: Switch Man France SNCF JP1: Agent de Dessert Ireland JP1: Person with duties in dangerous goods Latvia JP1: Drivers' assistant of the traction rolling stock Poland PKP Cargo JP1: Assistant Slovakia JP1: Head of train Slovenia JP1: Conductor JP2: Train Laeder UK JP1: Train manager/ guard Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 117/165

118 Table 35. Job profiles and tasks on freight services Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 118/165

119 In order to analyse the tasks assigned to each job profile, the following tables show, for each task: Table 36: the number of NSAs or RUs that assign the task to the job profile and the percentage of the total number of 9 countries. Table 37: the number of countries that regulate the task by National Binding Rules and the percentage of the total number of 9 countries. Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 119/165

120 Table 36. Assignment of tasks by country Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 120/165

121 Table 37. Countries that regulate tasks by National Binding Rules Final Report ERA/2008/INTEROP/OP/01 (CM) PART III - 121/165

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