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1 'roquraul flfueg olorrreqoq elllualerd g; osrsolncreqnl :sp.tonfoy 'Jo^eqoq enrlue^srd g1 Eur$ueqc JoJ sarlmnuruoc go eepol,t.orq alordurt ol popuolxo oq plnoqs sercuoee errtgoddns qlul uorl urpjooc prrg uoqeroq floc ss O* sg Jolces erpsru w euuru. ord uolpcnpe qll otl lbtd slseeens,$nrs sfll '(aurocur,{pure; dlqluoru n! 96'z - 9' : ) %56'98' :do pu [e^sl aepelnoq rol ZyZZ - 65.Z : J %56'6S't :UO) rorleqeq arrrluezrerd gj Jo srolclperd luecgruets s? peraplsuoc ejerr\ sruocut fpweg dgluour pue e^e a8pel,rnourl 'selqerrel roqlo gll,rr EurNnfpe JoUY 'Jol^?aq orr4uelerd g1 qlr/r pe13roosse,$uecgru6ls sq o1 punoj se^r 1erra1 e8pe1,nou1 'pe1 erunbs-1q3 el EqpreEeg 'Jol^sqaq enpuerrerd g1 pooe Jo suetljc erlf 1eru peq weqr Jo VoZ'6g'uopue,rerd $soln3roqq uo uopdscrad pooe puu e8pal,nourl poof p"q sluepuodsar Jo o L'g pt;r- yog'rl dtuo '(XSg) 'etuorl {eql ul gj qtl^r 1ua1pd oqljo 3r?c a{4 o} olqrsuodsar e;ed\ 1lleql Jo lsotral 'eor{ Jreqf q g qll,l\ luoped ouo uoql orotu Eutrreq pegoder sluedrctued 3o o7o6'71,(pg.srsq1rleul ssol ro S Jo lsrsuoc ssqnuej erll Jo prnll-o tt re^o '(s.bop Sn 00 o1 lmbe) spd){ reruuefrt pll?snoqt perpunq euo rrerll ssel Jo lunbe peq urerlt Jo Vo;6g pw pafoldueun Jo stojbj orean sluedrclwd Jo lmoj oenlj ',tla,rqcedser (%S.tO looqos elppru pul? (%T'Sb) ooqcs,iruurpd eroia slll dtclu d oql 3o lo^el PuoqscnpeJo epou aee a8ureru eql e11l.pe1a1"tll ere,tl rrx}gl Jo y 'sreaf g9-g1 go a8uer aqr qrfl{ *Y.tO sei\{ sluudtclped 3o J0r^sqeq eaqua,ra:d gj rtlft pelslcossb sjoltbj euuuelsp ol pasn ojalr\ uorssejeer cqsteo1 aldppru pue $sel srenbs-rq3 'solqarje^ P sqljcsep 01 pesn sen stsdlaue ploqesnoq d1nue; oql tuo{ olbjsaru-.,(pnrs peseq-srsuuoqsenb s?/rr l '(01 =u) g uro{ Euuegns s}uetled Jo polflucej ejoa slr$drorgu; 'reuruuf141 'uoleea durteeyg 'lr14s1p de,trfiiyg u sjoqluolu eql Euoure uoqca$rl lfr"j srsolnrjoqq Jo Jol^sqeq errrluelsrd Eurpege sjolcbj eqt aulrurolop ol palcnpuoc su,n,(pqs o,r4ducssp sq1 gt-se :(dzt :VrcZ'AeC[ $feeg qnd f Juruuurtlal *uorfeg du,rn8e1ql '1cu1stp,(e,l8e' l q sjeqrueu,tpureg sql Euoure srsolncroqnl Jo roln gaq salluonord Eurlcegu srolcud lcbrlsqy 'f r1nqbs pue Nl uolle-r4euog 'W N ezn1h Ft1e raqureldes :eulpo elqoiloav Ft1Z requretdes 0t :peldeccy Pt1Z psn)ny 1 :pes!^otl?l0z tltdv tz :po^lecetl ryouj pe11ot46uoh elon :Jotllno dulpuodsettos fiptert1u7 loptqory 'LllloeH clqnd 7o ft1nco1 'sctlstlolsolg Jo NeuJUodeq "Q'Lld e Arysten1u1 toplllzry 'quetadop^eq LliloeH roj onil;sul NVJSV "Q'Lld z rcuuoa111 'Aon6o11t1 'LliloeH AyunuutoC Jo Atpteryun 'Arystenlup toprclory 'lueutdopae1 L.poeH roj onil$ul NVJSV "W'H'd'W t BrlnqBS d11u1n1' puu z1rabdsuoh olul{ o,t^lh uotra uotr1tr rotuuofi4 'uo!6au horn6o6; '+cp+s!p horvr6o6; u! sjeqrueut hlgtuo; aq+ Ououto uo!+calu! slsolncleqn+ p ro!^oqaq en!+ueneld 6u11cego sjo+col VLOZ 1sn6ng fieuj Z 'ou AL'lon luaurdola^eo Pue qlleeh cllqnd Jo leurnorl

2 2 1 6f1 6d1 6 1?f,i.J q?t $a u fi 1?uTm.l ur Aid 12ariufi 2 u,qun'rflel SornrFlilr 2557 of q, do a.!l- at -9'--f-- il odu fr fri at a oi au q oi n ttrun 1 5U a {fl u? rurrfl at Ad 5Y 1f o{ d tjl8n n 5a u nxtfi fi At U? 8r i'il YnrTrFl q o d -.^ -^^t--.s^.^., d luar tflo ttrufl t? EJ Utvtvt Fl tn 8JuN15 tju tju l?ot [ugl: r{{u^lnit6n, 2 rtave'nl3il fia'n:' M.p.H,M. an,ttiufran,tqlntwattdeju utntlnat#ilufina, untlniltiuqltnlwltjllu ilftmnfiiluut{ pn. D.. anniuttatutqa ntwa't tdnu ut't'finatila urt n a ph.d, nnlldlfrnuqa nm n{ uwlintn#jufi na unfrerdo rlu uu t? tusr: ntfln:tfin rrarq'nriil frarryr: ilrf,ufi fi naeionq6n::runr:{o,rfiu{arl:nrorarurfi nn:olnf'1fi fi ff{lruiarl:n ludrmourunrrri il:vtnqffi $uurf t.cnfr r:ilqt uasnr:fis u ; l2(2): {olfilr^rqrt^n::rrnt:r1olfiuigu]:nrrglaurfin1un:ou',;'dn{'l.u d at d d Y Adr jas 9) a/' - Y- - t*rd,-a,n -!