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1 OPTRAO STTOTAST l STORCAT Sl lill' ANY t lllstory 0t Tilt Rt0RGililztlt0l{ 0t lllt U.S. C0lllllltllltt f,rily C0l'liltll0 s72.t913l fiil00 lrrttrs U.$. trlty t0rcts C0trlillAll0 f0rt ilcplltns0il, Gt0RGll o TADO TRTRS l.$. tflt'lt TRtllllll0 tll0 00CTRll{t C0ililttlD t0rt il0iln0t. ytngthta

2 0pgnerior SEAFAST Hisronrcel SLr"lqnv A History of the Reorganization of tl:e U.S. Continental Arfity Ccsmrald (l972 L973) BY filil R it0tlt ( Historlcal Offlce office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations U.S. Army Forces Comand Fort llcpheraon, Georgia Hlstorical Offlce Office of the Chief of Staff U. S. Arroy Training and Doctrlne Comaod Fort Monroe, Virglnla

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4 'E AUTTOR l{x. Jesn R. Xoenk received his A! degree from John Carroll University! Cleveland, Ohio, in 1941; an l,la in Hj.story from 'lestern Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1945; and completed all requirenenls for a Ph.D. 1n lilstory at Western Reserve University during the perlod, During World War Mr. Moenk served as a noncondissioued officer jn the Corps of Engineers until his nedical dlscharge in August 1944, Mr. Moenk served on the faculty of John Carroll Unlverslty as an nstructor in llistory frour 1946 to 1950; was a Lecturer in History lrith the University of llaryland in Europe from 1951 to 1959; and was a Lecturer add later Adjunct Professor of History, College of Willia:n and Mary, W111Lansburg, Virginia, froo 1960 to L972. Mr. Moenk served as a listorian h,lth the Historical Divi.sion, U.S. Arrny, Europe, frorn 1950 to 1959; as a li.eld Histolian r.ri.th the U,S. Army Transportation Corps arith duty station at Fort Eustls, Virginia, fron 1959 to 196?; and as a Hlstorian with lleadquarters, U.S. Conti.nental Arxoy Conrrand, fron 1962 to Mr. Moenk served as Deputy Chief Historian, U.S. Continental Army Couunand fron 1966 Lo 1972 and, since 1Ju1y 1972, has served as Chief liistorian, U. S. Arny Forces Comnand.

5 FOREtORD The vast expaflsl.on of the natlonts armed forces ju6t. prlor to and durlng llorld War led to the establishoent in l940 oi mand and control organlzation fo! " cor_ the U.S. Arny which had been envlsloned Euch eafller by xn{litary planners. ndeed, ttre eoncept actually had been enacted into 1aw ln the llational Defense Acr oi General iteadquarters (chq), U.S, Arny, whf.ch was establlshed 1n 1940, ras soon troubled by confllcts betsreen lts tralnlng,esponslbllltles and the comand and eontrol of the ground corabattroois and their supporting forces. These functions, however,,"a. arated 1n 1942 vhen a general reorganizatlon of the War Departnlnt ".p: tetalned comand and control of the ground coxobat troopg at tbe departmentsl level, while asslgnlng responslbility for rrainl.dg the troops to the newly establlshed Arny Ground f,orces (AG). With the cegaatton of hostlllties 1n 1945, the recornmendat Lons of both the Pafch and Slmpson Boards resulted in conb{nlng these functions once agaln {n the Aray Ground Forces gtructure. fhls attempt at coeblnlng the functlons!'as shottlived, at best, since a glneral leorganl.zatlon of the redeslgnaled Department of rhe Arny in 194g eerabllshed rhe offlce of the chief of Army 3ie1d Forces (ocafr) as the tralntng ara of the Army. OCA!!' vas, ln reallty, a staff agency of the Departnent of the Army and was not a legltleate separate comand. The uncoordinated structure whlch resulted from the reorganization of 1948 created problens which, in turn, led to demands for stlll another reorganization of the DepaltEent of the Army structure. The findlngs of the Davies Comittee resulted 1n the est'abllshraent of the Continental Arny Conmand (CONARC) in 1955, once uore coobinlng comand,/control and tralnlng functions tn a single headquarters. No attempts, however, Lrere made to ellmlnate the inherent confllcts betneen the tralning responsiblllt les and the coeoand and conrrol of ground codbat troops. The crises of the Cold War Era served to hlghlight the operatlng lnefflclencles of the DepartEent of the Arlly and led to the faaous ProJecr 80 Reorganl zatlorl of At that tloe, the plannlng elements lnvolved recomended that the comand and control of ground coabat troops and thelr supporting forces be given flrst prl.orlty and fhat education and tralni[g be conblned in a stngle subordlnate comand reportlng dlrectly to the U.S. Contlnental ArDy Comand. These recomendatlons seemed only loglcal slnce CONARC tecently had been deslgnated as the Arny Cof,ponent Comand of the nelrly esrabllshed U. S. Strike Comand (USSBC0M). Once agaln the recorooendatlons rrere lgnored, and the confllcts ln ptlorltles contlnued to plabue the AnDy. _ Demands for reforn and reorganlzation ln the Department of the Arloy culdinated 1n the appolntment of the?arker Board ln 1969 whlch

6 spent the better part of tl'o years in deliberations and produced a host of slgniflcant reconrmendatlons, applleable Arrny wlde. The findlngs of the Parker Board ultleately led to a declslo[ by the Chlef of Staff of the Arroy for a sweeplng reorganlzaej.od of the entlre subordlnate comand structure of the Depart&ent of the Army. At the U.S. Continental Army Cornnand level, the reorganizaflon process was dubbed "ProJect STEADFAST. TT Unllke?roJecr 80, rhe plannlng period for ProJeet STEAXAST extended over approximately a year and a ha1f. Desplte the lnportance of prevlous reorganization efforts, no ful1 hlstorical record was developed at the operatlng coroand levels for the reorganlzatlon of 1948 (oca'f), 1955 (CONARC), and 1962 (Project 80). The Office of rhe Chlef of Ml1ltary Hlstory, however, dld ptepare an overall historical study of Project 80 fron the Department of the Arny leve1. Consequeatly, ln october 1972, t.e Chief of Staff of the U.S. Continental Arnlt Cormand Maj, Gen. D. R. Pepke dlrected that a cooprehensive histollca1 study of the reorganl?ation be prepared ar the CONARC level and that a backup flle of all documents pertlneot to thar reorganlzatlon be developed for permanene retention. The present study, whlch is the result of that direcllve, was begun by llr. Jean R. Moenk whlle servlng as Deputy Chlef Hlstorlan, U.S. Contlnental Arloy Conmand, and was co!0pleted by hlur wh11e servlng as Chief Hlstorian, U.S. Army!'orces Cormand, subsequent to the full lnpleoeotatiofl of Prolect STEADFAST. A11 documents cited herein are preserved in a permanene STEAFAST Supportlng DocrEent F1le Located Ln the Hlstorical Officer U.S. Anry Forces Comand Chapters to 3, lncluslve, were thoroughly rewl.ewed by Gen. Ralph E. Haines, Jr., former CONARC copnander, ln ord r to get the full flavor of h1s Lnvolvement ln the initial stages of the reorganlzatlon plannlng. The entire study was reviewed by l{aj. Gen. L. M. Jones, Jr., who served as chlef actlon ag nt of the reorganlzatl.on planning group and the study has benefited lmensely fron hls coments and advlce. n addltlon, the naj or portl.on of the study eras also revi.er{'ed by 1t. Gen. D.R. Pepke, forner CONAR Chlef of Staff, and MaJ. cen..l.k. Bennerr, Chlef of Staff, Thlrd U.S. ArEy/Atuy Forces Comand (provlslonal) durlng the plannlng and provlslonal ioplenentatlon phases of Project STEADFAST. JEAN R. MOENK ChLef, Hlstorical 0ffice U. S. Aroy Forces CoErland BROOKS E. G,E3ER Chief, ilstorlcal 0ffl.ce U.S. Arny TrainLng and Doctrlne CoEaand Fort McPherson, ceorgla 1 October 1974.t{

