2 Before the outbreak of WWI, wars were fought very differently.
3 World War I (WWI) began in 1914 after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austia-Hungary. It started as a conflict between Britain, France and Russia on one side (Allies) and Germany and Austria-Hungary (Axis) on the other. Other countries would join the war later.
4 When Britain went to war in 1914, Newfoundland considered itself at war as well, since it was a dominion of the British Empire. Dominions of the British Empire, like Canada, Newfoundland and Australia all believed that if Britain lost the war, then they would lose their democratic (people vote for their leader) governments.
5 At the beginning of the war, young men were eager to join the fight to serve the British Empire. They assumed it would not be a long war. All classes of Newfoundlanders enlisted (joined). Some enlisted for employment while others enlisted simply to serve the British Empire. This is known as patriotism. (Loving your country to the point where you d die for it!) Propaganda posters promoted the war as a positive thing. The posters focused on how important it was to save Britain and how much money soldiers could make.
7 At the beginning of the war, the only organized military group available for service was the Royal Naval Reserve. When war broke out, the reservists were called to active duty. Newfoundland sailors served on over 30 naval ships. The Newfoundland Regiment was created in 1914 when a call went out for men between the ages of years.
8 Table 6.1 on Page 127: Newfoundlanders who Served in WWI Military Branch Number of Newfoundlanders who Served Royal Naval Reserve 2050 Newfoundland Regiment 6240 Volunteer Aid Detachment 40 Forestry Corps 500 Merchant Marine 5000 Canadian and Other Allied Forces 3100
9 Why do you suppose that such a large number enlisted in the Newfoundland Regiment? The First Five Hundred, literally the first 500 men to enlist, sailed out of St. John s on October 4, 1914 to head to Europe.
10 Many Newfoundlanders served in the Canadian army and other armed forces. The other 3 groups in table 6.1 were part of unarmed services: o The Volunteer Aid Detachment (VAD) consisted of female nurses who went overseas to work in military Hospitals in France and England. o The NL Forestry Corps travelled to Scotland in 1917 to cut wood to supply the troops. o Merchant Marine sailors crewed cargo ships through the dangerous seas.
11 1. Pretend you are a British or German recruiting officer and design your own Propaganda Poster to encourage people to enlist with the armed forces. (Remember this is WWI!)
12 Owen Steele ( ): o He was a member of the Newfoundland Highlanders, a militarytraining organization dedicated to instilling discipline, patriotism and manliness in boys. o He was the 326 th member of the First Five Hundred, the famous Blue Putees. o He advanced from an enlisted soldier to lieutenant in one year. o He died July 8,1916 from injuries received when a German shell exploded near him.
13 John Shiwak ( ) o Born in Labrador, Shiwak came to be known as the best sniper in the British Army. o His hunting and trapping skills became a necessity and caught the attention of his superior officers. o He achieved the position of lance corporal and served as scout, observer and sniper with the Newfoundland Regiment. o He was killed at Masnières, France on November 21, 1917.
14 On July 1, 1916, the Newfoundland Regiment fought in the Battle of the Somme at Beaumont Hamel in France. While the Battle of the Somme lasted until November 15, 1916, July 1 is the most significant day for Newfoundlanders in World War I. On the morning of July 1, 1916, the Newfoundland Regiment was ordered to advance out of their trenches and across the open ground called No Man s Land toward the enemy position, and a bombardment of heavy machine gunfire.
15 NL Regiment leave their trenches March across No Man s Land toward the enemy.
16 This was the first battle that introduced the tank to war.
17 When they raced across No Man s Land, many Newfoundlanders were shot down. Those who had made it to the German side, they realized that the bombs that had been going off had not cut the barbed wire protecting the German trenches. The superior officers knew the barbed wire was still there, but dismissed the information. The Newfoundlanders who reached the barbed wire got stuck in it and were quickly killed.
18 801 Newfoundland soldiers advanced that morning, 233 were dead by evening, 386 injured and 91 were missing. When they called for roll call the next day, only 68 Newfoundland soldiers were available. In total, from July 1 to November 15, 485,000 British and French troops were killed, and 630,000 Germans. July 1 is now regarded as Memorial Day, and services are held for those who died during this Battle.
19 PROJEECT time! [insert class-wide groan here] It s the night before the Battle of Beaumont-Hamel and you are a member of the Newfoundland Regiment. Write a letter to a loved one (mother, father, brother, sister, significant other, etc ) relating your hopes and fears about the upcoming battle. This letter should be roughly a page. You will complete a rough copy, and then a good copy on a blank sheet of paper. We will be tea-staining these papers! Keep in mind what how we ve talked about the Battle. Remember the excerpts from the novels I read to you. Remember that this was a devastating battle, and many of the Newfoundlanders were brand new recruits. Take this seriously and take your time.