--d.d ^o iarj:n tudrrnotrilnr?d ilturmfltfi rj:ymfltiluuilti tnuzuo{astruttuudoilnl}jvl}l fr illn: { dft{ 0 tn nqilstro ulilvltl] udulsn SJ lun:ounf,:fr fi #djruimlrn { dy Y AA A riltolf nfl?uef flslts ift#16uiarl:n {ruru 370 nu ldilrlnunr:tfruuuurarudusrou el q irn:rrri{oryndruaddtfrllil::slu1!) a,t d i j r r n u H r n? r rj rf rj v,r u fr zu o q fi'r r nj : q o {l fl o 6'u fi tfi u r {e y fiu s) v{ A 94_ -Y-.o' i rfr ur {o q n'u v't q fi fl : T il n 1 : rj o': n'u tu{arj:njnul# iar Chi-square test ttau Multiple Logistic Regressron. e ruarornr:f,nurnu.jr arurfinlun:ornf:fifi{:.hsioll:n fiorqo{.ruri ts tj - os il firirotgrnfiu +: Tl cirulnqi au:audr ncirud'rotir.rrl:yilrar9oflns u, ouolr6inur:s6'uil:soufinur gounv za tunr:finur:sdutituruf,nul 6"uu,,uuouiloru$ouas lg rflurnun:n: n$orflufl'jrs.rru rj:silrfl9ouns oo fi:r0'ldrnfiatduuue,^100,000 iyut riorioun.jr n:ounfrcirulrqjgcuau 80 rflun:ounirrdur,il:vilrar z 1u 3 {o{n:oilrlfflucirfrfiailrsn s nu u?orloun.jr fid:silrfl gouas ts rorfrnorrruildouolrufififrrjru{arl:nrurnn'ir z nulun:ounfr ttas rfiucgoerav ts,virrfu iifinlruf druluqjfloru, *u rn,ilq,rr*tl.*-:t.r"l"i', teua{rjru{arl:n,nd',d lu,n*nid uasioony te iinnlt;ufl6'runr:fl0{fiufluro{fifiornfrlhuiatl:n nrnhanr:f,nurvlu'ir #ooas oo rorffnouuuufloljcrrr finrrruf;1ur?ornr:flolfiunuroqornnr:fioriefrrjrtlsarl:nlu:s6'u6 ttauh.alo,{nr:finur lnut# chi-square uyir :vd'unrruffinmrudurft'udfiunq6n::runr:tls{fiuia{j:notlxfiriutirriq rfrorirruorur?rn:rvddru Multiple Logistic Regression uu'ir :sdunrrlfrrav:ruldrlorncjrud'rstixfin'lruf,ilr{u#fiuotjr'l tutu*ffihffirauouu'iruilra'unioocrin:druaoouncnr:doerr nr:l#n,*furirl:vvrm rfionr:fl0t6'u ln fq yd A X s/- l.' ^4^.q^. s'' "lri]filfl t;stfl tfroiat t:nil1nuu tun: ^ ourl:? drcirfrq: 5ar1:n nqfin::ilnl:floqriu{arj:n arurfrnntounir

3 sessc E;z'L ere sos J g pegllou l?lol pu uoll lndod zgs'690'v w pa'wtullse s uollelndod elol eql 'uotser Kelulile;41 q '0102 ul ealsod reeurs ulnlnds fi\eu Jo ses c Tt'(,v pu? r ruu r(w u pegllou (sutroj ) sluell d gj EyV'Lt Jo elol ere.a\ ejeql o,.r'0l02 w uoreeu VES Euorue lseqerq eqt 51 ll pu 00Z ul uorlelndod 000'00 lgzg s./\^. gj Jo sruoj 3 Jo eler ecuelerrerd eql '&euotu pue,filplqrolu Jo sesnuc Eurpeel do1 go euo sul tuer slsolnjreqnl 's1ene1 d1qs sreluej g -u.&\ol pu? lcr4srp lb sru el gj 0 Hllrn leuoreeg pue etels V q 8utuuru sl (dlt{) eururersor4 srsolncreqnl leuolt 5l qenoqlry o'plrorvr oql q seulunoc uoprnq qbu AH/S V Jo euo pu selrlunoc ueprnq q8lq (gf-uqnt) slsolncreqnl lu ]slser-8ruplllnur LT, Jo ouo 'srsolncreqru Jo selrlunoc ueprnq-qetq ZZ eql Jo euo 'seulunoc eruocul,v\ol Jo euo s Jeruue,(14 8'etuoclno lueullee4 g lqjssarcns eq ol eldoed eql Jo roa eq Suuloes qll eq euruelap plnoc snlels polercossu,(lluecgruers s lceluoc ploqesnog Suoure Eulpug es c elllc l"ql ul\oqs el q selr}unoc uepjnq qsu tuor; selpn}s JeAeS L'suol}oJces,fuo}ertdser ur,qrsuep,{re1pc q pue suol}lpuoc Eurnrl pop/y\orc -JeAo 'enrlrsod sr Jeetus ulqnds Jleql uela lseleere etlt s slcsluoc ploqesnoq o] uosstusubjj O e'uorlslosl ercos ol ueql spsel gclq/!\ uouezlteulelts pue uorleurrurrcslp Jo lcefqns eql eq plno/k g1, ql1,t\ sluelled 'e8pel./kou> lerauee Jo >lc l eql ol en6[ 'gj uo uorldecred pue e8pe1.,,vrou>l snoeuorle eql S e^eq plrol( eql ur eldoed r(ueu 'pporvr eq] q Sutlueuleldun ere suojje eseqt q8noqllv 'effieslp eql Jo luetul erl tdulord pu stsou8elp,(pee enordurl o1 urels.(s ej c gfueq eqt dleq r(lluecgruers qcql!