HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS VIEWS ON FREE ENTERPRISE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP. A comparison of Chinese and American students 2014

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1 HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS VIEWS ON FREE ENTERPRISE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP A comparison of Chinese and American students 2014

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3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS JA China would like to thank all the schools who participated in the various stages of this program. This research could not have been completed without the support and suggested improvements from the teachers and students at our program schools in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Xi an. We would also like to wholeheartedly thank all of our partners in the education sector and the media for sharing their expertise, providing us with constructive feedback and contributing much to this report.

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS P1 P2 P3 P5 INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS DETAILED MAJOR FINDINGS Major Finding 1: Chinese high school students have a good understanding of free enterprise, they believe instruction on free enterprise is important, and they believe that free enterprise plays an important role in economic growth. Students learn about free enterprise through a variety of channels, including school, internet, and family. School plays the major main role in their free enterprise education. Major Finding 2: Unlike their American counterparts, Chinese high school students generally support government regulation for business operation. In terms of general statements of the economic theory, Chinese and American students presented similar views. However, their views are significantly different for the specific situations that involve whether the government should exercise regulation on business. Major Finding 3: Chinese high school students have a good understanding of entrepreneurship, and they believe learning about entrepreneurship is important. They are also interested in learning about entrepreneurship in class at school; however, most do not have access to such opportunities. Major Finding 4: Chinese high school students have a positive view of entrepreneurship. At the same time, they do not have sufficient understanding of the risks involved with entrepreneurship. They have a good grasp of the qualities necessary to be a successful entrepreneur, though many overlooked the importance of being skilled with managing money. Major Finding 5: Chinese high school students are highly interested in entrepreneurship; however, very few have held a paid job or participated in any entrepreneurial activities. Major Finding 6: Chinese high school students have a positive outlook for the Chinese economy, but are somewhat concerned about their job prospects after they finish school. Students who are interested in entrepreneurship have a more positive outlook on their job prospects. P33 AFTERWORD P35 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES P36 STATEMENTS P37 JA CHINA INTRODUCTION

5 1 INTRODUCTION An understanding of free enterprise principles and entrepreneurial ability are instrumental to young people s future success in the global economy. As such many major industrialized countries have actively introduced economics education and entrepreneurship education in high school in order to help students master basic economic principles and entrepreneurial skills. As its economy becomes increasingly globalized, China must also develop its pool of strong global business talents. Current high school students will soon be entering the workforce, becoming the leading force behind China s economic development and entrepreneurial activities. Until this century, there was very little economics or entrepreneurship content included in China's national high school curriculum. In the early 2000s, the education sector has since made efforts to change this situation. In 2003, the Ministry of Education issued the High School Political Science Curriculum Standards (Experimental). This new curriculum standard adds increased emphasis on modern economics concepts and their analysis, as well as providing entrepreneurship education. Specifically, this content has been added to the Economy and Life first year high school political science course. Since the publishing of these standards, many local schools have begun revising their own curriculums to include more economics and entrepreneurship courses in addition to those outlined by the national curriculum. After 10 years of implementing this new curriculum, to what extent do high school students agree with the principles of free enterprise? How do they view entrepreneurship? Do Chinese high school students understand free enterprise differently than students in other countries? The answers to these questions can help to assess the effectiveness of current economics and entrepreneurship education as well as informing future policy. Policy departments, businesses and parents can also gain valuable insight from this information. However, the current body of research lacks the ability to answer these questions. There have been no empirical studies of Chinese high school students attitudes towards free enterprise or comparative studies of Chinese and American high school students conducted since T. Y. Shen s 1993 article Economics in China: Chinese economic knowledge and attitudes of high school students published in Economics Education. Additionally, studies of Chinese high school students knowledge and views of entrepreneurship are also even rarer. Therefore, the need to increase the body of research on this topic was a large motivating factor in JA China s decision to conduct this research. This survey was initiated by JA China in March of This research touches upon the following topics: high school students comprehension of and attitudes towards free enterprise and entrepreneurship, the availability of economics education and entrepreneurship-related learning activities, students understanding of the regulatory role government plays in free enterprise, their interest in and understanding of entrepreneurship, and their future career plans. The goal of this research is to analyze high school students responses in order to improve upon the overall body of research in this field and to provide background information for a wider range of stakeholders. It is worth mention that the target population of the survey was randomly selected from the 1st and 2nd year high school students from five cities in China: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi an. The data reflects the features of the high school students in China s economically developed cities; it does not reflect all high schools students nationally. The design of this survey was based off the survey of 2,213 American high school students views on free enterprise and entrepreneurship conducted by Harris Interactive in July and August of 2011 on behalf of Junior Achievement. Assuming that American high school students views have remained relatively stable over the past two years, JA China uses the results of the current survey and those of the 2011 American survey to make a comparison and discuss the differences between Chinese and American high school students view on free enterprise and entrepreneurship. Based on the experience gained in the design and implementation of this research, as well as the feedback received from the education sector and other stakeholders, JA China plans to continue to publish further research on this subject in the future. note Ruth Shen and T. Y. Shen, Economic Thinking in China: Economic Knowledge and Attitudes of High School Students. The Journal of Economic Education. Vol. 24, No. 1 (Winter, 1993), pp

6 2 METHODOLOGY 2.1 Survey Objectives and Methods High School Students Views on Free Enterprise and Entrepreneurship: A comparison of Chinese and American students 2014 is a multi-city survey aimed at understanding Chinese students views towards free enterprise, entrepreneurship and government regulation. In addition, we aim to understand the current status of free enterprise and entrepreneurship education in Chinese high schools, uncover its achievements and shortcomings, and then use this information to improve upon the current system. The data collected in this survey will also serve to fill a gap in the current literature concerning Chinese high school students views on free enterprise and entrepreneurship. This report implemented both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods, specifically questionnaires and focused interviews, in order to analyze and evaluate participants attitudes, values, behavior recognition and future planning. Focused interviews were mainly used to help researchers understand and confirm students answers to the survey questionnaire. The JA China Center for Research and Publications conducted paper-based survey questionnaires with 696 Chinese high school students across 5 of China s major cities. Both single-answer and multiple-answer multiple choice questions were used. The survey touched upon the following 6 topics: 1 knowledge of and attitude towards free enterprise; 2 views on government regulation; 3 knowledge of and attitude towards entrepreneurship; 4 understanding of the entrepreneurial spirit; 5 entrepreneurship and employment options; 6 plans to start their own business Participants and Timetable Participants: Locations Surveyed: Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Xi an. Target Population: First and second year high school students aged 16 to 17. School Selection: Both distinguished, key schools and ordinary schools were included in this survey. Class Selection: Classes were randomly selected from target schools. Timetable: March 11th - 30th: Confirm research methods and survey creation. April 1st - 30th: Edit survey, confirm target population and decide when surveys will be sent out. May 15th - June 15th: Send out surveys. June 15th - July 31st: Collect, tabulate and analyze survey data. August 1st - September 30th: Conduct focused interviews at high schools in Beijing and Shanghai and analyze data collected.