7 TABLE OF CONTENTS chap ter?age L BACKGROUND (PreSTEADFAST) 1 Reorganization of the Overall CoNARC CoEmarrd Structure The DepartEent of the Aroy Special Review Panel CONARC Probletn Areas and Alternative Solutions Recom.endations of the Speclal Review Panel l 1 2 The CONAC Manageuent nprovenenr Panel 6 Conclusions and Recomendations b\, the Panel Panel Report No. 1 Reorganization of the Coaunand Structure of the U.S. Continental ArEy Coomand Revised Report No. CONA.RC 72 Mlssion and Structure Study CoNARC Report and Reactlon of the CoumandJng General General llaines Guidance for the Developoent of CONARC 72 The Final Report Gonclusions and RecouaendaEions of the Study laternal Reorganization of lleadquarters, CoNARC CoNARC nternal Reorganization Studles l{ay 97 RecomendatioDs and the Reaction of the Comand.jng General July 1971 Study J+ 15 lf J 9 10 'r '7 'tq The Headquarters, Study Group nstruetions GeneraL CONA'C, Organization of the Deputy Comanding 20 zo 1]'t

8 chapter Paqe Recormendati.ons of the ll adquarters, CONARC, Orgaoizatlon Study croup ZL AcconplLehnents of the Study Group 23 PrograE Budget Declslon 92 Department of Defense Decislon 23 DepartEent of Defense Rati.onale 24 j Conditions of Approval by the Deputy Secretary of Defense 25 DepartmenE of the Arry Reclama Zs Surmaty?6 T1E GENESS OF OPERATONS STEADFAST 28 DepartEent of the Aroy Proposals for Reorganization 78 Proposals by the Offlce of the Arny Asslstanr Vice Chief of Staff 28 Reasons for Change 31, The Exlsting Span of Control of the U.S. Contine[ta1 Anny Comand 31 Proposed ReorganizaEion 35 Comparison with PrevLous Proposals 35 Apptoval of the Reorganlzation Concepts 37 Responslbillti.es of the U.S. Continental Arey Cotrmand 38 Formatlon of the CONARC Special Study Group 39 Confereoce at DepartneDt of the Arny 40 Devel,opment of Charters for the ReorganizattoE Groups 44 Department of Ehe Arny Charter for Reorganization Revlslon of the Charter, 18 February L97 2 Appointment of the Departuent of the Ar[y Ploject Manager for ReorganizatLorL Publication of the DepartEent of the Arrqy Charter

9 Chapter page Teotative Planning for Operation STEAD'AST 46 CONARC Charter for Operation STEADFAST Coordination Meelings with the Project Manager for Reorganization Final Departnent of the Army Directive Contlnuing Objections of rhe U.S. Contlneotal Anoy CorEoand Department of the Army Ditective DEVELOPMENT OF THE OUTLNE PT,AN FOR REORGANZATON Preliminary Studles for Reorganization Planning CONARC Study and Recomendat jons Flnal Department of the ArEy Decislon ) \) \, )o )t Reorganlza Department of the Arny Gtridance for tion Planning The Department of the Arry Reorganlzatlon Direetlve?lanning Concepts for the Force Counand Planning Concepts for the Training aad Doctriae Comand Defiuition of Problen Areas DepartEent of the Arny Plan for nstallation Managenent CONARC nstallatlon Assignment Study ReducLlon ln the Number of Subordinate ArEy H adquarters 60 Developuent Outline of CONA,B.C Assumptions for the Plan 60 Revlsion of 17 March 1972 Additional Dlrecti.ves of rhe Connand ing General Reaction of the Departnent of the Arny Project Manager OL Sllppage of the Suspense Date Definltlve Department of the ArEy Planning Guidance o.+ 64

10 Chapter Page Planning Guldelines Mission Guidance U,S. ArrDy orce Coumand Mission Guidance Tralnlng and Doctrine Cosnand Desigaation of Subordinate Conmands Planning Guldance for rhe Desjgnated Execut.ive Agents Developnent of prelinlnary plans Prell.rninary plan for the U.S. Arnv Force Conmand Preliminary p1atr for the Trainins and Doc tr ine Comand Reacfion of the project Manager o) OT Vlews of the CoEbat Developments Concernlng the Reorganization Comand 74 Views and Recotrmendations of the USACDC Reorganization pxoposals of the Combat Developtrents ColDlland CONARC Guidance to ts Subord.inate Arnles 1f Continuing Amy Guidance from the Department of the 79 Reductlon in the Nuober of Subordlnate Arnles The U.S. Arny Recruiting Coumand Manpower Reductions Supervision of the Reserve Officet Training Corps progtan The Anoy War College The!4AES?ER,/CDEC T 6r prograes Subnission of the Final CONARC Outline plan at CoNARC Sumary 84 The U.S. Army Force Cormand The Tralning and Doctrlne Courand Manpower and Cost Data Reorganizatioo phasing Majox ssues AffectLng the ReorgaD_ lzatlorl q1 v1

11 Chapter Reaction of the DepartEent of the Arny?roject Uanager Required Revtsions to the CONARC Outline Plan Q., 94 V DEVELOPMENT OF N{E DETALED P.AN FOR REORGANZATON 99 Complefion of the Department of the Arny Myron Board Studies 99 The nstallation Management Study 99 Planning Assumptlons Development of Organlzational Concepts Conclusions and Recomendations of the Doard The CONUS Arny Managenent SEudy CONAC Reaction to Ehe Dstallarion Managenent Study Guidance for the Development of the Detailed Plan CONARC Prelminary Ouidance Revised organizatlon for Headquarters, TRADOC Decislons by the Army Vice Chief of Staff official Deparrnent of the ArEy Guidance for Detalled Plannins General Guidelines Ongoing Actions Affecting the Detailed Plan Specific Guidance for the U.S. Continental Aroy gomand Force Conmand Training and Doctrine Conmand Logistics nstallation Manage0ent Engineer Acrivitles Stationing and lostallations Training The Reserve Officer Training Corps Program Supplemental Guidance, 2O June LO r lro