\ g ]noq uorldecred pue e8pelzlrou{ ellsueqerduloc ul }qo plnoj eldoed lereuee eq] leql os '^(3e1er1s esrnoc Uogs uo pessq luerul e4 pelresqo lcerlp tlllfi\ reqleeol pelcnpuoc uoeq eneq g roj seteele4s (Jg1)uopecruruuluoc 'uotlecnpo 'uorleuuojul ealcejje e{ r'es eslp oq} Jo p erds eq} orluoc pu uolssrusub4 re{ilru ecnper ol slsolncregrq enrllsod-reeurs urnlnds Jo sesec lsejl pue ljotep ol sr SJOC Jo rul eql ',(Selerls (S;OC) esrnoc Uoqs uo peseq,(dere{} pe^resqo fllcerlp eq} poqcun l pue es asrp ^(cue8retue uoprnq 1eqo13 e s g perelcop uollezruuerg glfeeg plroa 'E66 u s'cle pue Sutzeeus 'EurqEnoc,(q euelc q ledxa gj ^(reuourlnd ulor; 8ur crruouoce-orcos l ql pa{\oqs fpqs sug 'uol}jtnul ru -JeJJns ej oq1\4' eldoed uoql{\ J? eql ut speords eseoslp pue Sursnoq pelelllue1 lood 'oulocul 1r\ol p"q oq7y1 aq; o'xolduroc slsolncjoqnlunljep"qocfq snllljeq dnor8 crurouooo-olcos tr\ol s slsolncjeqq ro3 dnor8 fq pssnec es?oslp snollcejul ub s slsolncjeqnj elq reuln eql 'seplseg 'uollcejul g Jo uolssltusu rl c'pljo/v\ eql ur eql ecnper ol lueuodun sr srsolncreqq Jo sjeqrueu slsolncjeqq Jo seulunoo uepmq q?li{- ZZ eql Suoue fpureg eql Suoure Jorl"qaq e,rpuenerd eql ejojojegj ereln uor8er eql u sel$unoc Jeqluelu ueaele Jo eag.(%2.6g)pefejul,tllueuuroperd erom dnore eeu lppe pue uo6er VgS q parub3 s?.&l slsolncroqqjo uepmq ol slcsluoc ploqesnoq t"w pe^{oqs erpq ruo{ qcr"eser 1eqo131o %0t lnoqv '0102 ul ses?o ^\eujo ecueplcul euo.uoqoalep eseo enrssed uegl sos c g ejour qlra uollllur 9't lnoqe pu" ecuel"aerd uoqlnu e^g Jo uoll -Brurlse u perelsr8er (VES) uoreeg lsv t$e-qtnos (OUm) uuqezrueerg H1leeg plro6 aqj z'plrorrr aq] ur sor4unoc etuocul elppltu pu A\ol ut Jncco st{}?ep gj Jo ohs6 re^o 'u Jo osn ceq pelp uoqlru t' pu? srsolncrsqnl ruor; perejjns eldoed uonu ;8'0Z u r'pljoryr eqt ur sesseslp ^{}uoud eejrlt do1 3o ouo pu? es?oslp sqlel lsolu eql Jo ouo s slsolncroqnl uolpnporlul 6eUJ Z'oU AL vloz 1sn6ng 'lon lueudoleneo Pue qlleah cllqnd Jo leurnon

4 " 1 d1 G{1 6'l f,tldz t[a V fl 1?uf gu L.t1 Aid eariufi 2 'rqun1nil RornrFril 2ss7 in 2U. t' Although the case detection rate was 77% for national level, Magwayregion (45o/o) was included in lowest five regions for it in 2}l.t'There are five districts in Magway region. There aremagway, Minbu, Pokokku, Gangawand Thayet. n Magway district, there were 2,633 TB notified cases in 20l which is the highest member in Magway region. Although DOTS strategy have been launched to all townships in 2003, tuberculosis remains as a major public health problem in this area.n Magway region is located in central area of Myanmar where is distant from the capital cities.moreover, most ofpopulation in Magway district based on the agriculture and they possessed low socio-economic stafus as well fuberculosis strikes on the poor and vulnerable group. n this study area, there were no previous documents related with family members of TB patient households although the studies related with tuberculosis were performed among the TB patient groups and at workplace such as industrialized area. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the preventive behavior on fuberculosis, and association between socio demographic characteristics, knowledge, perception and preventive behavior on tuberculosis among the family members of tuberculosis patientin Magway region. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from Decemb er to January 2014 in37 0 family members of TB patients' household who were 8 to 65 years old. The multi-stage sampling technique was applied and Magway district where the case detection rate was the highest under Magway region was purposivelyselecte d." A11 six townships were included in study area and two wards and ten villages from each township were selected by simple random sampling. The participants from each township were proportionally calculated by using primary data from the hospital. One family member from each TB patient household was randomly selected from each village. The data were collected by face to face interviews by 10 well trained research assistants from University of Community Health (Magway) in coordinating with researcher. The structured questionnaires were developed based on Health Belief Model (HBM) and composed of five parts: socio-demographic characteristic, knowledge paft, perception towards TB, cues to action (TB information), and preventive behavior on fuberculosis. Mean and standard deviation were calculated and used as a cut of