7 3 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS This study is based on empirical data collected by JA China in a survey of Chinese high school students from March to October in The results can be summarized in six major findings: 1) Chinese high school students have a good understanding of free enterprise, they believe instruction on free enterprise is important, and they believe that free enterprise plays an important role in economic growth. Students learn about free enterprise through a variety of channels, including school, the internet, and family. School plays the major role in their free enterprise education. 80% believe it is somewhat important or very important that students are taught about free enterprise; 67% are somewhat interested or extremely interested in free enterprise education; Students who have been taught about free enterprise have a better grasp of key economic and business concepts and were more likely to have a positive view of free enterprise than students who had not been taught about free enterprise (grasp of economic concepts 90% vs. 80%; grasp of entrepreneurship concepts 92% vs. 84%; positive view of free enterprise 83% vs. 78%); Students agreement with 6 statements about the positive role of free enterprise reached 8.19~7.68 on a 10 point Likert scale (1= totally disagree, 10= totally agree). Comparisons: Fewer Chinese high school students have reported taking free enterprise classes than American high school students; American high school students have a more positive view of free enterprise than Chinese high school students. 2) Unlike their American counterparts, Chinese high school students generally support government regulation for business operation. In terms of the general statements about economic theory, Chinese and American students demonstrated similar views. However, their views are significantly different for the specific situations that involve whether government should exercises regulation on business. Students agreement with 9 statements about government regulation of businesses reached 8.48~7.25 on a 10 point Likert scale (1= totally disagree, 10= totally agree). Comparisons: Chinese high school students agreed with the 9 statements about government regulation of businesses; American students are divided on the role of government regulation, only supporting it for certain situations; American high school students who have studied economics show less support for government regulation of businesses; however, there was no corresponding effect in the Chinese high school student population. 3) Chinese high school students have a good understanding of entrepreneurship, they believe instruction on entrepreneurship is important, and they are interested in taking classes on entrepreneurship in school, although most do not have access to such opportunities. 70% know a great deal or some about entrepreneurship; 81% believe it is very important or somewhat important that high school students are taught about entrepreneurship in school; 71% are very interested or somewhat interested in learning about entrepreneurship in school; Only 18% have been taught about entrepreneurship in school. Comparisons: American high school students have more opportunities to study entrepreneurship in school (45%); American high school students are more confident in their knowledge of entrepreneurship.

8 4) Chinese high school students have a positive view of entrepreneurship. At the same time, they do not have sufficient understanding of the risks involved with entrepreneurship. They have a good grasp of the important qualities for entrepreneurs, though many overlooked the importance of being skilled with managing money. Students agreement with statements about entrepreneurs creating jobs and being drivers of growth for the economy and product innovation reached 9.06~7.74 on a 10 point Likert scale (1= totally disagree, 10= totally agree); Chinese high school students believe that communication is the most important quality for a successful entrepreneur (15 qualities in total); having a bachelor degree ranked last. Comparisons: Both Chinese and American students choose communication skills, planning skills, time management and the ability to respond to change as the most important characteristics for entrepreneurs; American high school students believe being skilled with managing money is the most important quality for a successful entrepreneur; however, Chinese students listed this quality as not very important; Both Chinese and American students recognize that entrepreneurship contributes to society; American students are more aware of the risks associated with entrepreneurship. 5) Chinese high school students are highly interested in entrepreneurship; however, very few have held a paid job or participated in any entrepreneurial activities. 88% admire entrepreneurs; 76% have thought about opening their own business someday; 23% have held a paid job; 16% have experience in starting their own business. Comparisons: There is a significant gap between interest in entrepreneurship and actually participating in entrepreneurial activities for both Chinese and American high school students; 56% of American high school students have held a paid job. This is significantly higher than Chinese high school students; Of the students who started their own businesses, American students stated that making money was their main motivation, whereas enjoyment of the job / hobby was the main motivator for Chinese students who started their own businesses. 6) Chinese high school students have a positive outlook for the Chinese economy, but are somewhat concerned about their job prospects after they finish school. Students who are interested in entrepreneurship tend to have more positive outlook on their job prospects. 91% believe the economy will improve in the coming year; 34% believe the job market will be very or somewhat good when they finish school; 32% believe the job market will remain the same; 96% hope to achieve a bachelors degree or higher, specifically 34% hope to achieve a bachelors degree, 42% masters and 20% PhD; Chinese high school students are mainly focused on foreign enterprises, state-owned enterprises or entrepreneurship for their future job.

9 4 DETAILED MAJOR FINDINGS 4.1. Chinese high school students have a good understanding of free enterprise, they believe instruction on free enterprise is important, and they believe that free enterprise plays an important role in economic growth. Students learn about free enterprise through a variety of channels, including school, internet, and family. School plays the major role in their free enterprise education Students learn about free enterprise through a variety of channels, but mainly at school. The survey questionnaire employed a multiple choice question to learn where students had learned about free enterprise. The question had 6 options, and students were permitted to select multiple answers (Figure 1). From their responses, we can see that students learn about free enterprise through a variety of channels. Of these, school is the primary channel for free enterprise education, with 45% of students selecting this answer. The data shows that high school students are aware of free enterprise s place in the curriculum and further reflects the effectiveness of the experimental curriculum. Figure 1 I Learned about Free Enterprise (Multiple Select) At a class at school 45% At an organization or program at school 15% At an organization or program outside of school 35% On the internet 34% From family 29% I have not studied free enterprise before 13% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Students who reported learning about free enterprise through extracurricular activities or the internet reached 35% and 34% respectively, and 29% of students reported being taught about free enterprise by their parents. Since students are learning about free enterprise from diverse channels, in addition to considering the impact of the school curriculum on their understanding of and views towards free enterprise, we must also take into consideration students social environments. Currently, Chinese free enterprise education is taught in the first year high school political science course Economy and Life. Being part of the national curriculum, in theory this class should be taken by all students. However, only 45% of students surveyed reported learning about free enterprise in school. Even more surprising is that 13% of students reported having never been taught about free enterprise. During focused interviews, students who initially reported having never been taught about free enterprise stated that they thought the question referred to a course entitled free enterprise, in which case their political science course did not qualify. Other students reported not knowing the difference between a market economy in socialist society and free enterprise.