12 Chapter rage Concept for Reorganization Phaslng other Departnent of the Aroy Reorganization ll7 Concepts 118 The U,S. Arny Materiel Comand 119 The U.S. Aruy Medi.cal Conmand ll9 The U. S. Army Strategic Comunicat j.ons Conaand 7zo The U.S. ArBy Military Personnel Center L2O DeveLopmelrts ae the U.S. Continental Army Comand l^zz Conoand Decisions The Reserve Offlcer Training Corps Program The U,S. Aruy Reserve Schools and Training Divisiorrs The Task Force AT,AS Srudy Zz L22 LZJ L24 The CDEC/MASSTER Test programs The CONARC /CDC Posjrion CONARC Recorunendattons Lao Logistical Concepts 1t7 Plannino Fr. f ors Conclusions of the Special Study Group Potentjal Major Problem Areas Reaction of the CoDmander L A 1)a Civilian Personnel Policy 130 Developnent of the UniversiEy ConcepE Submission of the Conbat Developments Comand Detailed Plan Continued Concern Over the Reorganization Concept?he CoNARC Detai.led Plan for Reorganization The CONARC Posltion Letter. Executl.ve Sun$ary Operation STEADFAST DeraLled plan tj ) 135 r'lt The U.S. Arny Tralnlng Coomand and Doctrlne LJ vili

13 Chapter Page The U.S. Arny 'orce Comand l'lanpower and Costs Phasing of the Reorganization L L45 Major lasues Contained ln the?1an Civilian Personnel Management AugnenEation of Third U.S, Arny Headquarters The U.S, Aruy }edical, Comrand and the U.S. Arny Personnel Center The Logistical Manageeent Concept Development of the Schools Model Followup to the Detailed Plan Meeting lrith the Project Manager on 3 August Personnel llanagement of the Reserve Components The Reserve Office Training Corps Program Staff Structure r47 r.. o ).1 1,5r 1"51 r) l Meeting with the Project llanager on 15 August 754 Unresolved ssues MidSeptenber 155 Esrabllshnenr of rhe STEA.DFAST Sreering Group L57 llarageeent Concepts for the Traj,ning and Doetrire Cormand 158 The University Concept 158 The fhree Center Concept Task l'orce ATLAS 160 Conclusions and Reconmendations of the Task Force Further Guidance by the CONARC Co$mander Mditlonal Guidance of the Project Manager for Reorganization MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS FOR THE RESERVE COMPONE}TS l ou The Reserve Officer Training Corps Program L64 Existlng Structure of the ROTC?rogram ro4 tx

14 Chapter Page o Reorganization Obj ectives Provisions of the Outline plan for rhe ROTC Progran Recornmendat Lons of the CONARC STEADFAST Srudy croup Division of Opinion Within the STEAFAST Srudy croup Reaction of the CONAR CoDmander Guidance of the Project Managex, 15 June Recornmendat lons for ncluslon in the Detailed Plan Reaction of the Department of the ArEy Further Study by the Department of the Army Deputy Chlef of Staff for Personnel Dtrectives of the project Manager 165 LO5 ldb L97 2 L68 i ]70 ReconDendations Study croup of rhe CONARC STEADFAST 171 Proposed MldmanagemenC/Re gional Organizatlon Concept Conclusions and Recomendations The Finallzed ROTC Manageeent Concept 175 Deputy Chief of Sraff for ROTC, Head_ quarters, Training and Doctrine Conmand Organlzation and Missions of the ROTC Regions Beneflts of the Revised ManageEent Concept Phasing Schedule ManageEent Struccure for the Regerve Conponents L79 L79 Background of Reserve CoDponents Manage_ flent Prelininary provisions of the Outllne plan Army Supervisory Elemenrs Reaction to the Outllne plan L62 183

15 Chapter Page Provisions of the Operation STEAFAST Detailed Plat 183 Phasing Schedule for the New Reserve ",,ffh::il::,"3::3:ff:: fll"ifll.o*, r84 Army Headqualters 186 Responsj.bilities of the Supervlsory 'f ElelDent.s 186 Reaction at the Department of th Anry 87 ResPonse of the conarc STEADFAST Study Croup 187 euidance for the Revislon of the Derailed Plan l8g Ttte Department of the Arny Connittee fo! the 'ianageuent of Reserve CoEponents 188 Proposals Entertained at the SeEinar 189 of the Depart&ent of the Arny Working croup f90 RecomDended Organization for l*{,anagenent of the Reserve Couponents 190 Beneflts Accrui.ng from the RecomeDded Concept LgZ Reaetion of the CONUS Arnles 92 Sectlon 265 Offlcers 193 The nstallallon Dlrect.orat.e for Reserve Component Suppor! 193 The Readlness Assj.stance Regions and the Readlneos Groups 193 The Subordinate CONUS Arny Boundarles L94 Comanders for the Minil'lAC s 196 General officer Comands 196 Revlsion of the Operation STEADFAST Detai.led Plan 97 Revised CONUS Arrly Mlssions 97 The Beadlness Assistance Region Plan 200 Readlness Groups xl

16 Chapter Page Missions Asslgned to the Readiness Assistance Regioos 203 Use of Statutory Tour Offlcers 204 The Maneuver Area Conmand Converslon Plan 205 Unit Associatlon Plan 206 nseallation Dilectorates or Divislons for Reserve Cotoponent Support 207 Sunmary 208 V REVTSON OF THE DETALED PLAN AND DEVELOPMENT OF TEE MP1EMENTATON PLAN 2O9 Revision of the Detailed Pla[ 209 Guidance froo the DepartEent of lhe Arny Project Manager 209 General Guidelines for rhe U.S. Continental Arny Coumand 209 The Establishment of an Englneer Speclal Staff Office 210 nstructlons for the Developnent of the Specj.al Staff ZLO The Arny School Systen?L Placement of CDEC/ASSTER?LL Slippage of the Deadline Date ZLz Supplenental Guidance for the Revlsion of thc STEADFAST DEtAilEd P1AN 21? CoNARC Revlston of the Detalled Plan 2L5 Change No. 1 to the Detalled Plan 2L6 The Three Center ConcepE 2L6 The Eeonoaic Analyses 216 The Subordinate CONUS Army Headquarters ZLl The Readiness Assistance Regions (MR) 2L7 RO?C Regions 2f7 Phase Revislons, 13 Novenber Chaoge No, 2 to the Derailed Plan 218 Change No, 3 to the Derailed plan 2L9 Change No. 4 to the Detailed plan ZZO Final Guldance from the Project Manager, 5 February 1973 ZZO Guidelines Affectlng the U.S. ArBy Forces Cornmand 221 x11

