LESSON 2 INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD OVERVIEW

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1 LESSON DESCRIPTION: LESSON 2 INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD OVERVIEW In this lesson you will learn the requirements and procedures surrounding intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB). TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTION: Identify procedures used in intelligence preparation of the battlefield. CONDITION: You will be given information from FM STANDARD: Intelligence preparation of the battlefield will be identified in accordance with FM REFERENCES: The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publication: FM INTRODUCTION Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) is the key to preparing for the next battle. During peacetime, IPB builds an extensive data base for each potential area in which a unit may be required to operate. It analyzes this intelligence data base in detail to determine the impact of the enemy, weather, and terrain on operations and presents this information graphically. IPB is initiated any time you face a new enemy or receive a new mission. It is initiated prior to hostilities and is adaptable to contingency situations. It is a continuous process which supports planning and execution for all operations. The IPB process integrates enemy doctrine with the weather and terrain and relates these factors to the mission and the specific battlefield situation. It provides a basis for determining and evaluating enemy capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable courses of action (COAs). It also serves as the planning basis for the formulation of the unit's concept of operations and for the allocation of combat power as reflected in the unit's 53 IN0764

2 organization for combat. The process is especially critical to the intelligence officer (G2/S2), the operations officer G3/S3), the battlefield deception element, and the field artillery intelligence officer (FAIO). Like the intelligence cycle, the IPB process is cyclic in nature. All IPB functions are performed continuously and simultaneously. Figure 2-1 depicts the IPB process. Figure 2-1. The IPB process Battlefield area evaluation assesses the area of operations (AO) and the area of interest (AI) and is the basis for the analysis of the terrain, weather, and threat forces. Terrain and weather analysis may be accomplished in sequence or simultaneously with threat evaluation. Regardless of the analytical sequence, the final step is threat integration. It integrates weather, 54 IN0764

3 terrain, enemy and friendly force information, and determines their combined effects on operations. IPB provides situation and target information with which to compare friendly and enemy COAs. This data is used to predict enemy activity and to produce event-related forecasts of battlefield operations. Often it will allow you to shape the battlefield through the deliberate execution of certain operations, like an engineer obstacle plan, to cause certain battlefield events unfold a& desired. The information required to develop IPB comes from all available sources. These sources include current intelligence holdings, information from higher headquarters, or information from supporting agencies. This information includes, but is not limited to, order of battle (OB) data, weather and terrain data, all-source intelligence input, technical intelligence data, NBC data, air defense data, aviation data, field artillery data, engineer data, and transportation and logistics data. The intelligence officer develops specific information requirements concerning weather, terrain, and threat forces within the AO. The resultant information is then used to develop and update the data base. The information includes all types of OB data. PART A - BATTLEFIELD AREA EVALUATION Battlefield area evaluation involves assessing the battle area with regard to the overall nature of the friendly and enemy forces and the operating environment. The terrain and weather are evaluated to determine how they will affect operations in general. Enemy forces (including ground and air and, when appropriate, naval forces) which are expected to operate within the battle area are evaluated to determine their capabilities in relation to the weather, terrain, and friendly mission. Battlefield evaluation should call attention to significant areas and features that must be considered during the IPB effort. It assists the IPB analyst in determining what information, products, and support will be required to complete the IPB. 1. The Battlefield. The battlefield consists of the AO and the AI. These areas are viewed in terms of width, depth, height (airspace), electro-optical factors, and time, with time being the most critical. a. Area of Operation. The AO is that geographical area where the commander has been assigned the responsibility and authority to conduct military operations. The assigned AO is based on mission, enemy terrain, troops and time available 55 IN0764

4 (METT-T) factors and planning considerations beyond the forward line of own troops (FLOT)(or objective). Figure 2-2 shows the planning consideration times for establishing the AO for the echelons of battalion through echelons above corps (EAC). During offensive operations, the AO will include the command's axes of advance or direction of attack and the designated objectives. Figure 2-2. AO times The air AO is identical to the ground AO in that air bases, refueling points, landing zones (LZs), drop zones (DZs), and air defense weapons and radars operate within the command's boundaries. The major difference between air and ground operations is the height (the third dimension) or operating ceiling within which fixed and rotarywing aircraft operate and air defense weapons can fire. The height of air operations is tempered by aircraft ceilings and the effective altitudes of air defense weapons systems such as antiaircraft artillery (AAA) and surface-to-air missiles (SAMs)(for example, the airspace ceilings and air defense limits of responsibility prescribed in joint and Allied doctrine). The rear AO differs from the forward AO (close and deep) in that it includes a geographical area where higher and lower echelon support and security and air defense elements are conducting operations simultaneously. While the rear area is defined by the same width, depth, height, electro-optical, and time factors as the forward areas, specific factors relating to the civil population, counter intelligence (CI), security, psychological operations (PSYOP), and civil affairs impose special considerations. Figure 2-3 shows the battlefield areas. b. Area of Interest. The AI is based on METT-T and the commander's concept of the operation. It should include all 56 IN0764

