! Philosophy of Palliative Care. ! Cultural Influences on Communication. ! Family Needs. ! Failure to acknowledge limits of medicine

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1 ! Philosophy of Palliative Care! Cultural Influences on Communication Elizabeth J. White, RN, MN, AOCN March 9, 2005! Family Needs Care at home Fear of pain Financial burden Invasive, painful treatments Dependence on others Role changes Elderly caring for the sick! Failure to acknowledge limits of medicine! Lack of training for healthcare providers! Hospice/palliative care services are misunderstood! Many rules and regulations! Denial of death Glare et al.,

2 ! Over 4700 hospice programs in the US! In 2007: 1,560,000 patients received hospice services and 41.6% of all deaths in the US were under the care of a hospice program! Patients with chronic illnesses make up the majority of hospice patients (i.e. heart disease, dementia, etc)! Average length of stay in hospice is 69 days (median=21 days) An approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual. WHO Definition NHPCO, 2005 & 2010a Management of symptoms and facilitation of choices in care. 2

3 (WSJ )! BOTH Interdisciplinary care Provide pain and symptom management Physical, emotional, social and spiritual care! HOSPICE Most concentrated form of palliative care Less than 6 months to live Agrees to enroll in hospice Chooses not to receive aggressive curative care Bereavement care! PALLIATIVE CARE Can be used to complement Ideally begins at the time of diagnosis curative treatments NCP,

4 ! Patient s goals of care are identified! Less likely to be admitted to ICU Management of symptoms and facilitation of choices in care.! Laboratory and technological tests decreased! Communication between PCCT and Patient allow goals to be honored! Death rattle 56%! Pain 51%! Agitation 42%! Urinary incontinence 32%! Dyspnea 22%! Nausea & Vomiting 14%! Myclonus 12% Furst & Doyle 2004 Lichter & Hunt

5 Management of symptoms and facilitation of choices in care. Knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, view of the universe and material objects acquired by a group of people over the course of generations through individual and group striving.! All societies see death as a transition! How people prepare themselves & how the bereaved behave is culturally defined! Serving dying people from other cultures allows us to learn from them 5

6 ! Situational Understanding (diagnosis, short/long-term prognosis, tx)! Hopes! Fears! Goals S P I K E S Set up, prepare for conversation Elicit Perception of the medical situation Inquire how should information be shared? Share what you Know Respond with Empathy to Emotions Strategy next Steps 6

7 ! What s most important for you now in your current condition?! What is more important to you now being comfortable, independent, the amount of time you have to live?! Have you ever seen or heard about a medical situation where the care that someone got was something that you wouldn t want? Name You seem angry. Understand This must be very hard for you and your family. Respect Support Explore I see how important it is for you to be as independent as possible. We re here to help you during this difficult time. Can you tell me more about how you re feeling? Pollak et al. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:5748.! Advance Directives Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care Living Will! Your Life Your Choices 7