point for knowledge, perception and preventive behavior components. The overall score for knowledge and perception parts were categorized into three levels: poor (< mean SD), fair (mean- SD There were 14 items in knowledge part and 15 items in perception part. The score for 8 items of preventive behavior part was classified by two levels: poor (<mean) and good (> mean).theunivariate analysis was used to describe descriptive statistics: mean, median, standard deviation, minimum and maximum number, and percentage of each independent and dependent variables. Chi-square tests and simple logistic regression were used for biv ariate analysis to identify association between each independent variables and preventive behavior on tuberculosis among the family members of TB patients. Multiple logistic regression using a backward stepwise (wald) method was performed to predict the significant

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6 ? 1 "Gf1 Gf1 61 il q[?t rra v fl 1?uiru ur tji4 12oriufi 2 u,qunlfre.r RornrFril, 2557 Regarding with the knowledge about tuberculosis, it was assigned into three levels in which l4.6oh were high knowledge level and nearly three fourth of respondents were fair. About half of the respondents (44.9yo) knew that the bacteria is causal organism of tuberculosis infection and 30% of participants had right information and knew well that if coughing longs for more than 2 weeks, it would be a highly suggestive symptom of tuberculosis. There was about 15.7% of respondents who had good overall perception level and 255 (68.9%) and 57 (15.4%) had fair and poor perception on tuberculosis respectively. TabLe 2 showed thelevel of TB preventive behavior, perception on susceptibilities, severities, benefits and barriers towards tuberculosis among the family members of TB patients. Table 2 Number and percentage of level of preventive behavior, knowledge and perception on TB Level of Preventive behavior Vnff$bt$$ Mean-l 1.04, SD:2.993, Min: 4, Max-6 Knowledge about tuberculosis Mean-9.04, SD:2.214, Min: 3, Max: 14 Perception on tuberculosis Mean-58.14, SD:4.423,Mtn: 46, Max- 7l Perceived Susceptibitity Mean-l6.73, SD: 1.899, Min-10, Max:20 Perceived severitv Mean-20.26, SD: 2.lll, Min-14, Max:25 Perceived benefit Mean-l1.98, SD: l.l5l, Min-9, Max-15 Perceived barriers Mean-9.17, SD: 2.360, Min: 3, Max- l5 Froqucney Percent l5l r ls.4 zss r rr rt

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8 " 1 G{1 61 frjq?t tta v n 1?r.iio,r ur "d1 tjid 12oriufi 2 u,qun-rftt, RonrFtil 2557 There was no association between overall perception level and TB preventive behavior among the family members of TB patients. As shown in table 4, perception on susceptibilities, severities, benefits and barriers towards tuberculosis didnot associate with TB preventive behavior in this study. Table 4 Association between perception level and preventive behavior on tuberculosis Perception level Level of preventive behavior Crude OR 95BA C sf OR Lower Upper a/t oa Perceived susceptibility t t.240 t.02r t Perceived severify r r s Perceived benefits t r r T6 s Perceived barriers t.821 t r r 42.9 The study also found that there was no association between TB preventive behavior and sources of TB information. However, the variables such as television, newspapers/magazines and volunteers which had p-value<o.l were become adjusted variables to predict significant factors for TB preventive behavior. The findings in table 5 showed the significant predictors for preventive behavior on fuberculosis after adjusting with other variables which had p-value less than 0.1. The knowledge level on tuberculosis andl monthlyy family income were significant predictors ofl tuberculo rlosis preventive behavior (OR ,95% C\ for knowledge level and OR: 1.853,1-2.s88-95% C = for monthly family income).1 Family members of TB patients who had good knowledl :dge level on tuberculosis were times more likely to have high TB preventive behavio{ compare( red to those who had poor knowledge level of