5 enemy activities which might affect the friendly force throughout the time of the operation in question. The G2 or S2 recommends the AI to Figure 2-3. Battlefield areas the commander based on IPB. Following the commander's approval, the G2, S2, or all-source production section (ASPS) forwards the limits of the AI to the next higher echelon, where it serves as a guide for supporting intelligence requirements. The AI for offensive operations will generally be larger than during defensive operations because of the need to be aware of potential counterattacking forces on flanks and reinforcements on or beyond the objectives as the attacking force penetrates the battle area. Like the AO, the AI uses planning consideration times to provide a basic set of guidelines for determining its limits. Figure 2-4 shows the planning consideration times used in determining the AI for the echelons of battalion through EAC. The air AI is normally much larger than the ground AI, primarily because of the great distances enemy aircraft can rapidly cover and the speed with which they can influence friendly operations. The air Al encompasses enemy airfields, refueling and rearming points, SAM sites, and air defense early warning radar (EWR) and groundcontrolled intercept (GCI) sites. The air AI extends upward to the maximum ceiling of enemy aircraft and to the 57 IN0764

6 maximum effective altitudes of friendly and enemy air defense systems. The rear operations AI may include an area as large as a theater of operations, a theater rear area, or a communications zone Figure 2-4. AI times (COMMZ). The area must extend into enemy territory as combat support and CSS units must be prepared to move into areas formerly occupied by the enemy. The rear AI may overlap the AIs of other rear area commanders, as well as other rear AOs. The rear operations AI for air is extremely large due to the rapid potential impact of enemy air operations on rear area support and security operations. c. Staff Input. The G2 or S2 evaluates the terrain, weather, and enemy and makes recommendations regarding the determination of subordinate unit boundaries to the G3 or S3. The G3 or S3 uses the G2's or S2's recommendations to determine recommended subordinate unit boundaries and to allocate resources. The recommended boundaries are then submitted to the commander for approval. When the battlefield area has been defined, the analyst determines and assembles the information and materials required to complete the IPB process. Basic requirements include maps and the materials necessary for template and overlay preparation; normal climatic, weather, and encyclopedic data, and area studies that completely cover the battlefield area. d. Map and Overlay Input. Standard military topographic maps at a scale corresponding to the echelon conducting the IPB are obtained for the areas of concern. When available, airspace analysis may be accomplished using the standard 1: 250,000 air and radar Joint Operations Graphics specifically designed for this 58 IN0764

7 purpose. For detailed analysis of an aircraft's approach to a target, standard 1: 50,000 topographic maps are useful. Standard topographic maps, however, do not provide sufficient detail for terrain analysis. The special maps and terrain products are obtained through the division terrain detachment, or corps terrain analysis team, from the theater engineer topographic battalion, or through the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). These products include special map-data-base overlays which depict surface drainage, surface materials, vegetation, slope, transportation, obstacles, and other significant terrain features. Available photographic coverage of the area should be obtained, and updated photographic coverage of accessible areas requested. Updated photographic coverage is used to provide greater detail of the area and to supplement existing maps. In addition to photographic coverage, the terrain team will use information and material from all available sources to update and increase the detail of available terrain products. PART B - TERRAIN ANALYSIS The function of terrain analysis is to reduce the uncertainties regarding the effects of natural and man-made terrain on military operations. In order to accomplish terrain analysis, the intelligence staff at division and corps receive direct support from theater terrain teams. 1. Personnel. Each division receives a direct-support terrain detachment, which is headed by a terrain technician. Each corps receives one corps topographic company with a terrain analysis element. A small cell of terrain analysts normally locates at, and supports the corps tactical operations center (CTOC). The remaining terrain analysts are located in the corps rear, providing general support to the corps. Terrain team personnel are trained specifically for terrain analysis and should be employed directly in the IPB process at all levels. To effectively use the terrain data developed by the terrain team, intelligence personnel must understand terrain analysis and its applications to IPB. They must determine the terrain information required to support operations at all levels early in the IPB process. The G2 or S2 establishes priorities for the production of terrain intelligence. 59 IN0764

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