17 Chapt er Page Guldelines Affecring rhe U.S. ArEy Tralning ard Doctrine Comand Flnal Revislons to the STEADFAST Detailed Plan The Ne!, Executive Sumary Phasing of the Reorganizatlon The U.S. Arrny Training and Doctrine Comand The Reserve officer Training Corps Program The Schools Model The FuDctional CeaLers for Conbat Developments The U. S. Arny Forces Comand The Subordlnate Numbered Arnies ln the Continental Unlted States ArBy Readiness Regions and Readiness Groups nstallation Funding Flow nstallat ion/maj or Comand Relat ionships ,ai z)v The New Volume L SuppJ.errental Studles Modification of the Requisitioning Process for Officer and Enllsted Personnel Civillan Personnel Procedures 23L 232 Development Plan of the STEADFAST phased mplementation Slippage of the Suspense Date nltlal and Supplenental Guidance from the Project Manager Supplenental Guldance, 10 Novenber L972 Factors nhiblting the DeveloprDent of the nplenentati.on Plans The operation STEADFAST Phased nplenentation Plan, 30 Novenber 1972 The Executi.ve Sunmary The Detailed Transfer Plan n xiii

18 Chapter page Final Guldance from the project Manager, 5 February L Revislon of the STEADFAST phased lrnplenentatlor Plan, 28!'ebtuary ? mpleuentation Plannlng for the Combat Developnents ComDand 243 nstructions for the CoNARC Adjutant General 245.!" Relationshlp of Ehe STEADFAST phased mplementation Plan to Other Pl,ans 245 V FNAT REVSON AND PROVSONAT MP,DENTATON 247 Supplenental cuidaace for fepleeentation 247 Suppleuental Guidance 15 llarch 247 ndustrial Defense PrograE nstallatlon Area Support Conpatibility of Missions and Resources Flnal Supplernental culdance 15 May 249 ceneral Guidance 250 General Gui.dance for the U.S. Continental A[y Coumand 25O Transfer of CONARC and Subordlnate CONUS Arnv Functions?53 Changes in STEADFAST?lanning 253 Departnent of the Aroy Decislons 254 Comand of Third U. S. Arny 255 MaJor Prob.len Areas 236 Boundarles of the U,S. Army Reserve cormands 256 Problems Associated with the Locations of Army Readiness Regions ZS7 Table of Distrlbution Changes 258 nplenentation of the Moratorlum 259 Changes Dilecred by CONARC 259 MaJor Comand Relarionshlps 260 xlv

19 chapter Page ResoLutlon of Confllcts Coueand s Betveer Maior 260 Conclusions of the STEADFAST Steeling Group Approved RecoEEendations Directed Relationships, 1 JuJ.y 31 Decenber 1973 Relatlonships $ith the US. Aroy Health Servlces Comand Revisions to the STEADAST Detalled Plan Revisions of 9 l'trarch nstructions for a Final Bevision Revision of 18 May CONARC leplementing nstluctions for a Fi.nal Revision Revlsion of 5 June Departnent of the Arny Reaction Prob]ens Arising from the Late Guldance Final Revision to the STEADFAST Detailed Plan 15 August L 262? zo.l Provisional STEADFAST Reorganization 270 General Officer Assignments 27L AsslgnEents at Fort Monroe, Va. Assignments at 'ore McPherson, Ga. Coumand and Staff Relationships, 1 March JU JlE :" J Comand and Staff Relatlonshlps, 1 July 31 Decenber 1973 Personnel Status 27r zo 278 Military Civillan Personnel Personnel Provisional Organizatlon, FORSCOU/TADOC DepartEent of the Arny Actions U,S. Army Training and Doclrine Comand (Provlslonal)

20 chapter Page U. S. Army Forces Comand (Provislonal) 284 Ttansfer of FuncElons to the l'taior CoEmands 286 V Acceleration of the Transfer Schedules Merger of First and Thlrd U.S. Arrnies Phaseout of the STEADFAST Olganlzation Project STEADFAST U,S. Continental Arny Comand Residual STEADFAST Element * U.S. ArBv Forces Comand CONCLUSON APPENDX A STEADFAST Planning Personnel GLOSSARY C{ARTS z6t No. t. Coobat Developnents and School.s Comand 5 2. CoNARC Conmand Organization Mlsglon oriented Concept Departne[t of the Arny Organization Slnc Ptoposed Organization for Department of the Arny Proposed organizatj.on, U.S. Arny Force Developnent Conma:rd Lvb_L 7. Proposed Organization, Training and Doctrine Command 8. U. S. Arrny Forces Comrand 9. Standard OrganizatLon, CONUS Arny Headquarters 10. Comand Relationships, U.S. ArEy Force Comand 1L. U,S. Arny Training and Doctriae Comand LZ. Headquarters, Tralning and Doctrine Comand 13. nstallatlon Comand Relationships Type Organizatlon 14. Proposed 0rgarrlzatlon, Headquarters, TraLnLng and Doctrine Conman<i 15. Organlzatlon of the New Staff Sectlons 15, Headquarters, U.S. Arny Trainj.ng and Doctrine Conmaod 77. U,S. Army Tralning and Doctrine Conoand Organlzat.ion 18. Headquarters, U.S. Arny Force Conrnand 19. U,S. ArDy Force Connand Organlzation 20. Schools Model Organizatlon 21, Comland Structure, Revlsed ROTC OrganizaElon 22, nternal Organization, Office of the DepuLy Chief of Staff for ROTC, Headquarters, Tralning and Doctrine Comatrd xvl JO 7l [0 ]76

21 No. Page 23, Standard Organization for Headquarters, ROTC Regions L Headquarters Organlzation, CONUS Arrnles Revlsed Organizatlon for C0NUS Army fleadquarters Proposed Organlzation, Office of the Deputy Chlef of Staff for Combat Developments 27,?ine Phased Schedullng for lcpleloentation of the Reorganlzation 223 The Conbat Developnents Mi.dmanagement Concept, Training and Doctrine Comland The Conbaf Developments Centers 226 Typical nstallation Funding Flow 229 Deputy Chief of Staff for Training and Schools, U.S. Arny Training and Doctrlne Connand 268 '_t. U.S. Arny Personnel and AdrnLnistration Combat DevelopEents Activlty Conrmand and Staff Relationships, 1 March 30 June Comand and Staff Relationships, 1 July 31 December L TASLES l. Schedule for Reorganlzation Actions (Revised 18 lebruary and 1 March) 2. Proposed nstallation Assignments 7A Comparison of Manpower and Cost Estlmates (lhree Subordinate Arny Coacept) 4. Key Reorganization Dates 90 U.S. Contlnental Army Connand/Combat Developments Couanand Key nplebentation Date Changes Establishnent of the }laneuver Trainlng Comrnands z5l 7. l{ilitary Personnel Status, 1 July MAPS 1. Boundaries of the Three Subondinate Armles 2. Chaages in CONUSA Boundaries 3. Control Regions for the Reserve officer Training Colps 4. Finalized CoNUS ArEy Areas 5. Readiness Asslstance Regions and Readl.ness Group Boundaries and Locations L'lJ xvii