20 The Victoria Cross is Britain s highest award for valour (bravery). Two Newfoundlanders were awarded that honour in WWI. John Bernard Croke ( ) o Worked in the mines in Nova Scotia before joining the Canadian Corps and serving overseas. o Croke received the first Victoria Cross awarded to a Newfoundlander for his bravery during the Battle of Amiens. He had been severely injured, but continued to fight when his platoon was attacked by several enemy machine guns. o Croke rushed forward, followed by his platoon, and while he was severely injured again, he managed to capture 3 machine guns and an entire enemy garrison. He died of his wounds.
21 Tommy Ricketts ( ) o o Enlisted in the Newfoundland Regiment in 1916 (He lied about his age!) By 1917 he was fighting at the front in France and was shot in the leg during the Battle of Cambrai. o 1918 during the Battle of Courtrai, he volunteered to clear out a German battery but ran out of ammunition in the attempt. He risked his life and ran back for ammunition. He returned and using his excellent marksmanship, forced the enemy to retreat. o His platoon went on to capture 4 field guns, 4 machine guns, and 8 prisoners without any casualties. o King George V awarded him the Victoria Cross in January 1919, noting he was, at the time, the youngest to receive the award.
22 Use your notes and textbook to complete short bio s for the four soldier s we ve looked at in your own words. Include as much information about them as you can
23 Far from the battlefields in Europe, thousands of people on the home front gave generously to the war effort. Everyone came together and gave their time and money to support those in service overseas.
24 Throughout Newfoundland, women s organizations assisted the troops and offered support to their family members at home. The Women s Patriotic Association (WPA), for instance, made bandages, knitted scarves, socks and hats, raised funds, visited grieving families, and cared for injured veterans. At its peak, the WPA had 150 branches and 15,000 members across Newfoundland.
25 In August 1914 the government of Prime Minister Edward Morris gave the responsibility of managing the war effort to the Newfoundland Patriotic Association (NPA). The NPA had 300 volunteers, mostly from St. John s, and chaired (run) by Governor Sir Walter Davidson. The NPA was funded by public money, but not overseen by the government. Giving control of the war effort to a group of volunteers was seen as a failure on the part of the government to fulfil its duties.
26 The NPA was responsible for recruiting members for the Newfoundland Regiment, the Royal Naval Reserve and Forestry Corps. In 1917 the government assumed control of the NPA, and the Department of Militia coordinated the war effort thereafter.
27 In the early years of the war, recruits voluntarily answered the call to enlist (join). Many left home expecting to be home by Christmas. The first men to enlist in the Newfoundland Regiment signed up for the duration of the war, but not exceeding one year because they thought it would end within a year. As we know, however, the war lasted much longer than one year.
28 After the catastrophic events at Beaumont-Hamel (1916), the rate of volunteer enlistments declined considerably. To remain a significant force, the Newfoundland Regiment had to maintain a strength of at least 1000 men. The government tried to promote enlisting, but when their efforts failed to attract more volunteers, the government considered conscription, or forced military service.
29 In May 1918 the Military Service Act was passed, requiring all unmarried men aged years to register for service. For Conscription Against Conscription Newfoundland s pride was at stake. Without Conscription, the Newfoundland Regiment would be undermanned and quite likely be absorbed into the Canadian army The British Empire was threatened and Newfoundland should support Britain. Britain had passed a conscription law in 1916, Canada in Newfoundland should follow suit. The government had no right to force men to fight. Men should choose to endanger or sacrifice their lives willingly. The war was a European war and far away from NL shores. Newfoundlanders should not be forced into a European war. St. John s merchants were profiting from the war. Why should the working class be forced to fight and risk their lives while others grew rich off the war?
30 The Cost of War: o Having lost so many men, the already small population of Newfoundland found it hard to cope with the loss. o Fighting in the war, however, helped NL define itself as a dominion with an equal status to that of other self-governing members of the British Empire. o NL did, however, allow London to continue determining its foreign affairs after the war.
31 Cluny McPherson, a Newfoundland doctor, invented a gas mask in 1915 while serving with the Newfoundland Regiment in Europe. His gas mask saved thousands of lives! Before McPherson, soldiers would use rags soaked in urine to keep poisonous gas out of their lungs! YUCK! His gas mask was made of cloth and metal, soaked in chemicals that would absorb the poisonous mustard gas!