10 Related data for American high school students: According to data from JA s 2011 report entitled, High School Junior s View on Free Enterprise and Entrepreneurship: a National Survey (hereafter referred to as the JA Report), 57% of American high school students have been taught about free enterprise in a class at school. This figure is much higher than Chinese students. Few classes in the Chinese curriculum touch upon free enterprise (i.e. political science, history, and related electives). However, in American schools, numerous classes, including history, economics, social studies, government, political science, business management, etc. all provide students with the opportunity to learn about free enterprise (JA Report, p17). Clearly, American students have more opportunities to learn about free enterprise in a class at school than Chinese students Chinese high school students believe it is important to learn about free enterprise, the majority can define the term, and they are interested in taking a class on free enterprise at school. The majority of Chinese high school students say they know a great deal or some about free enterprise and can correctly define the term. They also believe in the importance of free enterprise. 80% believe being taught in school about free enterprise is very important or somewhat important (Figure 2). 61% say they know a great deal or some about free enterprise (Figure 3). 84% can correctly define the term free enterprise on a 4 choice multiple choice question (Figure 4). 67% are extremely interested or somewhat interested in taking a class on free enterprise at school (Figure 5). Figure 2 Importance for Students to Learn about Free Enterprise in School (Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding)(percentages may not total 100% due to rounding) Chinese High School Students American High School Students 60% 50% 40% 41% 51% 49% 30% 29% 20% 17% 10% 7% 3% 2% 0% Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important

11 Figure 3 Level of Knowledge about Free Enterprise (Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding) Chinese High School Students American High School Students 60% 56% 50% 43% 40% 34% 35% 30% 20% 15% 10% 5% 5% 6% 0% A great deal Some Not too much Nothing at all I ve never heard of this Figure 4 Which of the Following Best Describes Free Enterprise? Chinese High School Students American High School Students The freedom of private business to organize and operate for profit in a competitive system with limited government regulation 67% 84% The freedom of individuals to seek employment in any industry or area without rules or restrictions 5% 10% The policy to provide people access to products of services without charging a fee 6% 4% Don t know 5% 19% 0% 15% 30% 45% 60% 75% 90% Figure 5 Interest in Taking Class on Free Enterprise in School 3% Did not respond 15% Very interested 7% Not at all interested 23% Not too interested 52% Somewhat interested

12 Students who had been taught about free enterprise had a significantly better understanding of free enterprise and entrepreneurship and also were significantly more likely to view free enterprise as important (Table 1). Table 1 Students Who Have Been Taught about Free Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Scored Higher than Others Chinese High School Students *note American High School Students Taught Not Taught Taught Not Taught Correctly Defined Free Enterprise 90% 80% 78% 48% Correctly Defined Entrepreneurship 92% 84% 97% 85% Believe Studying Free Enterprise at School is Important 83% 78% n/a n/a *note The mean of students who correctly defined free enterprise M = 1.19, 1.67, t(384)=3.72, p< The mean of students who correctly defined entrepreneurship M = 1.12, 1.53, t(384)=3.47, p< The mean of students who believe the study of free enterprise at school is important M =3.15, 2.73, t(384)=4.34,p< Related data for American high school students: 90% of American high school students believe being taught in school about free enterprise is very important or somewhat important, a higher percentage than Chinese high school students (80%). The percentage that chose very important was 41% for American high school students and 29% for Chinese high school students. With regard to students knowledge of free enterprise, the data for Chinese and American high school students is relatively similar. When asked to choose the definition of free enterprise on a 4 option multiple choice question, 67% of American high school students answered correctly, a lower percentage than Chinese students. However, this difference mainly stems from the fact that 14% of American high school students answered I don t know ; only 5% of Chinese students selected this answer. Similar to Chinese students, American students who reported having been taught about free enterprise had a significantly better understanding of free enterprise and entrepreneurship than other students (JA Report, p25) Students have a positive view of free enterprise Students agreement with 6 statements about the positive role of free enterprise reached 8.19~7.68 on a 10 point Likert scale (Figure 6, 1= totally disagree, 10= totally agree). This result demonstrates that students have a very positive view of free enterprise. Of the 6 statements, students agreed least with free enterprise s ability to create jobs and increase the standard of living for everyone.

13 Figure 6 Level of Agreement with Statements about Free Enterprise (Base: How much do you agree or disagree with the following? 10-point scales from 1 totally disagree to 10 totally agree) The free enterprise system promotes competition among enterprises, allowing only the best to remain in operation The free enterprise system encourages the development of new technologies The free enterprise system encourages economic growth The free enterprise system encourages export and import goods with other countries The free enterprise system encourages job creation 7.88 The free enterprise system increases the standard of living for everyone Related data for American high school students: The JA Report posed similar statements to American high school students using a 4 point Likert scale. 87% strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the statement the free enterprise system encourages the development of new technologies. 74% agreed with the statement free enterprise system creates jobs. 65% agreed with the statement the free enterprise system increases the standard of living for everyone. Both Chinese and American students have a positive view of free enterprise. Additionally, of the 6 statements, they both agree least with free enterprise s ability to increase the standard of living for everyone. American students who had been taught about free enterprise had a more positive view of it than other students (JA Report, p39), which was also the case for Chinese students.

14 4.2. Unlike their American counterparts, Chinese high school students generally support government regulation for business operation. In terms of general statements of the economic theory, Chinese and American students presented similar views. However, their views are significantly different for the specific situations that involve whether the government should exercise regulation on business. The JA China survey questionnaire included a 9 question measure of students views towards government regulation of business and profits (Figure 7). The 9 statements can be divided into two categories. 7 statements described specific instances of government regulation (in light green), whereas 2 statements did not include the word government, but rather restated the general principles of free enterprise (in dark green). Figure 7 Chinese High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Government Regulation for Businesses Operation (Base: How much do you agree or disagree with the following? 10-point scales from 1 totally disagree to 10 totally agree) Government laws and regulations are important to protect employees and jobs 8.48 The amount of profit made by a business should be regulated by the government Some businesses are just too important to be allowed to fail. The government should step in and save them rather than let them go out of business Prices should be set by supply and demand in markets free from government control Allowing private business to operate competitively for profit with limited government regulation will increase job opportunities The government s most important industries should be closely regulated by government When a business gets big, it should be regulated by the government The government should play a larger role in economic affairs Competition among businesses benefits consumers Chinese students responses to the 7 statements regarding government regulation (in light green) ranged from 8.48 to 7.25, demonstrating their clear support for government regulation of business and profits. However, students were less likely to agree that the government should play a larger role in China s economic affairs. They also gave high ratings (7.70 and 7.25) to the 2 statements concerning the general principles of free enterprise (in dark green), demonstrating their support of free enterprise principles. Having been taught about free enterprise did not seem to impact students levels of agreement with these 9 statements. Students interested in entrepreneurship had a higher level of agreement with each statement than other students. No other group differences were found.