22 Chapter BACKGROUND (PreSTEAD?AST)?ettodicaX1y alnce the end of World liar, the Department of the Arny hae questloned the organizatlon for and control ln the contlnental United States. Meanlngful and studlee rrete developed by varlous levels of corooand throughout the DepartEent of the Aroy aad the Departnent of Defense on almost a cyc11ca1 baels, n 1948, slx yeats after the establishment of the Aruy Ground 'orcea, a thorough reorganization of the Depaltneat of the Arly created the Offlce of the chlef of Arny Field Forcee (OCAF) and placed ihe subordlnate armles and Ln6ta11a!1ons jn the contlnental United States dlrectly under departaental control. Seven years later, the conclusions and recomrendations of the Davlea were inpleaented, establlbh{ng the Continental ArDy Coooand as both a tralning and operaclonal comand. The ldea at that tlme was to decentrallze as mlch authorlty and operatlonal control aa poeslble. n 1962, 6even years after the lnpleroentatlon of the Davles Conolttee recomendatlons, the lloelscher and Traub ComLttees recorardended a thorough reorganizatlon of the entlre DepartEent of the An0y atructure. Thus, by 1969, the tlme cycle for eoulsealchlng, aelfcritlciso, and managenent improveeent lras agaln lm.lnenf at the Departaent of the Ar[y and Department of Defenee levels. The 1952 reorganlzation had been acconplished 1n an era of peace, Cold l{ar threats, and expanslon of the Arny establishnent. However, like the L954L955 perlod, L969L970 nas an era of transltlon fron coebat status to peacetlme operaeions, a tlme for contractlon of the nanpower baaer and an era of econony 1rr opetations throughout the oilltary departnents. n an era of dwlndll.ng nanponer reaources and enforced economies 1n opelatlons, lt rras ahlobt lnevltable that atudy groups would be lnaugurated at both the Depattu.ent of the ArEy level and at the level of the U,S. ContLneotal ArEy Comand [1th thelr resultaot dlaatlc proposale for regrganization. Reorganlzatlon of the O"era11 CONA'C Cqpnand Structure The Departaent of the Arnv Speclal Review Psnel Wtth the beglnnlng of FY 1970, rhe Departaenr of the Army began lta lghth year of opelations under the concepta whlch had been 1Ep1 Dented on 1 July 7962 as a result of the ProJect 80 Study. The [oelscher and Traub Coronl.ttees had thoroughly reorganlzed the entlre stnrcture of the DepaltEent of the Aray; abollshlrlg the Technical and Adnlnlstratlve Services; broadenlng the oigsions and lesponbiblllties of the U.S. Contlnental A:ry centrallzing all EaterLel functlons ln an Aroy Materlel Comand; and establlehlng a aeparate Coobat Developoents Eorever, certaln recom EendEtlons of the trro wjth regard to cotrnand and control

23 of the Arnyr s servlce schools and lralnlng centers were noc approved for lnplenentatlon at that tine. n the lnterie, the lntroductlon of advaneed EanageEent technl.ques and autoeated. informatlon systema shed new l1ght on the inefflciencies and lnadequacles of the exlsting sttuctule and systed. What ls nore, experlence factors galned durlng the seven years of opelatlon unde! the 1952 project 80 concepts lndicated that a thorough review of the entlre Oelart Eent of the Artry olganlzatlonal struciure was ln order. Consequently, at the end of Septernber 1969, General Wlllla& C, Westmoreland., Chlef of Staff of the Ar1y, dlrected an intenslve review and study of the existlng structure of the Departnent of the Arrny ln orde! to deterrnlne lts responelveness Eo currene and foreseeable requlrelents. n pursulng thls declslon, General i.estnoreland selected MaJ. Gen. D.S, Parker of hls offlce on 30 Sepuenber 1969 ro head a Speclal Revlew Panel rshlch would exaolne the functlona, organlzatlons, and procedures of the Departnent of the Arhy to lnclude those of lhe U.S. Contlnental Arny Comand, the Corobat Developnenta Comand, the Aroy Materiel Comand, and the departmental headquarters staff, ltself. Thls panel, however, L'as not to bother Ltself wlth any tactlcal organlzations, n lts lnltlal telus of reference, the panel was lnstructed to analyze superclfically the roles of the U.S. Contlnental Army Comand, its subordlnate arnies ln the continental United States. and the!4111tary D{srricr of Washingroni ihe rolea oaih. a;;b;i' DeveLopoents Conrnand and the Arny Materlel Comrand; lhe lncreaslng numbet of Class Actlvltles reporrlng direetly to the Departmeni of the Arny Staff; and the Blze of, and procedures used by, the Departnent of the Army headquarters staff.z Co!{ARC Problem Areas and Alternattve Solutlons. After an lntenslve reviet' of both the U.S, Contlnental Arny and the CoEbat Developments Comand, the Revlew panel concluded that the problers of both were elosely interrelated and, therefore, requlred JoJ.nt conslderatlon. The panel questloned Lrhether the exlstlng nlsaion asslgnmentg and cornr0and structure of the U.S. Contl.nental Army Comand and tts subordlnate ardles 1n the contlneneal United State; were Che most efflclent and effectlve that could be obtalned 1n terns of the resulte achleved and the resources requlted to execute and eupendse the functlons involved. n adtlltlon, the panel questloned the efflclency and effectlveness of the structure in terns 1 Lt!, GEN,l. C. Westnoreland, CofSA to MC D.S. parker, OCofSA, 30 Sep 69, subj; Lo for Revl.erv of DA organlzatlon. tq DA, tlat 7L, Report of g[e Speclal Revlew panel oa DA OrsaflizatLon, Vol., TA