9 .Journal of Public Health and Developmen[ Vol. 12 No. 2 ftlau Flugust 2014 rberculosis. Besides, the respondents who got more nan 100,000 kyats for their monthly family income rad more likely to have high TB preventive behavior on tuberculosis than those who got less than or equal 100,000 kyats for their monthly family income. table 5 Multiple logistic regression for predictors of TB preventive behavior Varinbles Adjusted OR 95Ve C of OR p-value Lower Upper Monthly family income > < Knowledge level on tuberculosis Perception on barriers Television No Yes Magazines and newspaper No Yes Person who give TB information (volunteers) No Yes t s t ** r <0.001'F:F'k 0.48s t usslon n preventive behavior on tuberculosis, 59.2% f family members of TB patients had good level f TB preventive behavior. One study from Yangon, yanmar showed that nearly half of respondents did t delay to take treatment immediately for tubercu osis infection.'' Over half of respondents among ndustri ahzed area in Myanmar could contact for ning to check tuberculosis infection.'o Although the treatment successful rate by National Tuberculosis Programme reached the target in Magway region (81%), about 40.8"h of the family members of TB patient households had still poor preventive behavior on tuberculosis.'t Regarding to socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, it was found that the average age was years old and the range of age was years old. Majority of family members were female

10 ? 1?d1 d1 o,l "ruqu tta v fl 1 riiru ur flid 12oriufi 2 urqun-rnil Rornrnrl 2557 (69.5%). The female respondents were included in these studies by comparing with female proportion (50.56%) of Myanmar in 20ll-20l2.l5Most of respondents were currently married, low educated level (illiteracy, primary school and middle school), farmers and no job people.more than half of respondents were low income group (s kyats). t was prominently higher than national household poverty rate (21j%) and 26% of poverty incidence in These could be revealed that tuberculosis can affect the society of low-socio economic status. t6't7 There was l4.g% of respondents' household which had more than one TB patient. t was higher than the results (6%) studied in Uganda.'* There was no previous studies concerning with household transmission in this area although the mobile teams of NTP are screening TB infection especially among the contact persons of TB patients.l6because ofonly 14.6% of respondents who had good knowledge on tuberculosis, it could be explained that the knowledge level of respondents in current study was lower than the result of one sfudy in Yangon, Myanmar-t' t could be explained that people and communities with TB has been lagging behind although advocacy' communication and social mobili zationwere implemented in the community in Myanmar. Although nearly half of respondents knew about the cause of disease,it was higher than the knowledge of general population of Metro Manila, Philippines and of the non-medical students university of Belgrade.*''e Mostly family members knew that smoking is the predisposing factor of tuberculosis and taking medicine regularly, full course from health personnel should be used for cure of TB. These findings were higher than that of general population in Philippines. About one third of responrdents knew about coughing more than two weeks which was nearly result with one study in the general population in Serb ra.'o The knowledge about BCG vaccine was nearly the same as Moe Thaw's study (nearly 40%)in Yangon, Myanm at-tt t could be explained that the knowledge on preventive measured by vaccination was still low although the Expanded Programme on mmunization (EP) is performing on the whole country. This study showed that only 