15 Related data for American high school students: The JA Report used the same 9 statements regarding government regulation as the current report (Figure 8, 4 point Likert scale). American high school students supported the 2 statements concerning the general principles of free enterprise (in orange). The percentage of students that strongly agree or somewhat agree with these 2 statements reached 77% and 74%. This result was congruent with Chinese students responses. Figure 8 American High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Government Regulation for Business Operations (percentage of somewhat agree and strongly agree) Allowing private business to operate competitively for profit with limited government regulation will increase job opportunities 84% Government laws and regulations are important to protect employees and jobs Competition among business is the best form of consumer protection Prices should be set by supply and demand in markets free from government control 77% 74% 82% Some businesses are just too important to be allowed to fail. The government should step in and save them rather than let them go out of business The government s most important industries should be closely regulated by government The government should play a larger role in economic affairs When a business gets big, it should be regulated by the government 56% 54% 47% 44% The amount of profit made by a business should be regulated by the government 28% 10% 30% 50% 70% 90% American high school students were more divided on the 7 statements describing specific instances of government regulation (in yellow). Their level of agreement ranged from 84% agreement with some statements to only 28% agreement with others. It is clear they believe that there are certain situations in which government involvement is very important and other situations where it is unnecessary. This view is different from Chinese students overall support of government regulation. Both Chinese and American students agree that government laws and regulations are important to protect employees and jobs and allowing private business to operate competitively for profit with limited government regulation increases job opportunities. As for the remaining 5 statements, Chinese students demonstrated a high level of agreement, whereas American students were less likely to agree. Less than 50% of American students agreed that the government should play a larger role in U.S. economic affairs (47%) and when a business gets big, it should be regulated by the government (44%). However, only 28% of American students agreed that the amount of profit made by a business should be regulated by the government. Chinese and American students differing views towards government regulation may arise from their different course materials, teaching methods, social environment or media influence; however, the current research lacks the data to make specific assertions. JA China will continue to research Chinese high school students attitudes towards government regulation of profits and businesses.

16 Figure 9 Chinese and American High School Students Differing Views towards Government Regulation for Business Operations Support government regulation of businesses and profits The majority of Chinese high school students believe the amount of profit made by a business should be regulated by the government Both Chinese and American high school students believe Government laws and regulations are important to protect employees and jobs and general principles of free enterprise The majority of American high school students do not believe the amount of profit made by a business should be regulated by the government Support free market competition According to the JA Report, students who have been taught about free enterprise at school are more likely to support limited government regulation for business and profits and are less likely to agree that the government should play a larger role in U.S. economic affairs (JA Report, p39). Chinese students demonstrated no corresponding difference. More specifically, American high school students who have been taught about free enterprise are: More likely than others to agree that competition among businesses benefits the consumer (81% vs. 70%). More likely than others to agree that prices should be set by supply and demand in markets (77% vs. 70%). Less likely than others to agree that in the course that business maximizes its profits, it should be regulated by the government (25% vs. 34%). Less likely than others to agree that the government should play a larger role in economic affairs (42% vs. 55%).

17 4.3. Chinese high school students have a good understanding of entrepreneurship, and they believe learning about entrepreneurship is important. They are also interested in learning about entrepreneurship in class at school; however, most do not have access to such opportunities Students are learning about entrepreneurship from a variety of channels, but school is not the main one. The survey questionnaire employed a multiple choice question to learn where students had learned about entrepreneurship. The question had 6 options, and students were permitted to select multiple answers (Figure 10). From students responses, we find that current high school students can learn about entrepreneurship from a variety of channels. Of these, a relatively small percentage of students learned about entrepreneurship at school (18%) or through school activities (11%). It is clear that school has not become the main channel for entrepreneurship education in China. Overall, the percentage of students who reported having been taught about entrepreneurship is much lower than those who reported learning about free enterprise (45%, see section ). Students who learned about entrepreneurship through extracurricular activities reached 33%, and 27% of students reported being taught about entrepreneurship by their parents. These results are similar to our results on free enterprise education. Therefore, students social environments seem to have a rather large impact on their understanding of these two subjects. The percentage of students who reported having never studied entrepreneurship reached 29%. The first year high school political science course Economy and Life is taken by all students and covers entrepreneurship as part of the curriculum; however, this entrepreneurship education was not reflected in our survey of students knowledge. Figure 10 I Learned about Entrepreneurship (Multiple Select) On the internet At an organization or program outside of school 33% 33% I have not studied free enterprise before From family 27% 29% At a class at school 18% At an organization or program at school 11% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%

18 Related data on American high school students: According to the JA Report, 45% of American high school students expressed having been taught about entrepreneurship in school, a significantly higher percentage than Chinese students (18%). In the Chinese curriculum, only political science, history and related electives classes touch upon the topic of entrepreneurship. However in American schools, numerous classes, including history, economics, social studies, government, political science, business management, etc. all provide students with the opportunity to learn about entrepreneurship (JA Report, p17). American high school students have more options to choose from when it comes to entrepreneurship education Chinese high school students believe it is important to learn about entrepreneurship. They have some knowledge of entrepreneurship and are interested in taking a class on entrepreneurship at school. The majority of Chinese high school students believe in the importance of being taught about entrepreneurship and report having some knowledge of it. They also demonstrate interest in taking a class on entrepreneurship at school. The vast majority can define entrepreneurship. Although entrepreneurship is not emphasized as much as free enterprise in the school system, students regard both of these topics relatively similarly in terms of their views, knowledge and interest. 81% believe being taught in school about entrepreneurship is very important or somewhat important (Figure 11). 70% say they know a great deal or some about entrepreneurship (Figure 12). 71% are extremely interested or somewhat interested in taking a class on entrepreneurship at school (Figure 13). 88% can correctly define the term entrepreneurship on a 4 choice question (Figure 14). Figure 11 Importance for Students to Learn about Entrepreneurship in School Chinese High School Students American High School Students 60% 50% 47% 50% 40% 34% 41% 30% 20% 16% 10% 0% 7% 3% 2% Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important

19 Figure 12 Level of Knowledge about Entrepreneurship Chinese High School Students American High School Students 70% 65% 60% 50% 48% 40% 36% 30% 28% 20% 10% 0% 5% 14% A great deal Some Not too much Nothing at all I ve never heard of this 2% 2% Figure 13 Interest in Taking Class on Entrepreneurship in School (Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding) Chinese High School Students American High School Students 60% 50% 40% 53% 45% 30% 24% 27% 20% 18% 18% 10% 5% 11% 0% Very interested Somewhat interested Not too interested Not at all interested

