MODERN STRATEGIC THOUGHT

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1 A MODERN STRATEGIC THOUGHT Machiavelli to Nuclear Warfare by Dr. Shekhar Adhikari V Kilaso Books New Delhi

2 Contents Preface (JCV) 1. Niccolo Machiavelli 1-18 War, War and Policy, Military Organisation 2 The Theory of State 4 War 4 War and Policy 6 Military Organisation 8 The Condottieri 8 Kind of Troops 9 Auxiliary Force 9 Prince's Army 10 Leadership 11 Florentine Militia Organisation 12 Infantry 12 Artillery 12 Cavalry 12 Order of Battle 13 Fortresses Karl Philipp Gotlieb Clausewitz War, War and Policy, Strategy and Tactics, Offence and Defence 19 War 21 Psychological Elements 24 Friction 24 Genius Modern Relevance 27

3 (vi) 3. Strategy and Tactics Battle War and Policy Offence and Defence Guerrilla Warfare Antoni Heanre Jomini War, Strategy and Tactics, Logistics Military Thought Statesmanship in Relations to War Offensive War to Reclaim Rights War Defensively Political But Offensively Military War of Intervention War of Opinion War of Conquest Military Policy Strategy Fundamental Principles of War Systems of Operations Theatre of Operation Strategic, Decisive and Objective Points Lines of Defence Zones and Lines of Operation Grand Tactics and Battle Defensive Battle Offensive Battle Turning Manoeuvres Combined Arms Infantry Cavalry

4 (Vli) Artillery 58 Logistics Karl Marx and Frederick Engels The Concept of Revolutionary War 66 War Insurrection 70 The Teory of Force 73 Future World War Alfred ThayerMahan The concept of Sea Power, Naval Strategy 80 Elements of Sea Power 81 Geographical Position 82 Physical Configuration 83 Extent of Territory 85 Population Factor 85 National Character 86 Character of Government 87 Fundamental Principles 88 Central Position 89 Communication 91 Concentration of Force 92 Implication of Mahan's Doctrine of 92 Sea Power 92 Britain 92 France 93 Germany 93 USA 95

5 (vm) 6. Halford John Mackinder The Theory of Heartland LrfeSektch The Theory Pivot Area of Heartland Inner or Marginal Cresent Outer or Insular Cresent Re-examination of Mackinder's Theory of Heartland Modified Concept of Strategic Heartland Mid Land Basin Mackinder-Mahan-Spykman Analysis of Mackinder's Theory \llied Strategy in the World War U Promotion of Common Goal Britain USA Soviet Union France The Basis for Close Military Cooperation Memorandum on Allied Strategy First Stage of Strategy Second Stage of Strategy Third stage of Strategy Analysis Far East Asia Japanese Strategy British Pre War Strategy US Pre-1941 Strategy Allied Plan after 1940 Collpase of ABDA Command # Japan's Revised War Plan..;

6 (K) China - Burma - India Theatre 8. German Strategy Development of German Strategy in Pre World War I Period Bismarck William II Moltke Schlieffen First World War Bethman Hollweg and Falkenhayn vs Hindenberg and Ludendorff Second World War General Hans van Seeckt RiseofHtler Clausewitz, Ludendorff and Hitler The New German Army War Economy or Economic Mobilisation 9. John Frederick Charles Fuller and Basil Henry Liddell Hart Armoured Warfare J.F.C. Fuller The Theory of Armoured Warfare Plan 1919 B.H.L.Hart The Theory of Armoured Warfare Indirect Approach Tank Hart and Mangol Art of War ^

7 10. Hart and Sherman Hart and Fuller Tank vs Infantry Guilio Douhet, William Mitchell and Alexander P. De. Seversky The Theory of Air Power Guilio Douhet The Theory of Air Power Relationship between Army, Navy and Air Power Magnitude of Aerial Offensive Command of Air Power Constitution of Air Power William Mitchell The Theory of Air Power Public Support Historical Development Features of Air Power Air going people Air Doctrine Douhet and Mitchell Alexander de Seversky The Theory of Air Power Air Superiority Relationship between Land, Sea and Air Power

8 (xi) Targeting 216 Global Command of the Air 217 Atomic Bomb 218 Principles of War Valdimir Inch Lenin, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin The Soviet Concept of Revolutionary War V.I.Lenin Dialectical Approach 226 Contribution to History 228 War and Policy 229 State and Foreign Policy 230 Politics and People 231 Strategic Contribution 232 Selection of Officers 233 Leadership 233 Strategy and Tactics 234 Offensive Action 235 Defensive Action 236 Concept of Peace Leon Trotsky The Theory of Permament Revolution.. v. 241 Menshvik Position 241 Bolshevik Position 242 Trotsky's Position 242 Global Revolution 243 Strategy for the World War II 244 Russian Army 245

9 (xii) Military Policy Discipline Centralised Political Control Military Doctrine Conclusion Joseph Stalin Life Sketch The Theory of Socialism in One Country Benefical Fallout United Front Strategy Industrialisation and the Growth of the Red Army Soviet Strategy in World War II Conclusion Mao-Tse-Tung Th,e Chinese Concept of Revolutionary War 267 The Theory of State 269 War 271 Offence and Defence 272 Ingredients of War 273 Forms of Warfare 273 Law of Contradiction 274 United Front Strategy 274 War and Politics 276 Guerrilla Warfare 277 Strategy and Tactics of Guerrilla Warfare 280 The Course of Guerrilla Warfare 282 First Phase Second Phase 283 Third Phase

10 (xiii) Jawaharlal Nehru Strategy for National Security and Peace The Concept of National Security Complementary Nature of Defence, Economic afrd Foreign Policy Defence and Economic Policy Defence and Foreign Policy Emerging International Strategic Environment in post 1947 Period Strength and Weaknesses Territorial Interest Implications of Cold War and Security Treaties Indian View Non-alignment Policy of Panchsheel Mechanism for World Peace : United Nations and Disarmament Deterrence Definition Element of Deterrence Types of Deterrence The Theory of Nuclear Deterrence Passive Deterrence, Active Deterrence Conventional War vs Nuclear War Strategy Costs and Risks Art of Command Diplomacy

11 15. Disarmament and Arms Control Disarmament 331 Arms Control 332 Distinction between Disarmament and Arms Control 333 History of Disarmament and Arms Control 334 Partial Test Ban Treaty 337 Non-Proliferation Treaty 338 Strategic Arms Limitation Talks SALT-I SALT-II 341 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty START-I START-II : Comprehensive Test Ban treaty Index

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