CLUSTERS Typology and Training Needs. Intelspace Innovation Technologies SA

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1 CLUSTERS Typology and Training Needs Intelspace Innovation Technologies SA INNOSEE Meeting, Thessaloniki, 20 April 2012

2 Contents Introduction about clusters Clusters in C. Macedonia and Greece: Mapping Cluster development in C. Macedonia: Survey Conclusions

3 CLUSTERS Concept A group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring closely together < < Α group of small firms from similar industries that team up and act as one body < A cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Clusters are considered to increase the productivity with which companies can compete, nationally and globally. In urban study, the term agglomeration is also used. This term industry cluster, also known as a business cluster, competitive cluster, or Porterian cluster, was introduced and the term cluster popularized by Michael Porter in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990).

4 Key questions: WHAT IS THE ADDED VALUE (AV) OF CLUSTERS TO COMPANIES? WHAT THEY OFFER TO REGIONS? CLUSTERS COMPANIES REGIONS

5 Added Value of Clusters Depend on the Cluster Type Source D.A. Hart, Innovation clusters: Key concepts

6 CLUSTERS I. Marshallian districts. AV = External economies, pools of labour The Networked Economy Public Sector National/Regional Administration Big Firms Value Chain Clusters Mentoring Schemes... Innovation Support Schemes Business Innovation Centres Business Consultants: Services Innovation Management Techniques Technology Audits Technology Foresights Enterprise SME Graduate Placement Schemes University-Enterprise Cooperation... Intermediaries Technology Transfer Projects R&D Valorisation Universities Technology Centres EEE Enterprise SME Cluster Policy Business Forums Seed Capital venture Capital Business Angels Finance- Banks NO FORMAL INSTITUTION

7 CLUSTERS, Mapping, LQ > 2 Location Quotient (LQ) is an indicator used in regional science and regional planning to evaluate economic structure and specialty (Klosterman et. al., 1993) "The LQ is a measure which compares the relative importance (in terms of output or employment) of an industry in a region to its relative importance in the nation (Jensen, et. al., 1979)" so as to evaluate the deviation of region's industry structure from that of the nation. A region showing greater than 1 of LQ for industry j is believed to be producing more than its share of national output in this industry j, and thus is defined as specialized in industry j.

8 CLUSTERS II. Italian industrial districts. AV = specialized skills Traditional sectors, 3 rd Italy Flex specialisation supplier-producer nets

9 CLUSTERS III. Californian technology districts. AV = Technology and VC

10 CLUSTERS IV. Porterian. AV = External economies + innovation Πηγή:

11 CLUSTERS V. Institution-led Planned. AV=RTD-Industry collaboration Clusters created / led by institutions Technology parks, Sofia Antipolis, Cambridge SP Incubators / Innovation centres and connected companies

12 CLUSTERS Regional multiplication effects

13 CLUSTERS Global success stories

14 Contents Clusters in C. Macedonia and Greece: Mapping

15 Type 1: Manufacturing clusters in Thessaloniki 6 CLUSTER 500 ENTERPRISES Cluster of food: Manufacturing companies of food products and beverages (ΝΑCE 15), 90 units with more than 10 employers (>10e) Cluster of clothing & fashion: Textile and clothing companies (ΝΑCE ), 135 units (>10e) Cluster of chemicals & energy: Petrol-chemical, chemical and plastic product industry (ΝΑCE ), 65 companies (>10e) Cluster of construction products & household equipment: Non metallic, wood product and furniture manufacturing (ΝΑCE 20+36), 90 companies (>10e) Cluster of metal products: Metal work and product, machines and equipment industry (ΝΑCE ), 100 companies (>10e) Cluster of electronic, electric machines & information and communications technologies: Companies of electronic, electric machines, computers & information and communications technologies (ΝΑCE ), 40 units (>10e). 15

16 Manufacturing clusters in Thessaloniki 6 CLUSTER 500 MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES Manufacturing clusters in Thessaloniki are horizontal clusters: There are no vertical relations (supplier-producer) between companies of each cluster; where such relations exist are very limited Clustering is guided by economies of scale and the spatial agglomeration of companies in view of reducing infrastructure costs, labour cost, and achieving external economies Cohesion relationships within the clusters are relations with the urban agglomeration of Thessaloniki in terms of human capital, local market, services, access and communication provided by the urban agglomeration. The clusters are created because of the attraction of the city of Thessaloniki to the companies, providing labour and other resources than by vertical networks and supplier-producer relationships among manufacturing companies.