20 Figure 14 Which of the Following Best Describes an Entrepreneur? (Percentages may not total 100% due to rounding) 5% A person who believes that too much of the world s wealth is held by a small number of people 4% Don t know Chinese High School Students 3% A person who negotiates between individuals or groups to help solve disagreements 88% A person who starts a business to produce a new product or service in the marketplace 1% A person who believes that too much of the world s wealth is held by a small number of people 2% A person who negotiates between individuals or groups to help solve disagreements 5% Don t know American High School Students 92% A person who starts a business to produce a new product or service in the marketplace Related data of American high school students: American students also believe entrepreneurship should be taught in school. In their self-evaluations, American students who say they know a great deal or some about entrepreneurship is higher than Chinese students (84% vs. 70%). The percentage that stated they knew a great deal was 36% for American students but only 5% for Chinese students. Similarly, more American students were able to correctly define entrepreneurship than Chinese students (92% vs. 88%). The JA Report also found that American students who had been taught about entrepreneurship and free enterprise knew more about these terms than others (entrepreneurship 96% vs. 88%, free enterprise 69% vs. 64%, JA Report, p25). However, no corresponding difference was found for Chinese high school students.

21 4.4. Chinese high school students have a positive view of entrepreneurship. At the same time, they do not have sufficient understanding of the risks involved with entrepreneurship. They have a good grasp of the qualities necessary to be a successful entrepreneur, though many overlooked the importance of being skilled with managing money Chinese high school students recognize the role entrepreneurs play in job creation, economic growth and innovation. The survey questionnaire included a 6 statement measure of students perceptions of entrepreneurship and its influence on job creation and the economy and a 3 statement measure of students perceptions of the risks and benefits for entrepreneurs. Chinese students had a high level of agreement with statements about the value of entrepreneurship with responses ranging from 9.06 to 7.74, thereby demonstrating their own positive views of entrepreneurship (Figure 15). Figure 15 Chinese High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Entrepreneurship and Its Influence on Job Creation and the Economy (Base: How much do you agree or disagree with the following? 10-point scales from 1 totally disagree to 10 totally agree) Starting one s own business is the best way to create new ideas or products 9.06 People starting their own businesses helps create jobs China s economic development is inseparable from entrepreneurship People who start their own businesses are drivers of growth for the Chinese economy Starting one s own business promotes the sustained progress and growth of the Chinese economy Individuals who start their own business are more creative than people who work for already existing businesses Related data of American high school students: The JA Report posed similar statements to American high school students using a 5 statement measure with a 4 point Likert scale. The percentage of American students who strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with statements about the value of entrepreneurship ranged from 95% to 77% (Figure 16). It is clear that both Chinese and American students fully recognize the value of entrepreneurship. If we divide the statements into categories based on their main idea (excluding the first statement in the Chinese measure), we find that both Chinese and American students rate job creation as most important, economic growth second and innovation last. This agreement demonstrates their clear understanding of the different roles of entrepreneurship and their relative importance.

22 Figure 16 American High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Entrepreneurship and Its Influence on Job Creation and the Economy (percentage of somewhat agree and completely agree ) People starting their own businesses helps create jobs America s economic development is inseparable from entrepreneurship Starting one s own business promotes the sustained progress and growth of the American economy 93% 93% 95% People are drivers who of start growth their for own the businesses economy Individuals who start their own businesses have more of a chance to be creative than people who work for already existing businesses Starting one s own business is the best way to create new ideas or products 78% 77% 84% 70% 80% 90% 100% Chinese high school students have a limited understanding of the risks undertaken by entrepreneurs. Students were also asked to rate their agreement with 3 statements about entrepreneurs lifestyle, salary and risk on a 10 point Likert scale. Responses ranged from 6.71 to 5.93, much lower than their level of agreement with the value of entrepreneurship. This result shows that students have some understanding of sacrifices for entrepreneurs but not much recognition of the risks undertaken by entrepreneurs. Figure 17 Chinese High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Risks and Benefits for Entrepreneurs (Base: How much do you agree or disagree with the following? 10-point scales from 1 totally disagree to 10 totally agree) Individuals who start their own business have little time for themselves because their business demands almost all of their time Individuals who start their own business have a greater chance of becoming rich than people who work for already existing companies Starting one s own business is risky and often does not succeed Related data of American high school students: The JA Report posed the same 3 statements to American high school students using a 4 point Likert Scale. The percentage of students who strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the statements on entrepreneurs lifestyle, salary and risk are pictured in Figure 18. On the whole, similar to their Chinese counterparts, American students have a lower level of agreement with these statements than with the statements about value of entrepreneurship.

23 Figure 18 American High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Risks and Benefits for Entrepreneurs (percentage of somewhat agree and completely agree ) Starting one s own business is risky and often does not succeed 73% Individuals who start their own business have little time for themselves because their business demands almost all of their time 72% Individuals who start their own business have a greater chance of becoming rich than people who work for already existing companies 54% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% Chinese high school students believe communication, planning, time management and being able to react quickly to unexpected changes are the most important qualities for a successful entrepreneur The JA China survey questionnaire asked students to rate on a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being the most important) the importance of 15 qualities to being successful in starting one s own business (Figure 19). Chinese high school students believe communication, planning, time management and being able to react quickly to unexpected changes are the most important qualities for a successful entrepreneur. As student responses to this question were quite high overall, we analyzed the data three different ways to better examine the differences: 1) averaging all responses to each question, 2) averaging the highest 30% of responses to each question, and 3) averaging the highest 20% of responses to each question. These 4 characteristics were rated most important in all three analysis methods (though their exact order differed). Likewise, in all three analysis methods the 5 characteristics rated least important were always: having a bachelor s degree, working for an entrepreneur, knowing an entrepreneur, being persistent and enjoying trying new things (though their exact order differed). However, regardless of analysis method, having a bachelor s degree was always rated the least important characteristic for being a successful entrepreneur.

24 Figure 19 Chinese High School Students Views on the Importance of Characteristics Needed to be a Successful Entrepreneur (Base: How much do you agree or disagree with the following? 10- point scales from 1 totally disagree to 10 totally agree) Being able to communicate effectively with others 8.90 Being able to plan for the future Being able to manage time effectively Being able to react quickly to unexpected changes Being able to manage risk effectively Being comfortable competing with others Being a leader Being able to make connections with people Being good at managing money Having good ideas for new products or services Liking to be the first to try new things Being persistent even when things go wrong Knowing someone else who started their own business Getting on-the-job training working for someone who has started a business Having a college education Related data of American high school students: The JA Report used the same 15 qualities in their questionnaire, and the rank of each quality and the percentage of American students who rated each quality as absolutely essential are pictured in Figure 20. Of the top 5 qualities American students selected, 4 of them are the same as Chinese high school students (disregarding order). The same is true for the bottom 5 qualities (disregarding order). There are also some significant differences between Chinese and American students views on the qualities of a successful entrepreneur. American students rated being good at managing money as the most important characteristic needed to be a successful entrepreneur; however, Chinese students ranked this trait as only somewhat important, and it was not part of the top 5. We at JA China believe this is an important difference. Compared with America, the Chinese high school curriculum lacks specialized financial literacy curricula and educational standards. In future research, JA China will also conduct a more in-depth study of Chinese high school students knowledge of financial management techniques.