32 Table 6.4 on page 140: How many Newfoundlanders and Labradorians died in Service in WWI: Military Branch Number of Enlisted Royal Naval Reserve Number of Deaths Newfoundland Regiment Volunteer Aid Detachment 40 1 Forest Corps Merchant Marine Canadian and Other Allied Forces Total 16,
33 It was rare for a family to have not lost somebody in the War. The War brought some short-term gain, but NL ultimately suffered financially. Prices for exports (things we send away) on fish, lumber and newsprint were high, but the government had to borrow $13 million to pay for the war. At the end of the war, the debt was over $35 million. $35 million is a lot of money for a small country to owe to the government, and Newfoundland had a very hard time.
34 Women s suffrage = The right to vote. Women organizations, such as the Newfoundland branch of the Women s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) existed since the 1800s, and with groups like the WPA (Women s Patriotic Association) and the VAD (Volunteer Aid Detachment) demonstrating women s capabilities in the war, awareness was being generated. With growing confidence, women began an energetic campaign for the right to vote.
35 Early suffragettes (those who advocated the right of women to vote) had to overcome the negative attitudes of many powerful men in the government and the church who felt that women should stay at home and not become involved in politics.
36 Prime Minister Sir Richard Squires rejected the arguments of the suffragettes, though by 1920 women in other parts of the British Empire were allowed to vote. In 1921, women finally won the right to vote and run for office in St. John s municipal elections. Owning property was a requirement for a vote, so many women were still disenfranchised (not allowed to vote). It would not be until 1925 under Prime Minister Walter Monroe, that a law was passed that all women 25 years old or older could vote.
37 Julia Salter Earle ran in the St. John s municipal election in 1925, but lost by a narrow margin. A few years later a man on his deathbed admitted to removing just enough ballots from the voters box so that she wouldn t win. in 1930, Helena Squires (wife of Sir Richard Squires) was the first woman elected to the House of Assembly. There is a timeline of Women s suffrage on P. 142 of your text book. Might be a good idea to look at it!!!
38 After reading the Primary Source on page 143, answer the following questions in complete sentences! Remember, yes, no, I don t know, IDK are not acceptable answers! 1. List some reactions you think the suffragettes received when they were looking for support. Why do you think some people did not support the vote for women? 2. List the importance of the suffragettes actions for the women and men of NL and Labrador today. What would happen if they hadn t fought for the right to vote?
39 World War I ended in 1918, but the death toll in Newfoundland did not end with it. Toward the end of the War, an outbreak of a dangerous strand of influenza, known as the Spanish Flu hit Newfoundland hard. Worldwide, the Spanish Flu killed between million people in the first 25 weeks. Recent research suggests nearly 100 million people died as a result of the flu. 50,000 Canadians died from the Spanish Flu.
40 The Spanish Flu came to NL in 1918 when a ship carrying soldiers returning home arrived in St. John s. Many public places closed in hopes of stopping the spread of the flu, and a special hospital was established for flu patients. The Epidemic killed 232 people in Newfoundland.
41 Labrador was not spared from the Flu. It arrived in Labrador when the Moravian mission ship, Harmony, arrived with an infected sailor in November of The diseased spread so rapidly, and people died so quickly, that they had to be buried in mass graves. Houses where people had died were burned in an effort to keep the flu from spreading.
42 The flu was so deadly that two-thirds of the population in Hebron were dead within 9 days! In Okak, only 59 of the 266 people survived. More than one-third of all Labrador Inuit were killed by the Spanish Flu.
43 1. How do you feel when you read this account? What is your reaction to the devastation, the sense of loss and the capacity for survival? 2. a: Besides physical sickness, what were the consequences of influenza on the community described in this excerpt? B: Could influenza have similar consequences today?
44 On November 11, 1918, at 5:00am, Germany signed an armistice. (A temporary suspension of hostilities, or a truce.) At 11:00am on the same day, a ceasefire was issued to the troops so that they would stop fighting. Between 5:00 and 11:00 the troops on both side were still fighting, trying to gain territory before it came into effect.
45 The Treaty of Versailles o While (most of) the fighting stopped during the armistice on November 11, 1918, the armistice was a temporary solution. o After many negotiations, the Allied Powers came up with a treaty that they thought was fair and declared that if Germany did not sign the treaty (peace agreement), the war would continue. Germany had to take full responsibility for starting the war. o The treaty stripped Germany of 25,000 square miles of territory they took over during the war, and granted independence to those territories. o Germany was only allowed an army of no more than 100,000 men in a maximum of seven infantry and three cavalry divisions. The navy was only allowed to have a maximum of 15,000 men, 36 ships and no submarines. They were not allowed to have an airforce.
47 World War I changed the map of Europe drastically. With the defeat of Germany and its allies, empires fell and territories and borders changed.
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