22.7%had good level of overall perception on tuberculosis. t was lower than those of one study among Myanmar migrants in Thai (45.3%). Likewise the family members of TB patient household in current study had low knowledge about tuberculosis, they could not change their perception towards fuberculosis because of socio-cultural factors and economic condition of their family. Nearly half of respondents (47.8%) and (5.1%) perceived agree and strongly agree about dismissal from the job if they suffer from TB. t was higher perception than the study in a growing industria\zed atea in Myanmar (32.g%).'o Despite of these two differences, the perception about stigmatization which was the effects of severity was noted among the community. All respondents accepted that tuberculosis lead to be died if it was not treated and it should be cured by taking regularly correct medicine, right dose, correct interval and length of time for treatment while Moe Thaw's study'' showed that 9S% had the perception that early TB treatment could speed up recovery' Therefore, they perceived well on the benefits of the treatment as they could see not only the effects of complication but also those of proper treatment in their suffoundings-

11 pue e8peprou{ }uercgjns e^ q tou plp,(eqt q8noqt uole uolluenerd g roj oa\ pecllcerd sluedtcrped eqt 'ero3:ereql 'slsolncjeqnl uo JoA qeq ellluenerd poo8 purl uorldecred ;o slred,ftene 3o le^el gc e Suoure Stuepuodser Jo JB{ JeAo 'srsolnojeqru uo uotldecred poo8 Wq '(pnrs sgl u sluepuodser Jo qjj euo lnoq q8noqtlv '{pnrs sgl u roln qeq enl}uenerd g q}l^a petercoss ]6uplp sreljr q uo uorldecred pu slgeueq uo uorldecred'setluenes uo uolldecred'setllllglldecsns uo uolldecred 'septseg '(S0'0< enlel-d) rotneqoq eal -uelejd gt pu lenel uorldecred ejeao uee./yueq uo l -Brcosse ou sel\ ejerll 'uotldecred ol spje8er qll/y\ 'e8pel,lou>l rreql ol lrojj plnoc peu SS ru tuog luerueslnpe pue eturuersord uorlecnpe qllseh 'sjolcbj clqdereoulep-olcos eruos pu uorledncco 'uotlecnpe rleql,(q pecuengul eq plnoc sluopuodser ;o eepelzrroul e11 'rolneqeq anlluenerd g poo8 pe. o1,{1e>1 erotu ere^\ slsolncroqq }noq eepel,lou>l poo8 pet{ oqllr s}uet}ed gj Jo sreqluetu,tlpreg 'ero;ereql 'roll qeq enlluonerd gj roj rol -crperd luecglu8ts Se^At slsolncjeqq tnoqe e8pelzu,oul ]B peaoqs llnser uolssereer ctlstsol eldplnntr 'rorneqeq enltlsod rleql uo ocuengq plnoo,(lrunurruoc eql Jo e8pelmou>l eql os,,r(pnls s6^&\ ql ooatr tlllllrr otuus eql,(peeu ejezll sllnser esoql 'slsolncreqnl uo lo^el eepelmoul A\ol pue el Jepoul petl oqt\ Euoule JoA qeq ellluenerd pooe p q %'tg pu %;Vg pue le^el e8pelzu'ou>l pooe peq or{^\ Euoue roll qeq ell}uenord poo8 pet{ oq^\ eldoed;o %6gg ere^\ erel{ '(1OO'O> enlen-d) rolletleq enlluenerd g pue enel eepelznou>l ueelqeq uorlercosse luscgluers sel\ oreql ] ql punoj Unsor eqj,r'soalestueqt,(q,(euotu luods lou plnoc '(eqt esn ceq luetulee4 e>lul ol pefelep ejoru eje^/r\ sjel{}o,(q uoddns srcu?ql aql qll^\ eldoed eq] 1 q1 pen\ol{s rsluusr(4 ur fpnls euo 'r{1pre; roj eruocur ssel }ob otll\ esoqt Unqt ror^ qeg enlluenerd qbu e^eq ol flellt erotu p q eruocul,(11ule3 erotu lo3 oqrv\ sluepuodser egt 'ero3releql ''0 enl A-d repun selqelr ^ eqt Eurpnd,(q uorssereer ct1st3o1 e1d1t1ntu SuruLro;red reg srolclperd Jo euo erueceq etuocur fytuej,(lqtuou eql 'renerytoll 'pr pu ls Eurnrl go uolllpuoc rood pu,firenod ol Eurpro JJe uler{l o1 SuqlJ}s s slsolncjeqrq pu sn1e}s cruouoce-olcos A\ol p q fpnfs ]uejjnc ut Sluepuodser ]sow l ql peureldxe eq plnoc l 0z.rr'selpn}s reqlo Wtr pelcrpe4uoc sea\ 1 'SSOncJeqru uo JoA {eq entluenerd pue ScrlSJelcsJ c crqdersoulep-olcos uoe^/klaq uoll - rcoss ou sb/y\ ejeql l ql pe/v\oqs,{pn1s slql 'uorlazleur8rls pue uoll losl l cos eql lnoqe q8nol,(eqt esn ceq pelcejul ereln feqt qcflr!\ es?esrp eql lnoq? eldoed reqlo A\ou{ o} lu 1y\ }ou op ploqesnog ]uerled g Jo srequeru,(1plej eg] l ql peul ldxe eq plnoc l,,'(oa8'99),(pnls s6./y\sql aohtr ue{} Je^/v\ol sl qch/y\ 'sjoqqereu pu spuel4 tuojj uoj - rruojul lo8 oq/!