25 Figure 20 American High School Students Views on the Importance of Characteristics Needed to be a Successful Entrepreneur (percentage of absolutely essential ) Being good at managing money Being able to communicate effectively with others Being able to plan for the future Being able to manage time effectively Being able to react quickly to unexpected changes Being a leader Being able to manage risk effectively Being comfortable competing with others Being able to make connections with people Having good ideas for new products or services Being persistent even when things go wrong 83% 80% 74% 74% 70% 69% 63% 63% 63% 63% 63% Having a college education Getting on-the-job training working for someone who has started a business Liking to be the first to try new things 27% 26% 38% Knowing someone else who started their own business 17% 0% 15% 30% 45% 60% 75% 90%

26 4.5. Chinese high school students are highly interested in entrepreneurship; however, very few have held a paid job or participated in any entrepreneurial activities Chinese students have a positive view of entrepreneurship and are interested in it. Overall, Chinese students say that they admire entrepreneurs. In addition to understanding entrepreneurial activities from people around them, they are also very attentive to society s view towards entrepreneurs in the media. The majority of students say they are interested in starting their own business some day. 88% said they admire people who start their own business a great deal or some (Figure 21). 76% are very interested or somewhat interested in starting their own business someday (Figure 22). 77% strongly agree or somewhat agree with the media s positive portrayal of entrepreneurs (Figure 23). Figure 21 How Much Do You Admire People Who Start or Own Their Own Business? 4% Very little 2% Not at all 6% Did not respond 27% Some 61% A great deal Figure 22 How Interested Are You in Starting or Owning Your Own Business Someday? 5% Not at all interested 19% Not too interested 24% Very interested 52% Somewhat interested

27 Figure 23 How Much Do You Agree with the Media s Positive Portrayal of Entrepreneurs? 13% Did not respond 7% Strongly disagree 3% Somewhat disagree 51% Strongly agree 26% Somewhat agree Related data of American high school students: Similar to Chinese students, 95% of American students say they admire people who start their own business a great deal or some. When asked if they believed people who create new businesses get too much attention from the media, 82% of American students answered that they strongly disagree or somewhat disagree.

28 Special Topic Special Characteristics of Students Who Are Interested in Starting Their Own Business in The Future 76% of Chinese high school students stated they are very interested or somewhat interested in starting their own business someday. The points below compare the characteristics of this group of students to others, and the table below compares the characteristics of Chinese and American students who are interested in starting their own business. More likely than others to say they have a good understanding of free enterprise (64% vs. 48%); More likely than others to believe in the importance of being taught in school about free enterprise (84% vs. 62%); More likely than others to correctly define free enterprise (84% vs. 77%); More likely than others to be interested in taking a class on free enterprise at school (74% vs. 45%); More likely than others to have a higher level of agreement with each of the 6 statements about the positive role of free enterprise; More likely than others to have a higher level of agreement with each of the 9 statements about government regulation for business operations; More likely than others to believe in the importance of being taught in school about entrepreneurship (87% vs. 60%); More likely than others to say they have a good understanding of entrepreneurship (77% vs. 48%); More likely than others to be interested in taking a class on entrepreneurship at school (80% vs. 60%); More likely than others to have a higher level of agreement with each of the 6 statements about the value of entrepreneurship; More likely than others to have someone in their family who is an entrepreneur (67% vs. 61%); More likely than others to be optimistic about their future job prospects (40% vs. 16%). Chinese Students Interested in Having Own Business More likely than others to have a higher level of agreement with each of the 6 statements about the positive role of free enterprise More likely than others to have a higher level of agreement with each of the 6 statements about the value of entrepreneurship American Students Interested in Having Own Business More likely than others to have a higher level of agreement with each of the 3 statements about the positive role of free enterprise More likely than others to have a higher level of agreement with each of the 5 statements about the value of entrepreneurship More likely than others to have a higher level of agreement with each of the 3 statements about the risks and sacrifices for entrepreneurs More likely than others to agree with the positive aspects of being an entrepreneur (acknowledge the risk less 69% vs. 79%, more likely to believe entrepreneurs make more money 59% vs. 47%) More likely than others to admire entrepreneurs (91% vs. 45%) More likely than others to have someone in their family who is an entrepreneur (67% vs. 61%) An equal proportion have been taught free enterprise (19% vs. 16%) and entrepreneurship (45% vs. 43%) More likely than others to be optimistic about their future job prospects (40% vs. 16%) More likely than others to admire entrepreneurs (62% vs. 28%) More likely than others to have someone in their family who is an entrepreneur (54% vs. 39%) An equal proportion have been taught entrepreneurship (45% vs. 44%) No difference between their views toward their future job prospects

29 Although Chinese students have considered opening their own business in the future, few have actually participated in entrepreneurial activities, and the majority have never held a paid job. Although a high percent of students are interested in opening their own business in the future (76%), the vast majority of Chinese high school students have never participated in entrepreneurial activities or have ever held a paid job. Of students who started their own business, most identified enjoying their work / hobby and making money as their main reasons for doing so. Almost no students identified anxiety about their job prospects as their reason for starting their own business. Students who have participated in entrepreneurial activities mainly did so through providing services to others such as tutoring or running a café. 16% have started their own business (Figure 24). 48% started their own business to do what they love; 30% did so to make money; only 2% did so because they were worried about their job prospects (Figure 25). 77% have never held a paid job (Figure 26). The types of businesses students started included tutoring, cafés, computer-related services and sales with 29% of students reporting they started other businesses. Chinese students are participating in a wide variety of entrepreneurial activities. Figure 24 Have You Ever Started Your Own Business? Chinese High School Students American High School Students 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 84% 85% 20% 10% 9% 6% 7% 9% 0% No Yes, but I m not working at it anymore Yes, and I am still working at it

30 Figure 25 What Motivated You to Start Your Own Business? Chinese High School Students (Multiple Select) American High School Students (Single Select) I enjoyed the work / hobby 48% I wanted to make money 30% I saw an opportunity / need 16% I had difficulty finding a job 2% Other 30% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% I wanted to make money 58% I enjoyed the work / hobby I saw an opportunity / need 13% 17% I had difficulty finding a job 8% Other 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Figure 26 Have You Ever Had a Paid Job? Chinese High School Students American High School Students 80% 77% 70% 60% 50% 47% 40% 35% 30% 20% 19% 21% 10% 0% No Yes, in the past Yes, now 4%