17 Food and Beverage LC change Legend Manufacture of food products & beverages (15) Location coefficient positive difference (Max 5,66) Location coefficient negative difference (Max 3,76) 17

18 Textiles and wearing LC change Legend Manufacture of textiles and wearing apparel (17,18) Location coefficient positive difference (Max 6,32) Location coefficient negative difference (Max 2,07) 18

19 Chemicals, coke, petroleum LC change Legend Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products & coke and petroleum (23,24) Location coefficient positive difference (Max 16,79) Location coefficient negative difference (Max 2,41) 19

20 Construction materials LC change Legend Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products (26) Location coefficient positive difference (Max 8,70) Location coefficient negative difference (Max 7,60) 20

21 Metal products LC change Legend Manufacture of fabricated metal products (28) Location coefficient positive difference (Max 9,55) Location coefficient negative difference (Max 2,81) 21

22 Electrical machinery LC change Legend Manufacture of electrical machinery and apparatus n. e. c. (31) Location coefficient positive difference (Max 44,27) Location coefficient negative difference (Max 11,13) 22

23 Type 2: Institution led Corallia clusters Main practices and provision of services to the mi-cluster: Establishment of the Incubator (Inno Center). Funding of new ventures Education programmes for the members One Stop Shops office for advice services Promotion of collaborations between the members Promotion of company members internationally Access to global markets through events Networks between company members and academics Organisation of conferences, seminars and workshops Monthly newsletter online, Online technologies and entrepreneurship New product development

24 Technopolis ICT cluster Technopolis aims to attract in the business park 150 companies and organisations, including SMEs, larger Greek companies and international companies departments, and academics research laboratories. The incubator of the Technopolis, which already functions, provides support services and assistance in financial investment plans to innovative start-up companies or innovative ideas.

25 Contents Cluster development in C. Macedonia: Survey

26 Survey roadmap and sample

27 Priorities

28 Priorities

29 Priorities

30 Priorities

31 Priorities

32 Priorities

33 Priorities

34 Contents Conclusions: Training Needs

35 I. Internationalisation Access to global markets and international expansion seems to be today of major importance for all the clusters. Different practises of the management body of clusters are oriented to cover this field: Creation of international / cross border networks Organisation of outward company missions Participation in international brokerage events Organisation of international events Promotion of members activities through international online means and sites Promotion of members' profile to European companies & research laboratories Collaboration with international organisations Attraction of foreign investments in business and research Potential training needs in this field are: International networking International business and trade practices Organisation of events

36 II. Knowledge diffusion within the cluster / upskilling Cluster practises for information and knowledge diffusion are mainly through: Training Organisation or participation of members in conferences and seminars Online newsletters Online information of technologies and entrepreneurship Collaboration with research organisation and exploitation of research results Technology watch Potential training needs in this field are: Strategic intelligence techniques Knowledge management techniques IT-based management tools Technology watch

37 III. New product development and innovation New product development is another important area of cluster activities. Efforts to support product development and innovations are mainly through: Promotion of collaborations between the members of the cluster for joint activities Establishing collaborations between the cluster and international and national innovation centres Technology transfer between industry and academia in Greece Market watch Organisation of meetings, workshops and info-days, aiming at the promotion of networking between key players in the field Creation of Incubators for knowledge-base start-up companies Assistance in IRP Potential training needs in this field are: New product development techniques Innovation management techniques Quality management tools IRP management Market watch

38 V. Funding of innovative companies Venture capital appeared in Greece in the begging of 90 but until 2000 it was rather inactive. Since than venture capital is developed rapidly manly through the establishment of the organisation of the New Economy Development Fund in 2000 which co-finance the creation of venture capital companies and the Union of Greek Venture Capital Companies in 2003 in which participating members are 18 companies including banks subsidiaries, stock exchange or financial companies and independent companies. Identified practises of clusters oriented to cover funding needs of the members are mainly: Collaboration with venture capital organisations and companies Funding of new ventures Assistance on start-ups companies Assistance in the elaboration of financial plans and business plans Assistance in the preparation and submission of proposals for European and national RTD projects Reinforcing participation in national proposed activities Potential training needs in this field are: Financial and business plans Specific funding needs of innovative start-ups and spin-offs Preparation and submission of proposals

39 39

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