\ sluepuodser 3o %'8 eje.&\ ejeql 'r(pn1s sql u 'uoll uuojul e{el 01 peer ol lue/y\ lou plp,(eql 'sleeqs uoll uuojul peor plnoc,fitunuluoc eql pu g qll^\ peleler petu perenllep eulurersor4 srsolncreqnj leuorlen eql qenoql uelg 'pr oq ro relsod 'lalqduled peer ol fillqe rloql ecnper uec o^01 uoll cnpo A\ol l ql poul ldxe eq plnoc 1 'seurddlllrld ur eseql tuor; uol} uuojul }oe s}uepuodser ;o %8'lT, 'esr^\e{}- 'r(pn1s }uejjnc Jo s}uepuodser 3o %E vl fluo u Seulze?eur pue rodedsl\eu luor; penlecej ss/!\ uollutruojul g,.8'sautddtuqd ul (tt1g) fpnls euo ustll reqerq osl pue Jeruu r{6 'uoeuea u effigv),(pnfs euo ueq1 reqerq se^\ l 'fpnfs luermc ur (rt S'gg) uolsllelel tuor; loe s3^\ uol}btruojul g 'sjjels qll eq luewrueno8 uou uolletruojul pollocoj sluepuodser 11e 'uot1 uuojul gj tlll/k SurpreEe5?LOZ 1sn6ng 6eUl luaurdole^eo pue qlleeh a'ou zl'lon cllqnd Jo leurnon

12 ? 1 Gf1 d1 61 "rurdu ua s n r eu7m.l u1 flid 12oriufi 2 'ror*n1nil RonrFrel 25sz perception on tuberculosis. There was also no association between overall perception and preventive behavior on tuberculosis in one study among Myanmar migrants in Thailand.'t tt this study, there was no association between all source of information and preventive behavior on tuberculosis (p-value >0.05). However, television, magazines and newsp aper, volunteers which had p-value less than 0.1 were included in multiple logistic regression to predictive associated factors. After performing this test, these sources of information could not become predictors for TB preventive behavior. However, television was contributed to be avatlable TB information to take treatment in Moe Thaw's sfudy.t' n this sfudy, when the people who are either educated or non-educated in the community watched television or read newspaper and magazines, they wanted to be skip this information part.the cues to action could not influence TB preventive behavior to change their practices. Recommendations The result of this study revealed that more than gather information for improvement of their behavior on health. Therefore, it is recommended that Ministry of Health should be extended to the coordination and collaboration with intersectoral organi zations to attract the community for information from media which can be got more knowledge about tuberculosis especially about major clinical feature and vaccination for tuberculosis. Health education from media should be strengthened to improve the knowledge level in the community and health volunteers should be considered for TB control programme. Collaboration with supportive agencies should be strengthened to improve the living standard of the community.this study can be applied for TB public health intervention and national control programme for fuberculosis. Acknowledgements express my special thanks to china Medical Board (CMB) for financial support during studying in this programme. would like to express my sincere and deep gratitude to the participants who gave valuable contributions to this study. half of respondents had good preventive behavior on tuberculosis and about one sixth of them had good overall knowledge and perception. There was significant association between knowledge level and TB preventive behavior. The income of TB patients' family was significant predictors for TB preventive behavior. Therefore, the knowledge of family members of TB patients could influence to their preventive behavior and the property of TB patient household related with TB prevention because the vulnerable group for TB is low socio-economic society. All of References l. Cox H, Kebede Y, Allamuratova S, smailov G, Davletmuratovaz, Byrnes G, et al. Tuberculosis recuffence and mortality after successful treatment: mpact of drug resistance. PLoS Med. 2006; 3( l0): Centers for disease control and prevention. Data and Statistics. [online] Available from ltbl statistics. laccessed 2013 September 221. participants got TB information from government health staffs but the media could not influence to