8 p Last Name - First Name - Middle Initial Date of Birth Medical Conditions/Patient Goals: Check One Check One Revised 4/2014 Last 4 #SSN Gender M F FIRST follow these orders, THEN contact physician, nurse practitioner or PA-C. The POLST form is always voluntary. The POLST is a set of medical orders intended to guide medical treatment based on a person s current medical condition and goals. Any section not completed implies full treatment for that section. Everyone shall be treated with dignity and respect. condition, known preferences and best known information. If signed by a surrogate, the patient must be decisionally incapacitated and the person signing is the legal surrogate. Discussed with: Patient Parent of Minor Guardian with Health Care Authority Spouse/Other as authorized by RCW Health Care Agent (DPOAHC) PRINT Patient or Legal Surrogate Name Patient or Legal Surrogate Signature (mandatory) Person has: Health Care Directive (living will) Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care PRINT Physician/ARNP/PA-C Name Agency Info/Sticker Physician/ARNP/PA-C Signature (mandatory) Photocopies and faxes of signed POLST forms are legal and valid. May make copies for records. For more information on POLST visit Phone Number Date (mandatory) Phone Number Date (mandatory) Name of Guardian, Surrogate or other Contact Person Always offer food and liquids by mouth if feasible. Physician/ARNP/PA-C Signature patient s preferences and medical condition. surrogate, to be valid. Verbal orders are acceptable with follow-up signature by physician/arnp/pa-c in accordance with facility/community policy. Any incomplete section of POLST implies full treatment for that section. This POLST is valid in all care settings including hospitals until replaced by new physician s orders. The POLST is a set of medical orders. The most recent POLST replaces all previous orders. The POLST does not replace an advance directive. An advance directive is encouraged for all competent adults regardless of their health status. An advance directive allows a person to document in detail his/her future health care instructions and/or name a surrogate decision maker to speak on his/her behalf. When available, all documents should be reviewed to ensure consistency, and the forms updated appropriately to resolve any conflicts. Review Date Reviewer Location of Review Relationship Phone Number Phone Number SECTION A: tempt Resuscitation. SECTION B: - setting able to provide comfort (e.g., treatment of a hip fracture). who desires IV fluids should indicate SECTION D: This POLST should be reviewed periodically whenever: (1) The person is transferred from one care setting or care level to another, or (2) There is a substantial change in the person s health status, or (3) The person s treatment preferences change. A competent adult, or the surrogate of a person who is not competent, can void the form and request alternative treatment. To void this form, draw line through Physician Orders and write VOID in large letters. Any changes require a new POLST. Review Outcome No Change Form Voided No Change Form Voided Photocopies and faxes of signed POLST forms are legal and valid. May make copies for records. For more information on POLST visit Date New form completed New form completed A B C HIPAA PERMITS DISCLOSURE OF POLST TO OTHER HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS AS NECESSARY Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR): Person has no pulse and is not breathing. CPR/Attempt Resuscitation DNAR/Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (Allow Natural Death) Choosing DNAR will include appropriate comfort measures and may still include the range of treatments below. When not in cardiopulmonary arrest, go to part B. MEDICAL INTERVENTIONS: Person has pulse and/or is breathing. Use medication by any route, positioning, wound care and other measures to relieve pain and suffering. Use oxygen, oral suction and manual treatment of airway obstruction as needed for comfort. Patient prefers no hospital transfer: EMS contact medical control to determine if transport indicated to provide adequate comfort. Includes care described above. Use medical treatment, IV fluids and cardiac monitor as indicated. Do not use intubation or mechanical ventilation. May use less invasive airway support (e.g. CPAP, BiPAP). Transfer to hospital if indicated. Avoid intensive care if possible. Includes care described above. Use intubation, advanced airway interventions, mechanical ventilation, and cardioversion as indicated. Transfer to hospital if indicated. Includes intensive care. Additional Orders: (e.g. dialysis, etc.) SIGNATURES: The signatures below verify that these orders are consistent with the patient s medical Encourage all advance care planning documents to accompany POLST SEND ORIGINAL FORM WITH PERSON WHENEVER TRANSFERRED OR DISCHARGED See back of form for non-emergency preferences HIPAA PERMITS DISCLOSURE OF POLST TO OTHER HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS AS NECESSARY Other Contact Information (Optional) Name of Health Care Professional Preparing Form Preparer Title Date Prepared D NON-EMERGENCY MEDICAL TREATMENT PREFERENCES ANTIBIOTICS: No antibiotics. Use other measures to relieve symptoms. Use antibiotics if life can be prolonged. Determine use or limitation of antibiotics when infection occurs, with comfort as goal. MEDICALLY ASSISTED NUTRITION: No medically assisted nutrition by tube. Review of this POLST Form DIRECTIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS Trial period of medically assisted nutrition by tube. (Goal: ) Long-term medically assisted nutrition by tube. ADDITIONAL ORDERS: (e.g. dialysis, blood products, implanted cardiac devices, etc. Attach additional orders if necessary.) Patient or Legal Surrogate SignatureDate SEND ORIGINAL FORM WITH PERSON WHENEVER TRANSFERRED OR DISCHARGED OVER! Experiential processes! Spiritual processes! Relational processes! Witnessing suffering Ersek & Cotter, 2010! More time at the bedside than other healthcare providers! Some things cannot be fixed! Use of therapeutic presence! Maintain a realistic perspective! Keep Patient/Family goals first in all communication with the team! Palliative Care great impact on end-of-life care! Cultural influences care at end-of-life! Patient & Family needs can be met 8

9 ! ELNEC For Critical Care Veteran! FastFactsandConcepts! 9

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