24 of 1te hlgh vlslblllty and the response of the u.s. contlnental Aruy Comand to the current national pollcy of constralned reeourcea. The panel concluded that the rol.ssions of the U.S. Continental Ardly Coroand coveted a nr.mber of functlonal areas which were only pattlally telated and thus tended t.o lrihlblt adequate performance in lndlvldual areas. Moreover, the CoNARC/CoNUS arny com $and atructure, wlth lta tno lntervening levels between Headquarters, Department of the Ar:!0y, and the operating installatlons, gave rlse to the po6sj.bl1lty of dupllcative staffing and slolrness 1n tesponse.j n order to corlect the alleged lnadequaeies of, and promote a greater efflclency and effectiveness Ln, the comand structure of the Conbat Developnents Coromnd and the U.S. Contlnental Arny Comand, along wlth the latterrs subordinate comaads and agencles, th Revlen?ane1 gave eonslderable attentlon to the development of alteraatlve solutlons. 3eeause the Mllitary Dl6trlct of Washl.ngton served Dore as a neadquarters for the DepaftEent of the AfEy than a geographlcal area comand for the U.S. Continental Arny the panel consldered transferring the Ullitary DLstrlct to Departeent of the Arny control. n order to ellel.nate the double layetlng of headquarters structuree ln the contlnental. Unlted Siates, che panel flret coneldered the elinlnatlon of lleadquarters, U.S. Contlnental Arny Comand, fith the DepartDent of the Arny dlrectly the subordlnate arales ln the contlnental Unlted States. A second alternatlve considered the ellnlnatlon of all subordlnate alsy hesdquartere ln the contlnental Unlted Statea, wlth the U.S. ConElnental Arny Comand directly counandlng the Class instal 1atlon8. Another alternative considered a reductlon in number of the aubordlnate arny headquarters from four to thlee. n order to a1lev1ate celtaln other speelflc problem areas, the panel consldered the establlshnent of a Support (Housekeeplng) Comand, on the one hand, and a separate Reserve Forces Connand, on the other. to eolve the problen of the relatlon of doctrlnal development to the operatlon 6f the servlce echools, the panel first consldered the ellulnatlon of the Conbat DevelopEent6 Cormand; the creatlon of a Concepts and Experlnentatlon Agency dlrectly under the Department of the ArEy Assistant Chlef of Staff for Sorce Developrxent (ACSFoR); sud the concurrent return of the basic responelbllltles for codba! developdedte to the U.S. Continental Arny where they had been located prlor to rhe 1962 reorganlzatlon. The panel, however, felt that the most practlcal altern&tlve for solvlng the probleros rhlch the Department of the Arny staff had brought to 1lght vas the retentloo of the CoBbat Developrnents Cormand and a tradeoff of U.S. ContlDental Aroy Comand functlons to the forber. ProeineBt araong the functlols ard responslbllltles of the U.S. Contloental Arny Cosoand consldered by the panel for transfer to the Cof,bat Developuenta r,cere csrmand of the Cormand and General._T rbld., TA3 E.

25 Staff College; approval authority for all Prograns of lnstructions (Po) for the U.S. ContlnenEal.Aroy Conoand t s educatlonal courses; opetatl.on.t control of only the officer Advanced Courses; operatlonal control of all offlcertype courses; connand of a1 schools lncludlng the Arny War College wl.th Ehe exceptl'on of Lnstallation comand comand of Projecc {ASSTER cooblned wlth the Conbat Developments ExperlmentatLon Comand (CDEC)i directlon of the Anny t s Reserve Offlcer Tralning CorPs Prograo; cormand of flfteen servlce school 1nsta1lat1ons; opelatlon31 control of five Arny Tralnlng / Centerg; and comand of five Army Tralnlng Center installations. RecomnendatLons of the Special Revlew Panel. The DePaltuent of the Army Speclal Revlew?ane1 on organizailon developed slxtyeight reconoendstlona coverlng the broad speceruo of organlzational structure Chroughout the DePartnent of the ArDy; thlrtyfour of theae concerned nanagement lmprovement actlons' whlle the remalnder dealt lrlth reorganlzation matters. n the fleld of nanagement improvement' only two of the panelrs recomendations Nos. 31 and 32 dealt wlth the struclure of the U.S' Contloental Army CoBmand. The flrst called for a revlew of the organlzatlonal structure for the uanageeent of Reserve Conponent activltles at tbe U.S. Cotltinental Arny Comand and lts aubordlnate arrny headquarters wlth a vie\r to lnirovlng nanagement thlough lncreased cererallzaelon of responelbilitles and uniform procedures. The second recomtendati'on called for a survey of the subordinate arny headquarters ln the contlaental United States to deternlne if adnlnistrattve, loglstlcal' or other functlonal channels should bypass tbose headquarters. n addltlon, the survey should elther develop longrange goals for the reconflguraelon of these subordlnate army headquarters (lf that move rrere consldeted feasible); streanll.ne those headquarters structur'ee, lf pos8lb1ei ot reconflrn their curren! role. These recomtrendstlone rtere acted upon by General Bruce PalEer' J!.' the Vlce Chief of staff of the Arny, on 30 Noverubet 1970, at whlch tise, reconmendatlons No. 31 and No. 32 wexe approved for further study' n nlddecertber 1970, Genetal Pahner asslgned responslblllty for the revlew called for Ln recomendatlon No. 31 to the Chlef of Re Serve Cooponents (CoRC) and for lhe survey called for ln recomendatlon No. 32 to the conptroller of the Aray (coa). Ho\tever, ae a meetlng wlth Generat" Ralph E. llalnes' Jr. ' the CONARC comander, at Lhe etrd of January 1971, General Palmer agreed to wlthhold any declsion on the two reconmendatlons pending the completlon of certain studles then being developed by the U.S. Contlnental Arny Cormand' ) rbld., TAB G. ) (l) Ltr ACDAA (14) (2 Mar 7l) CSSMD, DA to Dlstr' 18 l[ar 71, subj; Report of the Special Revler Panel on DeParlEent of the Arny Organlzatlon, ut/2 incls, (2) Df ATcOl4M' conarc DcScouPT to CofS, 7 Oct 71, subjl Response to Parker?anel RecomendatLong.

26 E, = = e EJ a G, CJ a et G 4 t4l > a ^ 4 g. c) <E t= <CJ== EAea= 3ou EJ J 4 = ; = o'o u rs > Gt ca < =, o5 cj <J = lj >=e Cl 6 c5r r Q a = FA Gr e e ca ce C.'.*. ia4 Et "'\z= CE <E = = =,_l e, CJ CJ, l+l = cle l+l > t.l E EEl = e et,e r.! = < ==. ;;= Oe >< CJ l+l c1 E AG r.r CJ < E 14 t = e rtj, et E ; = E CJ (ct c, Q vl. 3 < l o5 v:) )< fte J 5