31 Figure 27 Among Chinese Students Who Have Started Their Own Business, Types of Business Started (Multiple Select) Restaurant / café 23% Sales 23% Computer-related services 19% Tutoring 11% Other 29% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% The majority of Chinese high school students have the opportunity to see or learn about entrepreneurship from those around them (Figure 28). This social environment which is conducive to entrepreneurship has most likely impacted students views towards entrepreneurship. Students who have a family member who is an entrepreneur are more likely than others to be very interested or somewhat interested in starting their own business in the future (81% vs. 66%). Figure 28 Who Do You Know Who Has Started Their Own Business? (Multiple Select) Chinese High School Students American High School Students My mother or father 22% 24% A brother or sister 3% 13% Another family member 30% 31% A family friend 24% 24% A friend my own age 6% 12% Someone else No one I don t know anyone who has started their own business 5% 14% 28% 34% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%

32 Related data of American high school students: American high school students also express a lot of enthusiasm for entrepreneurship (64%) but this zeal has not yet translated into action; only 15% of American high school students have participated in entrepreneurial activities. Among students who have started their own business, their top reason for doing so was to make money. This motivational factor ranked far ahead of other reasons. The second most popular reason for starting their own business was because they enjoy the type of work / hobby. These rankings were very different from those of the Chinese students. With regards to the types of businesses they started, American students started more traditional businesses (Figure 29) such as, baby-sitting and landscaping. The types of businesses they start also reflect the difference in Chinese and American social environments. With regards to opportunities to see or learn about entrepreneurship from those around them, American and Chinese students situations are rather similar (Figure 28). Compared with Chinese students, American students have more opportunities to hold a paid job. 56% of American students reported having held a paid job; only 23% of Chinese students had the same experience (Figure 26). Figure 29 Among American Students Who Have Started Their Own Business, Types of Business Started (Multiple Select) Lawn mowing, landscaping, etc. 30% Sales 20% Baby-sitting or pet-sitting 16% Tutoring 13% Computer-related services 7% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%

33 4.6. Chinese high school students have a positive outlook for the Chinese economy, but are somewhat concerned about their job prospects after they finish school. Students who are interested in entrepreneurship have a more positive outlook on their job prospects Chinese high school students hold differing levels of optimism towards the future of the Chinese economy and their future job prospects. Chinese high school students are optimistic towards the future of the Chinese economy, but they were more cautious in their assessment of their future job prospects. Students who expressed interest in starting their own business in the future had a more positive assessment of their future job prospects. 91% believe the economy will develop stably or continue to improve (Figure 30). 34% believe the job market will be very good or somewhat good when they graduate; 32% believe it will similar to the current situation (Figure 31). Of the students who expressed interest in starting their own business in the future, 40% believe the job market will be very good or somewhat good when they graduate. Only 16% of other students shared this view. This difference is statistically significant. *note *note Average of the two groups M = 3.14~2.71~t(695)=5.15,p<0.01 Figure 30 In the Coming Year, Do You Expect the Economy to? Improve 44% Stay the same 47% Get worse 9% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

34 Figure 31 Expectations of What the Job Market Will Be Like After They Finish School? 4% Very good 5% Very bad 30% Somewhat good 29% Somewhat bad 32% Neither good nor bad Related data of American high school students: The JA Report collected data in At that time, only 29% of American high school students were optimistic about the future of the economy; 25% were pessimistic. With regards to their future job prospects, 47% believed the job market would be very bad or somewhat bad when they finish school. In 2011, American students did not have a positive outlook towards either the economy or the job market, but they were most pessimistic towards their future job prospects. This trend also manifested in JA China s 2013 study of Chinese high school students. The JA 2011 Report found no difference on the job market outlook between American students who were interested in starting a business and those who were not Chinese high school students current views on their future studies and career options The vast majority of students surveyed plan to continue with their studies after high school. As for their career options, Chinese high school students are inclined towards foreign enterprises, entrepreneurship and stateowned enterprises. 96% plan to earn at least a bachelor s degree (Figure 32). In the future, Chinese students are most inclined to work at foreign enterprises (53%), their own business (40%) and state-owned enterprises (31%) (Figure 33, students were permitted to select more than one answer).

35 Figure 32 What is the Highest Level of Education that You Plan to Get? 1% Certificate from a technical or trade school 1% High school diploma 20% Ph D 2% Associate s degree 34% Bachelor s degree 42% Master s degree Figure 33 In the Future, Where Would Chinese Students Most Like to Work? (Multiple Select) Foreign enterprise 53% Their own business 40% State-owned enterprise 31% A school or university 24% The government 18% A small business A hospital A not-for-profit organization A family-owned business Somewhere else 13% 12% 9% 9% 7% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%

36 Related data of American high school students: 80% of American high school students plan to earn at least a bachelor s degree, and their top 3 career choices were working at a large company, a hospital or medical facility or their own business (Figure 34, students were only permitted to select one answer). Both Chinese and American students selected big companies (i.e. state-owned and foreign enterprises) and their own business as their top career options. Figure 34 In the Future, Where Would American Students Most Like to Work? (Single Answer) A large company 25% A hospital or medical facility Their own business 19% 21% The government 9% A school or university A small business 6% 6% A family-owned business A not-for-profit organization 2% 2% Somewhere else 10% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%