13 ' 6-88 : (Z) W:;'11Z'erSolouneud 'eperelegjo ^(lrsrenpn sluepnts clpen uon u ' srsolncreqnl spr.&\ol sepnllllv pus e8pel,lou1 '1711 clulls 'N clfelng 'C lnsed 'N clnolotus '6 's6-r88:(6)8 Sr:8002 'lortueplde f uv 'epue81 'eledulu;1 u ses r Sno}ceJuJoS}3e}uocploqesnoquSSoncJeq -n 'le le 'a e.rvr-reenry 'V epunll{j 'V epue8el4 'E zedol-seuof 't\ olee{ { N 'C eppn}e/kng '81 '[St rlcr N V11zpesseccv] JPd ' rejjbtl S - t9 da\- Z O/s tuerunc op/sp lp c' nluo4' /K^\ \ fdntttuor; elqell ^V [eurpg]',qrsre^pn ]uerj 'serpnls luowdoleneq uoll uralul Jo'ldeqly 0Z -EyZ rolull11 t9 'on rede4 Eurryo6 porenbs-b 'el qec,(genod r ruu?r(ry l ord eqj 'd rojjeqs ' 111ziqtlueH Jo,ftlspll tr'{}1ee11 Jo }uorugedeq :r ruu r(6' 907,-rcZ'1or1uoc slsolncjeqq roj rreld creele4s leuolwrrraaf erug 'qlleehjo,{ls1ull tr U1Z freutarqcs ry tr :slno- lulss u ^(trsren1un uot8urqssa le luewdoleneq?3os roj Jelue J' J-11'luoule8euey4l {sru e cueug orcr61,(q reruu fnyacnn of Uoder EuttlnsuoJ 'retuuefry.lt '91 roj prscerocs,firano4,{1dult5 v 'N reulerqcs 's -0 :( )9 :T,0Z 'sk Eunl croqnl f lul 'r rrrue,(yq ur Eee pesbjlsnpw SutryrorE E u SlsolncreQnl Eururecuoo ojrlcejd pue sepqple 'eepel,tlou; ' ula\t 'N lunr(51 'reuluqo 'H ul1$,' 'V nqj, 'V '9 ' L007, ip'nt? qcr eser OUVES oha\ :r?tuue,{n' [sasseslp elqsctunruruoc pue lecrdorl u t{cjeeser suol} redg] uotsac uoeuel go slculslp ls E pu qlnos 'uotlelndod lueretur Euouru lue1[lsejl Jeluec SlsolncJaqnl ur ^(e1ep s.luelled 'H ul/v\- ';1X u gj ' [ fi\ gl 'E 'U1Z lfrlsrutry qll eh eql :J tuuer(6'eruru reor4 slsolncjoqnl uorlen : 11poder l nuuv 'r{lfeegso,ft1slulw 'T, 'U1Z irfu1srutry qll eh eql :J tuu r(ry'etuu reor4 slsolncjeqnl Buorl N :0 1zuoder l nuuv'rllfeeg;o,{-r1splntr 'L- :0)Z:g 0Z'WleeH ur,qrnbg roj eurnof uuorleurelul 'p ot{e sqted 's>1co1q -peor lueunc :sl og lueurdoleneq runluuelllntr pelbaj-qllba eql pj",/v\ol ssersord S (J uuur(n Jo >lro1s EurlB 'le lo 'V erunueqlqs 'nfg er(ruly 'NN r pu t{j 'S-/Y\- o HS 'TX ulfi 'tr\tr[ ^\3S T,0Z f,&tsrulhl r{}l eh oq} :r uluer(141 'u\z r tuu,(6 u t{}feeg 'q}l eh Jo,&qsrur141 '6 '9-0E:(t)9:Z0OZ 'slq 3un1 creqnj f tul 'saurddlllqd 'e1rue141 orlohtr Jo uorl lndod BreuaE eql Euoue slsolncreqnl lnoqu sepn1l$b p" eepelmou{jo slueuluuelep clluouoce -orcos 'w u lbrls?d 'NA olqnu 'sn orouod '8 'rr-r:(r)s:ttoz 'ENO Sold 'elpq 'lq1eq qtnos Jo uollslndod ueqrn-lred ul sluell d slsolncreqnl ftuuoullnd Jo slc tuoc ploqesnoh Euoue slsolncreqnl Jo ecuelunerd pue ecueplcul '13 le ') pua 'N qeqs ') qluurdog 'S r run) 'NN r >lues 'f qeuls 'L croqnj f lul 'r(pnrs lorluoc-esec '86-88 E:G)L:t0Z 'slq Eunl 3 :u?pns 'ol?ls er\za1 vr eut8rls slsolncjeqnl 'V ojv 'y,(uog E ' t uueluepos 'N let{ss 'ry ueu4elns peuqv ' l1t,:ohtt : AeuoC' rczgodeg OHA\ :lo4uoj srsolncroqnl l qolg'uol4ezrueerg qlleeh plroa1 's 'ZlyT,:Otyyt : Aeue D 'T,0T, godea srsolncreqnl qolg 'rrorlezrue8rg Wfeeg plro1\, 'V 'zr0t,:ohtt :HaC ^\on 'Z0Z uoreeg slsv ls E-glnos u ouoj slsolncraqnl 'JorlezrueErg gllseh plrol$,. '. '01 '9 VLOZ 1sn6ng - 6eUl luaudole^eo pue LllleeH z'ou zl'lon cllqnd Jo leurnorl

14 T " 1 6f1 6f1 6 1 rra U fl 1 UTm.J L[1 "ftt6fu Ai{ 12ot7ufi 2 'rqrnlfnr RonrFtu Vukovic D, Nagorni-Obradovic L, Bjegovic V. Knowledge and misconceptions of tuberculosis in the general population in Serbia. Ernopean Journal of Clinical Microbiology & nfectious Diseases. 2008; 27(9):76r Thwin HT. Preventive behaviors of tuberculosis i among Myanmar migrants at Muang district, i Phuket province, Thailand [M.P.H. Thesis in i Public Health Program in Health Systems Dei velopment]. Bangkok: College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University; 2008.

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