27 Wlth regard to the actual organlzation of the Department of the ArDy, the panel Eade three recotrmendatlons deallni lrlth the U.S. Contl.nental Army CoDnand, the flrst of which No. 32 recomnended placing the Military Distrlct of l{ashlngton under the dlrect and control of the DepartEent of thearuy. neeon_ Dendatlon No, 33, holrever, was of rmrch more Lmportance to the U.S. Contlnental Atoy Conofland slnce 1t called for tire eetabllshment of a_ Combat Developments and School Coooand (CDSC) which would lnclude the current functions of the Conbat Developments Comand; the CONARC servlee schools (less installatlon comand) and assoclate "l:ll_:"q..oisory elements; rhe Arrry War College; and project UASSTER (conbined vlth the Conbat Developnents Experlruentation Cormand). The thlrd No. 34 depencled upon rhe approval and luplementati.on of the prevlous recomendation ton_ cernlng the establlsh.eent of the Conbat DevelopDents and SchooLs Comand. n partlcula!, the third recomendation stlpulated that sludles would 6s conducted after a lyear lapse ln order to d.eter_ mlne the feaslbtllty and deslrablllty of transferring both the dlrectlon of the ROTC program and the comand. of the flfteen ser_ vlce school lnstallatlons to the nerrly establlshed cormand. On 27 an.d, 29 January 1971, GeneraL Westnoreland revlewed the organl_ zatlonal recomendatlons No. 32 dealing wlth the Milltaly Distrtet of l,lashlngton was approved for imedlate lnpleaentarlo",6' as ir, _the caseof the management lmprovement reconmendatlons, General Weatmoreland deferred any declslon on recomendations No. 33 and No. 34 pendtng an evaluatlon of ongolng lnternal reorganizatlon aetions at both the U.S. Contlnental Army Conmand and the Combat Developnents Cormand. Chart 1 sholrs the organlzational atructure of the_ Cornbat Developnents a'nd Schools Connand as proposed by the Speclal Revlew PaneL. t l_s lnterestlng to note that the panel reconmended the transfer of twentythlee Arny servlce schools froo. the U,S. Contlnental Arny Counand to the new Combat Developments and Schools Cormand but dlsapproved any such transfer of tire Arny Tralnlng Centera because of the lnherent relatlonshlps between the trainlng centerg and the U.S. Contlnental Arny Cor".and.7 At the end of September 1970, the Deputy instructed the three servlces to revlew thelr Secretary of Defense organlzatl.onal struc 6 The M1litaly Disrrlct of Washlngton lras established as a nal or conoand of the Depaltx0ent of the Army on 1 July ncls 2 and 3 to Ltr AGDAA (M) (2 l'lar Distr, 18 Mar 71, subj; Report lene of the Army Organizatton, 7 L) C S Sl4D, DA ro of the Specfal Review panel on Depart_ pp. 3 4 and 1522 ro 17r83. o

28 tures onee agal.n and offered the conplete assl.stance of the Departruent of Defense for thls purpose. Hls dlrectlves resulted fton the of the Blue Blbbon Defense panel and the Departnent of the Aray Special Rerriew Panel, as lrel1 as from dlrectlvei emanatlng fron Ccngress concernlng the reductlon of nal or headquarters ln all of the Arned Servlces. Moreover, recent and antlclpated reductlons 1n resource levels led the U.S. Contlnental Arny Coumnand to conclude that actlon riras necessary to accelelate planning for a coedensurate Eodlflcatlon of lts olrn operations. ConaequentLy, oa 3 October 1970, the U.S. Continental Arny Conmand establlshed a speclal Management DproveDent panel to accorrpllsh a detalled rewlew and aflalysts of the comand r s nisslons, functlons, organlzations, and methods of operatlon; to develop new, Lnnovatlve concepta for uaaagement loprovements wlthln the U.S. Continertal ArEy and to llst those concepts in order of feaslbil1ty, Buitablllry, and deslrabillty; and to develop the nethodology for convertlng auch concepts to comand actlon. This speclal panel rra8 to conduct 1t5 revlerr based on the followlng aasraptlons: that presdure to reduce the slze of the Arny would contlnue as a result of the ro11up 1n Vletnam and reductions ln other ovelses areas; thet austere funding of the u.s. continental Army comandt s rnlsslon and eupport progratr would continue through Fy 1972 and {nto future flscal years; that che strength and conposi.tion of untts assigned to the U.S. Contlnental Army Comand would be as derlved froe the F 1973 tr'orce Structure Base Llne; that the stationlng of unltg rould be n consonance with the Departllent of the Amy/U.S. Contl.nental A::my Coumand LongRange Statlonlng Plan; that there would be no changes ln the nal or r0isslons aeslgned to the U.S. Contlnental Arny Comand in accordance r,rith the provl.slons of AR 107; and that any maj or organlzatlonal reallgndents could be expected to have both political and comunlty relations iepacts. n nldnovenber 1970, the Chlef of Staff of the U.S. Contlnenral Arny Cormand lnforned the Asslstant Vlce Chief of Staff of the Army of the on Solng oanagenent ieprovetoent actions at the naj or subordinate comnand leve1 ln order to have sorne lnfluence on the decislons then pefldlng concernlng the recornoendatlons of the Departtrent of the Ar:oy Speclal Revlew Paae1.8. Colcluslons and of the Panel. The U.S. Cont1lental Any Comand a Maoagement leprovement Panel Eet for the flr6t ttoe on 17 Novenber 1970 and conpleted a serles of flve reports by the end of February 1971, t soon became evldent to the panel that the problen areas faclng the comand could be narrowed lnto fl.ve hlghresourceconsr.ming categories, nanely; organizatlonal Etructure; m1sslon prlorlties; school lralnlng; lntraservlce supe (1) DF ATCS702015, CoNAR CofS ro CoNARC Srf, 3 Ocr 70, subj: Co'ARConcepts for Managenent nprovement CoDmLttee. (2) nfo furalshed by the lr{gt 3rr l{gt Dlv, ODCSCOUPT, L2 Ocr 72.

29 Port; and contractual 0f the five categorles selected, the organlzational structure of the U.S. Contlnental Arny Comand proved to be the Eost slgnlflcant slnce the overall seructure dlctated operatlng procedures, chaln of cormand, 1evels of supervl.slon, and tesources requtreeenta. Hence, the panel concluded that a reductlon in, and streaellnlng of, the comand structure provlded the most farreachtng method of achievlng economles whlle nodernlzlng and slnplifylng operatlons. n nldmarch 1971, the CONARC ManageDent lmprovedent Panel subnltted 1ts flnal report Eo the CONARC comander for hts revlew and approval. As submitted, the Paper contained five separate reports: No, 1 Concept for Realignment; No. 2 Co.{ARC!flssion Prloricies; No, 3 ElLnlnarlon of School Courses; No. 4 ntraservlce Support Relmbursement; and No, 5 Evaluatlon of Contract RequLlealents. General Haines approved Reports No. 2 through No. 5 wlth mi.nor revtslons and forwarded slllnnarlee thereof to the Department of the Army.g Panel Report No. Reorganization of the Comand Structure of the U.S. Conti.nental Artrlv Conaand. Report No. 1 Concept for Reallgrl4ent envlsloned the retentlon of lleadquarters, U.S. Continental Army Coumand; the ellnination of the cormandt s subordlnate arny headquarters ln the contiaental Unlted States; and the designatloo of uajor cormand Lnstallatlons (MC). The comandlng genetat of each nejor conoand lnstallatlon would have a deflned geographical area of responslbillty to lnclude the comand of Actlve Aroy, USAR, and RoTC unl.ts; schools; ArEy TralnJ.ng Centera i troop unlts; and sublostallatlons wlthln hls assigned area. Twentyone Eajor lnstallatlons erere to be establlshed, provldlng for a welldeflaed comand sclucture n'hlch the panel felt iras wlthln a feaslble peacetl$e span of conerol, yet r.ras capable of expansl.on for moblllzation purposes.ru After a brleflng tn ntdaprll, General Halnes lndlcated that the concepts contalned in Report No. 1 nlght. have 6ome Derlt as a longtange goa1, but that they were totally lopractlcal for the near tertl and were 1n need of a great deal of rev1s1on. On 7 l,lay 1971, General lalnes inforared the Vlce Ch1ef of Staff of the An0y of the concepts and contents of Report No, 1, along wlth hls reaeoos for rejectlng the repolt and returnlng it to the panel for revlslon, General Halnes felt Ehat the ploposal to ellml.nate ent.irely che subordlnate almy headquarters Ln the continental Unlted SLatea was not accedtable sfu.ce these headquarters 9 (1) CONARC odcscoupt, Mar 71, CONARC ManagemenE mprovement Panel Report. (2) 'neo furnished by GEN R.E. Halnes, Jr. (USA Ret), 24 Lpr 73, 10 ncl 1, "Report No. 1," ro CO{ARC ODCSCOMPT, tlat 71, CoNARC Manageuent mproveeent Panel Reporr.