37 5 AFTERWORD This survey of 696 high school students from 5 major Chinese cities successfully collected data on high school students views towards free enterprise and entrepreneurship. In addition, this report made comparisons to American students using data from the 2011 JA Report. Our 6 major findings can be split into two parts, with the first part being made up of the first 2 major findings and the second part made up of the remaining 4 major findings. The first section summarizes high school students understanding of and views towards free enterprise, and also demonstrates the positive results achieved from the implementation of the new free enterprise education curriculum (as part of the political science curriculum). We found that students learn about free enterprise through a variety of channels in which school remains the main channel. At the same time, society and the media, especially the internet, play an undeniable role in students informal free enterprise education. These findings indicate that Chinese society s extensive attention to and the interest in free enterprise contributes to Chinese high school students: developing a good understanding of free enterprise, valuing the study of free enterprise and showing interest in learning about it at school. Overall, Chinese students have a positive view of free enterprise. Upon comparison with data from the JA Report, we find that both Chinese and American students value the study of free enterprise and its role in the economy. However, they have different views towards government regulation of business operations. Chinese high school students displayed strong support for government regulation. American students, on the other hand, have a range of views on government regulation. Both Chinese and American students who have studied free enterprise courses have a more precise understanding about free enterprise and entrepreneurial concepts, and are more supportive of free enterprise. American students who studied free enterprise courses are less supportive of government regulation than other students; however, this difference is not presented among the Chinese students. We believe further investigation of the origins of these differences between Chinese and American students opinions are worthy of further investigation. The second section summarizes students understanding of and views towards entrepreneurship along with their entrepreneurial activities. These findings also reflect the current state of entrepreneurship education in China. Compared with free enterprise education, opportunities for entrepreneurship education in Chinese high schools are few and far between. Overall, Chinese high school students are interested in learning about entrepreneurship at school and have some understanding of the topic. They also believe that entrepreneurship plays an important role in job creation and economic growth. Moreover, they are willing to engage in entrepreneurial activities but lack this type of experience. Upon comparison with data from the JA Report regarding the risks and sacrifices for entrepreneurs, we find that American high school students possess a more realistic and mature view. Unlike their Chinese counterparts, most of the American students recognize the risk of starting a business. When asked to rate the qualities required to be a successful entrepreneur, the biggest difference between Chinese and American students responses was that American students rated managing money as the most important trait for a successful entrepreneur; however, this trait did not even make the top 5 for Chinese students. Currently there is lack of financial literacy education standards in China s education system and there are few financial literacy courses offered to the students. We at JA China plan to continue researching this important difference in future works. One goal of surveying high school students views on entrepreneurship was to discover the characteristics of future entrepreneurs. Both Chinese and American high school students who are interested in starting their own business in the future have more positive views of free enterprise and entrepreneurship, admire entrepreneurs more, and are more likely to have a family member who is an entrepreneur. One difference we found was that this group of Chinese students was more likely to be optimistic about their future job prospects whereas American students who are interested in starting their own business are more optimistic about the benefits of becoming an entrepreneur.

38 Of students who started their own businesses, American students main motivation was making money, whereas enjoyment of the type of work / hobby was the main motivation for Chinese students. Overall, American students have more opportunities to hold paying jobs than Chinese students. Furthermore, although they were surveyed in different years, Chinese and American students both reported being more optimistic about the future economic situation than about their own future job prospects. As the literature lacks empirical data on high school students understanding of and views towards free enterprise and entrepreneurship, this report aims to provide fundamental information to education bureaus, schools, teachers, businesses and employment policy departments in order to help these parties better understand the characteristics of the future workforce and potential entrepreneurs. This survey can also be viewed as feedback on the current implementation of the new political science curriculum from a more international perspective. In summation, this cross-cultural comparison of Chinese and American students has produced enlightening results and brought up many questions worthy of further study.

39 6 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES P5 P6 P7 P7 P7 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P15 P16 P17 P18 P18 P19 P20 P21 P22 P22 P23 P25 P26 P26 P27 P27 P28 P29 P30 P31 P31 P32 Figure 1 I Learned about Free Enterprise Figure 2 Importance for Students to Learn about Free Enterprise in School Figure 3 Level of Knowledge about Free Enterprise Figure 4 Which of the Following Best Describes Free Enterprise? Figure 5 Interest in Taking Class on Free Enterprise in School Figure 6 Level of Agreement with Statements about Free Enterprise Figure 7 Chinese High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Government Regulation for Businesses Operation Figure 8 American High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Government Regulation for Businesses Operations Figure 9 Chinese and American High School Students Differing Views towards Government Regulation for Business Operations Figure 10 I Learned about Entrepreneurship Figure 11 Importance for Students to Learn about Entrepreneurship in School Figure 12 Level of Knowledge about Entrepreneurship Figure 13 Interest in Taking Class on Entrepreneurship in School Figure 14 Which of the Following Best Describes an Entrepreneur? Figure 15 Chinese High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Entrepreneurship and Its Influence on Job Creation and the Economy Figure 16 American High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Entrepreneurship and Its Influence on Job Creation and the Economy Figure 17 Chinese High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Risks and Benefits for Entrepreneurs Figure 18 American High School Students Level of Agreement with Statements about Risks and Benefits for Entrepreneurs Figure 19 Chinese High School Students Views on the Importance of Characteristics Needed to be a Successful Entrepreneur Figure 20 American High School Students Views on the Importance of Characteristics Needed to be a Successful Entrepreneur Figure 21 How Much Do You Admire People Who Start or Own Their Own Business? Figure 22 How Much Do You Agree with the Media s Positive Portrayal of Entrepreneurs? Figure 23 How Interested Are You in Starting or Owning Your Own Business Someday? Figure 24 Have You Ever Started Your Own Business? Figure 25 What Motivated You to Start Your Own Business? Figure 26 Have You Ever Had a Paid Job? Figure 27 Among Chinese Students Who Have Started Their Own Business, Types of Business Started Figure 28 Who Do You Know Who Has Started Their Own Business? Figure 29 Among American Students Who Have Started Their Own Business, Types of Business Started Figure 30 In the Coming Year, Do You Expect the Economy to? Figure 31 Expectations of What the Job Market Will Be Like After They Finish School? Figure 32 What is the Highest Level of Education that You Plan to Get? Figure 33 In the Future, Where Would Chinese Students Most Like to Work? Figure 34 In the Future, Where Would American Students Most Like to Work? P8 Table 1 Students Who Have Been Taught about Free Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Scored Higher than Others

40 7 STATEMENTS Copyright and Reference This report represents the views and findings of the JA China Center for Research and Publications and is not representative of other organizations. This Survey and all its contents are copyright of Junior Achievement International, China Inc.[2014] All rights reserved. We welcome the use of this Survey and its contents as a reference for other literature. If so, please reference as: JA China. High School Students Views on Free Enterprise and Entrepreneurship: A comparison of Chinese and American students 2014 [R]. Beijing: JA China, 2014 Electronic Version An electronic version of the Survey can be downloaded at: Contact Information Zhong Sun: Hao Li:

41 8 JA CHINA INTRODUCTION Junior Achievement is the world s largest organization dedicated to educating students about workforce readiness, entrepreneurship and financial literacy through experiential, hands-on programs. Each year, JA reaches over 10 million students in more than 100 countries around the world, inspiring and preparing young people for their future career development and to succeed in the global economy. As the economy becomes increasingly globalized, China needs strong global business talent. To meet this critical need, JA China partners with the business and education sectors to deliver our innovative business and economics programs in schools ranging from primary schools through universities. Taught by business volunteers possessing first-hand business experience, our programs are preparing China s youth for their future career development and entrepreneurship, while cultivating character, creativity and leadership among China s future business leaders. In the 2012/13 school year, 1,550 teachers and 6,832 volunteers served 131,188 students over 192,666 voluntary hours. Over the past 20 years, JA China has impacted 4,058,688 students and 58,097 volunteers. For more information, please visit:

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