30 were needed, among other thlngs, to provlde effectlve coordlnation ln the event of dooestlc emergencles or dl.sasters; to provlde coordlnation of the eupport and supervlslon of Reserve Component tra141ng; to lnsure the coordinated planning and executlon of rapid ncblllzation; and to preserve Army vlslbiltty ln major metropol{tan areae.lt At thst tlme, Geaeral Palner lndicated that, wh1le all f1ve reports of the CONARC l"lanageaent nprovement panel rrere loportant, Report No, 1 was of speeial Lnterest, as was General Haines redirected study of the organizatlon of the U.S. Contlnental ArEy uslng centralized manageoent and control add decentralized operatlons. General Palner requested that he be kept lnforned of the progrese and results of the panel reports as well as General Ha1.nes t. own assessnent of thls special approach to nanagenent lnprovement. rz BPvleed Report No. 1. Betkreen the end of May and the latter part of August 1971, the C0NARC Managenent nproveaent pane1 re $T ote Report No. 1 to conform rrlth General Halnest guidance concernlng the retebtlon of the subordlnate army structule 1n the contlnental United States. n the lnterlm, on July L971, a najor reorganl.zatlon action was acconpllshed at the directlon of the DepartDent of the Arny when Headquarters,!'tfth U.S. Army, ae Fort Sherldaa, 11., was ellnifiated fron the subordlnate arn)r Bt.ructure and the boundarles of the four reualning armles were reallgned, The revleed report developed a new concept whlch retained the phllosophy of centrallzed nanagement and control by Headquarters, U.S. Contlnencal Aruy Cormand, yet had the nraxlmum posaible decentrallzatlon wlth regource management vested in the najor lnstallatlons. At fhe Bame tlue, the subordlnate anll]r headquarters were used to comand and contlol the U.S. Arny Reservel to conduct nobllizaflon and contlngency planning for senior comand inplenentatlon; and to provlde U.S. Army presence ln or near major population centers. As actually developed, the revised Reporr No. L would tranafer responslbilities and resources frob the gubordlnate anoy headquarters to Headquarters, U.S Contlneatal Arny Ccrmand, and the rbaj or comand lnsfallatlons; rrould change some LnstallatLons to the status of eub or satelllteins tallations; and would reduce the size of the subordlnate arey headquarters. The revised concept called for the retentlon of four subordlnate arny headquariers wlttl a greatly reduced atructure ind Disslon and for the establlsueat of Dilxete n nalor eomand tnstallations, each wlth a epeclfied geographical af,ea jurisdictlon. The revlsed report, along trlth all (1) Ltr, cen R.E. HaLnes, Jr., ro cen Bruce palmer, Jr., 7 Vay 7L, (2) Dr ATCOM, CONARC DCSCOUPT ro CofS, 3 Sep 71, subj; UP Report No. 1 Concept for CONARC Organl.zational Reallgnnent. 1.1 Ltr, GEN Palmer to GEN Halnes, 28 Vay 71.

31 of the necessary actlon papers, were submitt.ed to the Chlef of Staff of the U.S. Continental Arny CoEonand on 3 September 1971 and fotraally briefed to the CoNARC Comander on t5 Septenber. At Ehat time, Ceneral Halnes withheld approval for the revised concept since he felt that lt retalned too,arry of the irpractlcal features of the,orlginal report; dld not glve tire arnles a neanlngful nisslon; failed to uttlize the resource rnanagenent capabilities of those arnles ia an optinuo fashi.on; and gieatly lncreased the slze of lleadquarters, U.S. Contlnental Arroy Co,,r"nd. Shortly rhereafter, this_effort gave h'ayr to the developr"rrt of the CO,ARC 71 Mtsslon and Structure studv. rj As lndlcated earller, the Departnent of the Anny had asslgned various special studles related to the recomnendations of the Departaent of the Arny Speclal Revies panel_ to certain departnental staff agencles. 0f partlcular interest to the U.S. Contlnental Arny Cofimand were Recormendatlon No. 31, applylng to lhe Reserve Conponent structure throughout CONARC, and itecornendation No. 32, pertalnlng Eo the CoNUS headquarters through which adnlntstrative, logistlcal, and olher Eanagement functlons should be channeled, to lnclude the possible streamllnlng of these headquarters. n January 1971, General Haines dlscussed the two recomnendatlons r.rl th General Palner and reouested that flnal action be held ln abeyence riirr_ pendlng the completiori of certaln ;;;Ai";;h;; ierng develop.i ln Headquarters, U.S. Contlnental Arny Connand. ftorrever, the CONARC Management mprovement panel became so involved with najor leorgan_ lzation proposals that it dld not explore ln any depth ihe ortginat areas of lnterest of the Army Speclal Review panel. ln its Recomen_ datlons No. 31 and No. 32. Meanvhlle, ln the varlous conversatlons between General Halnes and General palner, the CONARC was!0ade anare that there was a growlng feeling in the pentagon thae one 1evel of headquarters between the Depaitnent of the Arny and the lnatallatlons in the conti.nental United States should be eliurlnatej. General Palmer disassoclated hloself froo this view but conced.ed that 1t was strongly held within Headquarters, Department of the Army, and the offlce of the Secretary of Defense. With his dlsap_ proval of the Managexnent mprovement panel Repor! No. in nlcl_ Septerober 1971, General Eaines felt that the issue of the conmand structure for the U.S. Contlnental Arny Conmand should be faced squarely in correspondence wlth l{eadquarters, DepaliDent of the {1.f, 1na hopefully could. be disposej of once ani for all. {e 1n_ dlcated that his revlew of both ihe origlnal and revised Report 13 (1) DF ATCOM, DCSCOMPT ro CofS, 3 Sep 71, subj3 Managenent mproveoenr Panel (Mp) Reporr..No. 1 Concept for COian orian:_ zatlonal ALignmenr, w/rrc] Z, "Mp Report No, 1" (2) Fact Shlet, DCSCOMPT, 3 Sep 71. (3) nfo furnlshed. by Mgt Br, l4gt Dtv, odcscompt, L2 Ocx 72. 1n

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